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13 colonies

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Rhode Island A. Political History 1. When and by whom was the colony planted? The colony was planted in 1636 by an English clergyman by the name of Roger Williams. 2. Why was it planted? The colony was planted because Roger Williams and a small band of his followers wanted to escape to Massachusetts Bay region to seek freedom and worship. 3. How did the government change over time? The basis of the first government in Rhode Island combined the principles of democracy and unrestricted religious liberty. In Rhode Island, one could worship God in whatever way they pleased without fear. Later, the government of the town was placed in the hands of the inhabitants (legislative, judicial, and executive functions exercised by its citizens in town meetings). Later, Coddington was elected as governor, Brenton was elected as deputygovernor, with a treasurer, secretary and three assistants. No other change in the form of government took place until a charter was obtained. 4. Did it become a royal colony? How and when? Yes, Rhode Island became a royal colony. In 1663, Charles the second granted a royal charter to Rhode Island. 5. Where is the colony located? The colony is located in the northeastern part of the United States, in between Connecticut and Massachusetts. B. Economic History 1. What form of economy dominated the colony¶s early history? - The seafood and timber industry dominated Rhode Island¶s early economy/ 2. How did the economy change over time? Because of the soil found around Rhode Island, the economy and its exports remained the same for the colonial period. 3. How did the environment and geography affect the economy? Since a lot of Rhode Island faced the Atlantic Ocean, the colonists found seafood to be an easy trade. Also, a majority of Rhode Island was covered in forest, so timber was also a major part of the early Rhode Island economy. C. Social History 1. What three major ethnic groups dominated the colony by the middle of the 1700s? It was mainly Native Americans and English that dominated the colony in the middle of the 1700s. There were also some Irish and Italians that came in. 2. Why did they come here? They came here to seek economic opportunity. In their home countries, the economy was somewhat poor compared to the kind offered in the newly formed colonies. It seemed as if one could make a decent living. 3. Using two examples, what are some factors of African American history in this colony? ---African Americans served as slaves in the colonial Rhode Island. In that area, the slaves mainly conversed with the masters, not each other. 4. Using two examples, what are some factors of women history in the colony?----------------Anne Hutchinson led a prominent role in the founding of Rhode Island. 5. Were Native Americans prominent in the colony¶s history? How? Yes, they were very prominent in the colony¶s history. Since the beginning of the colony¶s founding, the people of Rhode Island constantly had issues with the Native Americans. However, there was not very much bloodshed, unlike the other colonies. 6. What were the dominant religions in this colony¶s early history? The main religion in the colony was Catholicism. 7. How did the religions change over time? - The religion in Rhode Island primarily remained Catholic for its colonial period 8. What was the first Great Awakening? Was it important in this colony? -The first Great Awakening was when religion became a vital part to all of the colonies. In Rhode Island, the Great Awakening was very important. It was important because Roger Williams, the one who founded the colony, was motivated to find it due to religious reasons. If it weren¶t for the Great Awakening, Rhode Island wound not be a colony. D. Biography -Throughout the colonial times, who were the colony¶s three most important leaders and why were they important? -The three most important leaders in Rhode Island¶s history are Roger Williams, Anne Hutcherson, and William Coddington. These three people helped in the forming of Rhode Island. They all helped to form the major cities in Rhode Island like Providence and Portsmouth. E. Is there anything truly unique about this colony? -Rhode Island is the smallest colony, and was later the smallest. - The first British troops sent from England to crush the revolution landed in Newport, a city in Rhode Island. Sources "Rhode Island Fast Facts and Trivia." 50states.com - States and Capitals. Web. 13 Sept. 2010. . Advice, By His. "A Brief History of the Colony of Rhode Island, 1630-1690." Boston Travel and Tourism Guide, Enjoy Your Vacation in Historic Boston MA. Web. 13 Sept. 2010. . "Rhode Island History: Chapter 2." The State of Rhode Island General Assembly. Web. 13 Sept. 2010. . Delaware A. Political History 1. 2. Delaware was founded by Peter Minuit in 1638. Delaware was founded for religious land, trade, and agriculture. 3. Delaware started out as a representative government that later became a member of America¶s democracy. 4. Delaware became a royal colony in 1664. This is because the government wanted a point that was midway between all of the other colonies. 5. This colony is North and East of Maryland and south of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. B. Economic History 1. Delaware thrived in the tobacco industry and it used slave labor to harvest and grow the tobacco. 2. Delaware shifted from a tobacco industry to a mixed agriculture just before the American Revolution. 3. The environment and geography made the economy thrive with trade because the location on the water (Atlantic Ocean). The ports would not freeze in the winters either. C. Social History 1. The three major ethnic groups to that dominated Delaware by the middle of the 1700s were African slaves, Methodists, and Quakers. 2. These people came to Delaware to find new religious lands and the slaves were forced to work on the tobacco plantations. 3. In Delaware, it was very common to own slaves seeing how they were used as legal labor on the tobacco plantations. 4. Women won the right to vote in Delaware in the year 1920 and women were also permitted to own land in Delaware. 5. There were two major Native American tribes that lived in Delaware which included the Nanticoke and the Lenape. These tribes thrived off of an agricultural basis. 6. The dominant religion of Delaware was Methodist. Baptist and Roman Catholic are also very common in Delaware. 7. The religions remained the same throughout time with Christianity being the most common. 8. The First Great Awakening was the movement that scared people into believing that God was wrathful and damned all humans to hell. In Delaware, the awakening was received by the Puritans but it did not make any significant changes in Delaware¶s history. D. Biography The three most important leaders in Delaware history were Peter Minuit, Thomas West, and Caesar Rodney. Peter Minuit is important because he was the man who founded Delaware. Thomas West was the first governor of Delaware. Caesar Rodney was the representative of Delaware that signed the famous Declaration of Independence. E. The state of Delaware is famous for its size as the second smallest state in the United States. Delaware was also the first state because it was the first to ratify the United States Constitution. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delaware_Colony http://americanhistory.about.com/cs/colonialamerica/p/delawarecolony.htm http://www.usahistory.info/colonies/Delaware.html http://www.celebrateboston.com/history/period02/p0209delaware.htm http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/midcol.htm Colonial New Jersey A. Political History 1. Charles II gave the region between New England and Maryland to his brother James II, the Duke of York, which was eventually, renamed New York. James then turned around and gave the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton. That part of New Netherland was named New Jersey after the English Channel Island of Jersey. 2. It was planted because the two men were given land and they wanted to use it. They offered a representative government and religious freedom through the Concession and Agreement document. In return for the new colonists to have land, the settlers had to pay annual fees called quitrents. 3. It was difficult for two proprietors to collect the quitrents and so as a result, on March 18, 1673 Berkeley sold his share of New Jersey to the Quakers (John Fenwick and Edward Byllynge. Berkeley¶s deal caused the colony to split into East Jersey and West Jersey. This caused issues over the exact borders of the two halves and so surveys were taken. The final lines were drawn in around 1696 with the Thornton line and the Lawrence line, drawn around 1743. 4. It became a royal colony in 1702 when the colony was demanded back by James the Second. 5. B. Economic History 1. They traded furs and game with the Indians, whom they had a friendly relationship. The biggest industry however was the ironworks and lumber. 2. Today, from the agricultural standpoint the top products are greenhouse and nursery products, horses/mules, blueberries, dairy products, and chicken eggs. Manufacturing is also a big part of the present day economy most importantly the Pharmaceutical field. They are the leader in fishing for clams but also take in crabs and an assortment of other fish. Finance, insurance and real estate combine to make up New Jersey's most important services part. 3. New Jersey is right on the Atlantic Ocean which makes for an easy and efficient way to bring in revenue from fishing. The forests and many towns make it a prime place for lumbering and for having industrial cities. C. Social History 1. German, Irish, and English were the three major ethnic groups dominating the colony by the middle 1700¶s. 2. Many came for religious freedom, land, and a chance at a new start in a thriving colony. 3. Slavery had acquired legal authorization in New Jersey under the proprietary regimes of Berkeley and Carteret. In 1702, when New Jersey became a crown colony, Gov. Edward Cornbury was dispatched from London with instructions to keep the settlers provided with "a constant and sufficient supply of merchantable Negroes at moderate prices.´ As other Northern states, abolition was strongly opposed and had racist arguments that would later be remembered only when used in the South. Africans were unfit for freedom because of their "deep wrought disposition to indolence" and "want of judgment." 4. Women were a big part of the life in the colonial days. They had the traditional cooking and cleaning of the house, but they also had seasonal jobs like making apple butter and dealing with butchered pigs, making soap and sausages. Women were expected to be the family doctors, so they would make medicines for home use. Unfortunately they would be expected to diagnose and treat a wide range of ailments. 5. The Lenni-Lenape were the Native American group that inhabited New Jersey long before the Europeans arrived. They didn¶t last long with the arrival of Europeans but did cause some conflicts with people. 6. Protestantism and Puritans dominated this region in the colony¶s early history. 7. Today the biggest religion is Catholicism followed by the different branches of Protestantism. 8. The First Great Awakening was the movement that scared people into believing that God was wrathful and damned all humans to hell. It didn¶t have much of an effect on Anglicans and Quakers which were most of the religious population in New Jersey. D. Biography 1. Three of the most important leaders of New Jersey during the Colonial times would be Lewis Morris, Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley. Lewis Morris was the governor of New Jersey and helped to serperate it from New York to create a separate place. Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley were the two men who got the colony of New Jersey moving. They were given it to them by James the Second and they pushed to offer a place where colonists could come. E. Nothing to me Works Cited http://www.netstate.com/economy/nj_economy.htm http://www.sheppardsoftware.com/usaweb/snapshot/New_Jersey.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Great_Awakening http://www.usahistory.info/colonies/New-Jersey.html http://americanhistory.about.com/cs/colonialamerica/p/jerseycolony.htm http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h591.html http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/us/A0859954.html#axzz0yfPcpMNF http://www.usgennet.org/usa/nj/state/Lenape.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Jersey http://www.slavenorth.com/newjersey.htm Colony: Connecticut A. Political History 1. When and by whom was the colony planted? Connecticut was planted in 1636 by a minister from Newtown, Massachusetts named Thomas Hooker, and a Puritan clergyman. 2. Why was it planted? Connecticut was planted because Thomas Hooker was in search of a more promising physical environment for his congregation. Hooker disagreed with the way the Massachusetts colony was being governed. 3. How did the government change over time? Thomas Hooker believed that the government should be based on the consent of those governed. For this he created a document known as the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, a written document that described a method of government giving all that are members of the Puritan Churches the right to vote. The settlers used many of the practices in Massachusetts, but placed added restrictions on the governor¶s powers and instituted more liberal voting standards. 4. Did it become a royal colony? How and when? The colony of Connecticut did not become a royal colony; it was created without the sanction of British imperial authorities. 5. Where is the colony? (also be able to locate it on a map) The colony is located at the site of an Old Dutch Fort in the Connecticut Valley. The first settlement was establishes at Hartford. B. Economic History 1. What form of economy dominated the colony¶s early history? Agriculture, although difficult in Connecticut, was the dominating form of economy. However, towards the 1700s mills and factories became the main source of labor that fueled their economy. 2. How did the economy change over time? The economy changed from that of a very agricultural food based economy to an industrial economy that focused on man made production of goods. 3. How did the environment and geography affect the economy? The environment posed a problem for farmers; the soil was very rocky and difficult to cultivate crops on. Eventually they turned to an industrial economy, leaving behind most of the farming practices and setting up mills and factories. C. Social History 1. What three major ethnic groups dominated the colony by the middle of the 1700s? The three major ethnic groups that dominated the colony by the middle of the 1700s was African Americans, English, and French. 2. Why did they come here? The African Americans came as a source of labor, primarily indentured servants or slaves. The English settled the colony and were the main population. The French contributed as a large part of the population because of the French and Indian War. 3. Using two examples, what are some factors of African American history in this colony? African American history in this colony stems to one occupation, labor. They were used as servants and slaves. One factor was the cheap labor that African American¶s provided, allowing for a strong economy. Another factor was the unrest and distrust that arose after incidents with black retaliation throughout the colonies. 4. Using two examples, what are some factors of women history the colony? Women played a huge role in the colony. The two main factors they possessed were taking care of all matters outside of ³man¶s work.´ In other words the woman was very important because she took care of the family and home. She also was important because women were able to keep the population growing by reproducing. 5. Were Native Americans prominent in the colony¶s history? How? Native American¶s were very prominent in the colony¶s history. Connecticut was inhabited by the Pequot and the Mohawk tribes before any settlers arrived. The Indians sold land to the English and provided instruction in New World agricultural, hunting, and fishing techniques. The Indians were decimated by new diseases and the Pequot waged war with the English. They were defeated in the Pequot War, with them out of the way they were free to claim more territory. 6. What were the dominant religions in this colony¶s early history? Christianity was the dominant religion in this colony¶s early history, specifically Puritanism. 7. How did the religions change over time? Over time, the religion changed from Puritanism to many other forms of Christianity including, Protestantism and Methodists with the Great Awakening. 8. What was the first Great Awakening? Was it important in this colony? The first Great Awakening was a revitalization of religion in America; with many preachers openly speaking the word of God preaching to anyone who would listen. The first Great Awakening was important in this colony because it revived spirituality within the colony. D. Biography Throughout colonial times, who were the colony¶s three most important leaders and why were they important? The colonies three most important leaders were Thomas Hooker, John Hayes, and John Davenport. Thomas Hooker was the founder of the colony. John Hayes was the first governor of the colony. John Davenport was the founder of New Haven which was absorbed by Connecticut. E. Is there anything truly unique about this colony? This colony is unique because it was able to overcome harsh Indian assaults and it absorbed New Haven. Also, this colony was not suited well for agriculture, yet, it was still economically secure. Sources: http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/ushistory/13connecticut.htm http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Who_founded_Connecticut http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h543.html http://www.usahistory.info/New-England/Connecticut.html http://www.lycos.com/info/connecticut--connecticut-colony.html http://www.city-data.com/states/Connecticut-History.html Virginia A. Political History 1. Sir Walter Raleigh briefly and in secret explored the area of Roanoke near Virginia. Since he was sent by Queen Elizabeth he named the state Virginia after the Virgin Queen. He never truly set up an established settlement because of lack of resources and issues in England occupied all of the countries¶ energy and resources. May 14th, 1607 is when Jamestown was first established by John Smith and crew, sponsored by the King and England who gave the charter to the Virginia England Company. 2. The English chose the Virginia area because they feared the Spanish, French, and Dutch. The location was far enough from each of these countries¶ settlements for the English to feel comfortable. The chose to stay at the coast even though there was limited fresh water because the transatlantic was their lifeline and it would be faster and easier for them to get supplies being right on the coast. 3. The government began as a council of thirteen appointed by the king and resident in England and communicated with a local council. In a second charter the council in England abolished the local council and Lord de La Warr, of Delaware, was appointed governor of Virginia in 1609. A third charter established the rights of Englishmen to the colonists, but gave them no voice in their own government. The colonists fought King Charles and usually ended up getting there way with local affairs. In 1634 the assembly divided Virginia into eight counties with a group of appointed justices of the peace (wealthy planters). There was a court of law and a government. 4. Virginia became a royal colony in 1624 because the king was so embarrassed by the management of the Virginia Company. The king dissolved the bankrupt enterprise and turned Virginia into a royal company with an appointed governor and council. 5. The colony is in the middle of the East coast right above North Carolina. B. Economic History 1. The colony began with a join-stock company and made little profit even after the join-stock company was open to the public. 2. Once the tobacco plant was introduced the economy in Virginia started to grow. Tobacco was in high demand in Europe because of the cheaper price and sweeter scent. Although there was such high demand, in all, Virginia was never extremely economically successful. 3. Virginia had a warm climate, but a longer growing season so even though work was harder in the heat the colonists had longer time to plant. Virginia was on the coast and the first settlement in Virginia was set up a very navigable river so it was easy to import products for Europe and send exports. The swampy area had mosquitos that brought disease to the colonists, so at one point the increasing amount of deaths led to a shortage of laborers. The land was fertile and tobacco grew like weeds. Overall the Virginian environment brought economic success to the colony. C. Social History 1. English, Scots-Irish, and various African ethnicities were the three major ethnic groups that dominated Virginia by the middle of the 1700s. Slave traders and owners rarely ever recorded the original ethnicities of slaves, so specific African ethnicities are difficult at best to find. 2. The English were the original settlers, who came as farmers and indentured servants to own land and start a new life in the New World. The Virginia Company and the English government paid some to come and settle. Droughts, bad crops, high prices of goods and famine drove the Scots-Irish to settle Virginia. Effective propaganda advertizing the Virginia colony also played a part. African ethnicities were forced to come to America because of slavery, and played a large part in Virginia¶s largely farming economy. 3. African American history in this colony was effectively started with the slave trade, although a small number of African¶s had lived in Virginia before slavery became so wide spread. Slaves played a major part in the Virginia planting and farming economy, comprising most of the workforce. More slaves lived in Virginia by 1750 than non-slaves. Slaves treatment varied, but generally they were treated harshly and cruelly. One slave girl who was discovered lying was beaten and whipped by her master, who apparently felt no anger, remorse, or any emotion at all while committing his atrocity. Slaves were also feared by their masters because of the possibility of a slave revolt. In fact there were many slave revolts throughout the colonies, contributing to a sense of mistrust and fear on both sides. 4. In the English (who were the predominant settlers of Virginia) system of beliefs, women predominately worked on managing the household, a role that in many cases included partnership in running farms or home businesses. Traditionally, "chastity, compliance, delicacy and modesty" were the qualities ascribed to a truly virtuous woman, who was essentially excluded from a real participation in society. Scots-Irish held no belief that women should not help the family in everyway possible, or that a woman should not be an indentured servant or farm worker. Not such a high value was placed on virtues, but still those appropriate to the time, such as compliance and modesty were expected in general. African women in the colonies as slaves were expected to do generally the same jobs as men, except usually not as hard labor. Women were more likely to work in the household as maids or servants than male slaves were. 5. Native Americans were very prominent in Virginia¶s early history. Starting with Jamestown, Native Americans went through a series of aids and disagreements with the colonists. In general the Native Americans resisted the English settlement and snatching of their land. There were multiple raids on both sides, with Native Americans ultimately being pushed back as the population and power of the Virginia colony increased. 6. Anglican/Church of England, Catholic, and blends of Christian beliefs and native African practices were the dominant religions of Virginia¶s early history. 7. Many people remained members of the Church of England, or Anglican Church, over time. Some switched to religions that came along with the Great Awakening such as Baptists and Methodists. The Catholic population also grew with time, as the influx of ethnic Catholic ScotsIrish increased. Over time most of the African Americans largely abandoned their original ethnically traditional religion. However many of the practices of their traditional religions were incorporated and integrated into the new religions they adopted, and the descendents of these incorporations still exist today in the services of non-catholic churches, particularly the Baptist churches. 8. The first Great Awakening was a widespread evangelical religious revival movement of the mid-1700s. The movement divided congregations and weakened the authority of established churches in the colonies, also forming new Protestant religions in its wake. It was important to this colony because the Baptist faith, brought about by and after the Great Awakening, was the first to truly welcome African Americans, both slaves and freemen, into active religious participation, even as preachers. The first black Baptist church was founded in Virginia. Also, common planters, yeomen farmers and artisans in the 18th century tended to join the Baptist and Methodist churches after the Great Awakening, both churches founded during the Great Awakening. D. 1. John Smith temporarily brought order to a chaotic Virginia. Smith started searches for food and instituted discipline along lines of one had to work to eat. John also wrote dramatic stories that attracted people to move to the colonies. Smith was the leader in establishing the first English settlement and encouraged exploration of the surrounding areas. 2. Sir Thomas Dale became governor of Virginia and with strength brought about changes for the better. He introduced several radical reforms. He started the partial abolishing of communism. Before becoming governor, everyone shared land and possessions, no one shared property and all were servants of the state. Colonists began to slack off. Dale gave each of the old settlers three acres of land and the right to own property. This stimulated industry and kept Virginians from being without food. Dale established new settlements along the James. 3. John Rolfe married the daughter of the Powhatan chief therefore uniting and initiating long term peace with the Indians. With this marriage Rolfe was introduced to a plant that would save Virginia, especially its economy. John Rolfe introduced tobacco to the colony and from that point on Virginias had a valuable crop that eventually became in high demand. E. Virginia was home of the first settlement of the English in the New World. The famous story of Pochohantas took place in Virginia. Virginia had extreme gender bias. In 1762, the Virginia Assembly passed a measure that said a house needed to be a certain size for someone to vote. The colonial capital was relocated from Jamestown to Williamsburg in 1698 when the state house burned down. Slaves could not offer medical help to each other in Virginia. Sources 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia#History 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Virginia 3. http://www.wall-maps.com/Classroom/Atlas/US-History-Atlas.asp 4. http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mcclell2/homepage/migrate.htm 5. http://people.csail.mit.edu/sfelshin/saintonge/women.html 6. http://www.coursework.info/GCSE/Sociology/Defining_18th_Century_Gender_Roles_L 25629.html 7. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part2/2narr2.html 8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Great_Awakening 9. http://research.history.org/Historical_Research/Research_Themes/ThemeFamily/Women Education.cfm 10. http://www.footnote.com/page/1437_slave_rebellion/ Maine A. Political History 1. The first European settlement was in 1604 by a French Party. The first English settlement was the Popham Colony in 1607 established by the Plymouth Company. 2. Samuel de Champlain was born into a family of mariners. In 1603 François Gravé Du Pont guided Samuel de Champlain in his explorations in North America. He was a part of the French Party who established the first European settlement. The Plymouth Colon was the English joint stock company that had a purpose of establishing settlements on the coast of North America. They sent the explorers who established the Popham Colony. The settlements established in Maine failed at first but it later became the Province of Maine governed under England. When the United States was formed the land fell under Massachusetts. It became the 23rd state on May 15, 1820 through the Missouri Compromise. 4. It never became a royal colony because England never appointed an official governor to the province. 5. East and south of the colony is the Atlantic Ocean, to the north is New Brunswick and to the west in New Hampshire. B. Economic History 1. In the early years, Maine had many shipyards that produced sailing ships. This shipbuilding made up most of the colonies economy during the 18th and 19th century. 2. Over time the colony started to raise crops and cattle and establish more agricultural outputs such as poultry, eggs, cattle, wild blueberries, apples, maple syrup, and maple sugar. This constituted for another portion of their economy and today they are the largest blueberry producer in the world. 3. Having the oceans on either side, allowed them to have many ports and be a major source of gaining imports and sending out exports. Today, commercial fishing provides a mainstay for their economy, particularly lobstering and ground fishing due to Maine¶s access to water. Maine¶s landscape also provides springs and aquifers for fresh bottled water. C. Social History 1. The ethnic groups of Maine by the mid-1700s included the Algonquian-speaking people, the French and the English. 2. The Algonquian peoples were the original inhabitants of the land. The French and English came in search of new land, to get away from religious conflicts and to gain material wealth. 3. There were very few African Americans the migrated into Maine. Most communities of African Americans in other colonies came together to form institutions that could affect their relationships with the dominant white community. Maine had such a small population that they could only form small versions of these institutions to protect themselves from the dominant society. H.H. Price is a white New Englander with a background in African American History and Civil Rights. She studied the Underground Railroad in Maine and helped to form the book. General E. Talbot has been educating Mainers of African American History since the 1970s and was the first black to be elected to the Maine legislature from 1972-78. 4. In Augusta, Maine there was an industry that created paper for local magazine companies. Of the people working in the mill, 47% were women, 51% were men and the other 2% were children. The statewide average pay for women in printing was $1.00 and the average for men was $1.62. 5. The Native people of the colony were the Algonquian-speaking people. They were prominent at first because for survival, the English settlers needed to learn the Algonquian language, but after the English became more dominant the language died out. 6. The dominant religions in their early history included Protestant, Christian, and Roman Catholicism. 3. Over time, more and more people started to turn towards Christianity and Protestantism and away from Roman Catholicism. Maine was Christianized during the 4th and 6th century 8. The Great Awakening was not very influential in the colony of Maine D. Biography 1. Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason were granted a large amount of land in Maine by the Council for New England in 1620. It extended 60 miles inland and that was when the area first became known as ³Maine´. The two men lead the colonists and were role models for them. Sir William Phips was a native of Maine and became their governor. He helped the colony to prosper in their government and their economy. E. Unique Facts 1. The colony is now the number one exporter of blueberries and toothpicks. The largest toothpick manufacturing plant is located in Strong, Maine where they produce twenty million toothpicks per day. Sources 1. "Ma ine ." Wik ipe dia; The Free En c yclo pedi a. W ik ime d ia F o u nd a t io n, I nc . , 1 1 / 0 9 / 2 0 1 0 . We b. 1 1 S e p 2 0 1 0 . < h t t p : / / e n. w i k i p e d i a . o r g / w i k i / M a i n e # R e l i g io n > ; . 2. "Ma ine 's V is ib le B la ck H ist o r y ." Tilbu ry Ho use Pu bli she rs. T i l b u r y H o u s e P u b l i s h e r s , n. d . We b. 1 1 S e p 2 0 1 0 . < h t t p : / / w w w . t i l b u r y ho u s e . c o m/ m a i n e - a nd - n e w - e ng l a n d / m a i n e s v i s i b l e - b l a c k - h i s t o r y. ht m > ; . 3. " T he V i c k e r y B u i l d i n g . " W o m e n ' s H i s t o r y T r i a l A u g u s t a , M a i n e 2 0 0 2 . T he U n i v e r s t i y o f M a i n e , n. d . W e b . 1 1 S e p 2 0 1 0 . < h t t p : / / d l l . u m a i n e . e d u / h i s t o r yt r a i l / s it e 1 4 . h t m l > ; . New York Colony A. Political History 1. In 1664 the colony was planted by James, the Duke of York. 2. It was planted as the result the Dutch surrendering to England the province of New Netherlands. It was then renamed New York and given to the Duke of York. 3. From the start New York was a royal colony with a charter that required that laws be consistent with England¶s. The Duke of York to administer his government through governors, councils, and other officers appointed by himself. No provision was made for an elected assembly. After angry colonists and taxation without representation in 1683 the Duke of York ordered the governor to call an Assembly of representatives. This Assembly passed an important "charter of liberties," which was approved by the governor. This charter placed the supreme legislative power in the governor, council, and people met in general assembly, gave to every freeman full right to vote for representatives, established trial by jury, required that no tax be passed without representation. 7. The governor was royally appointed from the start and selected his Executive council. The king or the governor could veto bills from the assembly. Representation in the assembly in 1683, two for Kingston, four for New York City ,two for Albany, was six for Long Island, ,one for each of Staten Island, Schenectady, Martha's vineyard and Nantucket and one for Pemequid on the Maine coast. In 1737, the assembly was expanded to 27 and in 1773 to 31. 4. Yes it was a royal colony in 1664 5. B. Economic History 1. The economy of New York¶s early history was mostly fur trade such as beaver pelts. 2. The economy later expanded to agriculture, lumber trading, shipping, the slave trade, and as merchants and tradesmen in the colonies towns. Some colonists mined iron. 3. The environment and geography allowed agriculture to flourish after they were cleared. Since New York was on the water fishing became an industry as well. C. Social History 1. The three major ethnic groups were the Dutch since they already settled the area, English since was a England charted colony and tried to influence people to emigrate there. Another major ethnic group were the African American for slave labor. 2. The African¶s obviously did not come by choice, while others mostly came to take their chances in making money. 3. Before New York was claimed by the British the Dutch West India Company brought 11 slaves in 1626. From 1701 to 1726, officially, some 1,570 slaves were imported from the West Indies and another 802 from Africa. 4. Women¶s role in New York under the British was more restrictive than the Dutch. Under English law, women surrendered control over property upon marriage and could not enter into contracts, write wills, or initiate legal action without consent or participation of their husbands. Later laws gave women gained more legal rights. In 1710, the colonial assembly equated women with minors and those "not of Sound mind" in an act specifying requirements for obtaining legal title to land. 5. Yes they were prominent. The first people in New York were the Mohawks, Iroquois and the Algonguins. They lived in the southeastern part of New York. The Native Americans sold tobacco to the colonists to pay the taxes that they had to pay to the colonists. 6. As the colony was first controlled by the Netherlands, Dutch Reformed Protestantism was the first prominent religion of New York, building the Marble Collegiate Church in 1628. When the Duke of York took over it became primarily Protestant. Although Religious toleration was law and there was a mix of religions including Judaism, Quakers, Lutherans, Catholics and Puritans. 7. Religion steadily became more diversified from the original Puritan religion by the Dutch. 8. The great awaking was mostly prominent in New England but ideas were preached in New York. The only effect that it could have had is changing the perspective of the colonists through revivalism which taught people that they could be bold when confronting religious authority, and that when churches weren't living up to the believers' expectations, the people could break off and form new ones. Overall did not play an important role. D. Biography 1. The Duke of York was important in being the first leader and set up New Yorks first proprietary government. The first governor Richard Nicolls was known for writing the "Duke's Laws" which served as the first compilation of English laws in colonial New York. Governor Thomas Dongan is noted for having called the first representative legislature in New York, and for granting the province's Charter of Liberties. E. Unique 1. Were first settled by the Dutch 2. Was royal colony from the start 3. Was the 11th state 4. Name of the person that "purchased" Manhattan Island from the Natives was Peter Minuet. 5. New York was one of the last places the British evacuated at the end of the Revolution. 6. After the colony was conquered by the British, the name of the colony was changed to New York as a tribute to the Duke of York. Sources: http://americanhistory.about.com/cs/colonialamerica/p/newyorkcolony.htm http://www.usahistory.info/colonies/New-York.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_New_York http://www.celebrateboston.com/history/period02/p0207newyork.htm www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/.../13newyork.htm www.publicbookshelf.com/public...1/newyorkc_gg.html The Georgia Colony A. Political History 1. James Oglethorpe planted the Georgia colony in 1732. 2. Georgia was planted because it was used to serve as a place where debtors in prison could go to start anew and it served as a barrier against Spanish expansion from Florida. 3. Georgia was different from the other twelve colonies. The colony received money from Parliament to get it started, and alone of the 12 colonies, prohibited slavery and the import of alcohol. It is generally believed that lawyers were not allowed in the colony, but no legislation has been found to prove it. The settlers had no control of their own government - it was entirely ruled by the trustees. 4. Georgia became a royal colony in 1752. The trustees were unable to establish selfgovernment and gave up before the twenty-one year charter had expired. Freemen were given the right to vote (unless they were Roman Catholics) and the people elected an assembly. The king appointed the governor. 5. The Georgia colony is right in between the colony Florida and South Carolina. The state extends west to the Mississippi. Only Europeans had settled a strip of land from Savannah to Augusta about 20 miles wide, along with some small coastal communities. B. Economic History 1. Georgia¶s economy was originally mainly plantations (indigo and rice). Slavery did not come until James Oglethorpe took away the ban on slavery due to constant complaints from the settlers. Cotton didn't come until later, when the cotton gin was invented in 1793. 2. The economy changed over time from the Legislature repealed the Georgia¶s Land Act by passing the Rescinding Act of 1796 and regaining farming land. In 1802 an agreement was worked out between the state of Georgia and the U.S. government. This agreement stated that Georgia would cede to the U.S. its land west of the Chattahoochee in exchange for $1.25 million and removal of the Indians remaining in the boundaries of Georgia. 3. The Georgia colony had big grassy fields and plains good for farming and growing crops. C. Social History 1. Georgia was mainly made up of European English settlers. 2. The English came to the colony of Georgia because it was used to serve as a place where debtors in prison could go to start anew and it served as a barrier against Spanish expansion from Florida. 3. Some factors of the African American history was the need for slavery in the colony. The English white settlers only wanted slaves and rum. Eventually Oglethorpe banned slavery, freeing the African Americans. 4. Women were very important in the Georgia colony. They had to fulfill their traditional roles in the colonial period. White women had a clear place in the Trustees' vision of the colonial Georgia society as a land of hardworking, yeoman farmers providing needed products to England. 5. Native Americans were not really prominent in the colony¶s history since most of the Native Americans had been driven out from the white settlers. 6. The dominant religions of colonial Georgia were mainly Lutheran, Puritans, and Quakers. Catholics were not welcome in Georgia. 7. Eventually, people were very accepting towards different religious beliefs and accepting other people regardless of religion. 8. The First Great awakening left a powerful impact on the colony of Georgia. It pulled the colony away from ritual and ceremony, it made religion intensely personal and encouraged introspection. D. Biography -James Oglethorpe -James Oglethorpe was a very important leader in colonial Georgia for he was the founder of the colony and without him; there would not have been this colony. He had the idea to have people in debtors prison grow out of his committee work while a member of Parliament. -John Reynolds -John Reynolds was the first royal governor appointed by King George II and in charge of the colony. Reynolds did not like Savannah and tried to move the capitol south to Hardwicke, near Genesis Point on the Ogeechee River. This was one of many unpopular moves that led to his removal at the request of the colonists. -James Wright -James Wright was the third governor of the colony of Georgia. He was a very well liked governor. He expanded the state's economy during his term and kept the Radicals at bay well into the 1770's. E. In the colony of Georgia there was lack of land ownership and the lack of slaves. There was nothing quite unique about the colony of Georgia. http://us.peeplo.com/search/?q=maps%20of%20georgia%20colony&type=web&from=adg8 http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_was_the_geography_in_the_Georgia_Colony http://www.usahistory.info/southern/Georgia.html http://www.historywiz.com/georgia.htm http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2549 http://ourgeorgiahistory.com/history101/gahistory03.html Maryland Political History 1. When and by whom was the colony planted? -The colony was planted in 1634 by a charter given for founding in 1632. The colony was found by Lord Baltimore. 2. Why was it planted? -The colony was planted by Lord Baltimore¶s desire for profit and a place for refuge of Roman Catholics who were still persecuted in Protestant England. 3. How did the government change over time? -The government of Maryland was a democratic-type of state government. Yet many of the early provinces were ruled under religious control and practices, the passing of the Act of Toleration for religion opened Maryland up to many more people of different religions and backgrounds. Maryland¶s early colonies were ruled by the religion practiced in said area and customs said religion practiced, yet had influence from where the colonists had migrated from. Had a lord proprietary that held authority by virtue from the royal charter. 4. Did it become a royal colony? How and when? -Yes Maryland became a royal colony in 1691. Maryland was proprietary colony of the Catholic Calvert family, yet when James II was overthrown lost charter and Maryland became a royal colony. Governed briefly by local Protestants before the arrival of the first 12 governors appointed by the English. The royal charter was restored to the Calverts in 1715 then governors were appointed by the Calverts through the American Revolution. 5. Where is the colony? (Also be able to locate on map) -Maryland was surrounded by three other colonies (Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Delaware). Maryland is surrounded by the Chesapeake Bay, flowing into the Atlantic Ocean. A fairly small colony with cold winters on the coast, and good soil to grow crops. Economic History 1. What form of economy dominated the colony¶s early history? -The three main products Maryland traded were tobacco, furs, and flesh. The furs and skins of beavers, otters, musk-rats, raccoons, wildcats and elk which the colonists obtained from the Indians then the colonists later sold to England for profit. Tobacco was the colonies largest commodity with months set out for shipping and growing. Merchants that owned shops exchanged little words with customers and the current coin in Mary-land was tobacco. 2. How did the economy change over time? -The Economy changed over time by the evolution of trade and the intake of the colonist¶s goods. The export of goods from the colonists made the colonies overall wealth grow and the mange of crops and profits harder. The profits grow with higher demand from England yet taxes for were placed on the colonies by England which causes hardship on businesses. 3. How did the environment and geography affect the economy? - Maryland was a very good sea port with most of its eastern coast facing the ocean. Also due to the cold temperature storing meats and food was not hard because they would not spoil. The cold temperature also made the fur trade every popular. Social History 1. What three major ethnic groups dominated the colony by the middle of the 1700s? -The three main ethnic groups that dominated were the Protestants, Catholics and Quakers. Mainly the English and Dutch yet many were outnumbered by the Protestant influence. 2. Why did they come here? -Many came from England and some from Spain during religious precaution. Also some from Denmark and Ireland after the English conquered their country. 3. Using two examples, what are some factors of African American history in this colony? -In 1634 Matthias De Sousa arrives on a ship as indentured slave where he could work to gain his freedom, then slavery first introduced in1634. Later in 1663 laws were pass enslaving all African Americans in Maryland. 4. Using two examples, what are some factors of women history in this colony? -The women were to stay at home and cook, clean, teach the children, and keep everything running smoothly. The women were supposed to be mute in the face of public and could not hold religious office. And were placed under harsh punishment if disobeyed any of the rules set out for them. 5. Were Native Americans prominent in the colony¶s history? How? -The colonists and Native Americans had very little conflicts and were quite friendly with one another. Each learning from the other about survival and trading for new wealth. The trading between both parities was very banefully. 6. What were the dominant religions in this colony¶s early history? -The dominant religions of the early colony were Protestant with some Catholics mixed in. Yet Maryland was open to many religions. 7. How did the religious change over time? -The religion changed over time by the group of Protestants growing yet many new religious groups formed due to the passing of The Act of Tolerance in Maryland so many religions migrated to Maryland to practice their religion. Many scattered groups across the colony. 8. What was the first Great Awakening? Was it important in this colony? -Maryland was affected by the English Glorious Revolution. The rule and influence they held over Maryland was changed and the death of Lord Baltimore caused change in the order of leadership. The colony was forced to work more on its own then with guidance. Biography 1. Throughout colonial times, who were the colony¶s three most important leaders and why were they important? -Lord Baltimore also known as George Calvert who was granted to the charter of Maryland to found the colony for it was his idea. And his son, Cecilius who sailed the ship to the colony and ruled and governed it when it first began. Also the Native Americans for without the colony problem wouldn¶t have survived for the colonists knew nothing to do or how to grow and live on the land. The Indians taught the colonists how to live with them and grow their own colony. Is there anything truly unique about this colony? Most was said already The Pennsylvania Colony A. Political History 1. William Penn founded Pennsylvania with a land grant that was owed his deceased Father. 2. William Penn¶s goal was to create a colony that allowed for freedom of religion due to his desire to protect himself and fellow Quakers from persecution. 3. Penn allowed for a representative assembly elected by landowners. But later on, the proprietor presented a new frame of government, giving all power of lawmaking into the hands of the people represented by a council, which should originate all laws and an assembly that should approve them. All freemen were made citizens and all Christians were freemen, except servants and convicts. A law passed united the "Lower counties" to Pennsylvania and naturalizing the Swedes. Penn was voted the veto power for life. 4. Pennsylvania was never made a royal colony. But it had a freedom of religion. 5. The colony of Pennsylvania is located right above the colony of Maryland, below New York and also above Virginia. B. Economic History 1. Pennsylvania¶s main forms of agriculture were wheat, corn, cattle, and dairy, while it manufactured textiles, papermaking, and shipbuilding. 2. Farming became easier with a steady economy and vast agriculture. 3. This province was a princely domain, a vast fertile region traversed by beautiful rivers and lofty mountain ranges, and holding beneath the soil a wealth of minerals unequaled for it was one vast forest, extending from the Delaware over the Appalachia Mountain system, down its western slope and far into the Ohio Valley. C. Social History 1. The three major ethnic groups that dominated the colony in the middle of the 1700¶s were mainly English, Spanish, and Native American. 2. The European explorers came to the Pennsylvania colony because of William Penn and his goal to create a colony that allowed for freedom of religion due to his desire to protect himself and fellow Quakers from persecution. 3. William Penn flooded the "Holy Experiment" with Quakers whose descendants would later find their faith incompatible with slaveholding; the original Quakers had no qualms about it. Penn owned slaves, and used them to work his estate called Pennsbury. 4. Women were typically in their roles as mothers and household managers in the Pennsylvania colony. Women also played an invaluable role in the activities and successes of many social, cultural and political organizations in the colony. 5. Native Americans were very prominent in the Pennsylvania colony. When the English first settled there, the Indians inhabited the land. No significant wars with the Native Americans, but they kept and gave the settlers the nutrient rich land. 6. There was freedom of religion in this colony, but the main religion was Puritan. 7. Freedom of worship and religion was granted to all citizens. 8. The first Great Awakening for this colony was the freedom of religion. Anyone could be of any belief system and it was not forbidden or against the law. D. Biography -The main leader was William Penn. Penn was a very strong leader who founded the colony of Pennsylvania and granted the religious freedom of the colony. E. The only significance of the colony of Pennsylvania was that there was a granted religious freedom and the fact that it was not a royal colony. Pennslyvannia Citation: http://www.usahistory.info/colonies/Pennsylvania.html http://americanhistory.about.com/cs/colonialamerica/p/penncolony.htm http://www.hsp.org/default.aspx?id=130 http://www.slavenorth.com/pennsylvania.htm New Hampshire A. Political History 1. New Hampshire was planted by John Wheelwright in 1638, but the first settlement was made in 1623 by a Scotchman named Thomson at the mouth of the Piscataqua River. 2. The Laconia Company formed in 1629 in England sent over a ship full of new settlers with Captain Neal as the governor. These settlers were sent to the settlement at the river. They were sent to gain independence in the New World. 3. Each settlement was independent of each other and none of them had a very stable government. Overtime, the towns decided to unite under Massachusetts and a union was formed in 1641. Each town had to manage their own affairs but they were permitted to send a deputy to the General Court at Boston. New Hampshire and Massachusetts stayed together until the king finally separated them in 1691 and New Hampshire became a royal province. 4. New Hampshire became a royal colony in 1691 when the king decided to split apart New Hampshire and Massachusetts. He appointed New Hampshire a president, a council, and an assembly which was appointed by the people. 5. New Hampshire borders Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine to the east, and Quebec to the north. Economic History 1. The early economy was revolved around the growing of flax and manufacturing of linens by the Scotch-Irish immigrants. The linens were a huge hit in New England and their mother country. 2. The abundance of water power turned New Hampshire into an industrial colony and manufacturing became their main source of income. They also shipped lumber over to England since the forests in England were almost gone. 3. Since the land is not very nutritious for agricultural products, the colony turned to manufacturing products such as linens, paper, stone, and clay products. Social History 1. The main ethnic groups in the 1700s were the Algonquian Indians, the French and the English. 2. The Algonquian Indians were the original inhabitants of the land. The French and the English came over in search of new land, material wealth, and to get away from government and religious conflicts. 3. New Hampshire has been home to African Americans for over 350 years. Portsmouth was the beginning source of African Americans for New Hampshire and was where they lived, worked, prayed and celebrated. In 1645 enslavement of African Americans was very common in Portsmouth. Their merchants were involved in the slave trade by the 1680s. 4. In 1784, women lost the right to vote in New Hampshire. The first women¶s strike in the nation took place in New Hampshire¶s Cocheco Mills in 1828. 5. The Algonquian Indians were the inhabitants of the land when the settlers from England came into the area of New Hampshire. The settlers pushed them aside and caused many conflicts like the Indian War. 6. The most popular beliefs in early New Hampshire were in the Dutch reformed church. In 1679 the most prominent religion was in the Anglican Church after England took control. 7. In modern day New Hampshire most residents have become Christian, Catholic, or Protestant. 8. The first Great Awakening was not very effective in New Hampshire, but one minister, Jedediah Buchard, preached in New Hampshire and Vermont and made a small impact on the residents of that time D. Biography 1. Captain John Mason gave New Hampshire its name and helped in founding Portsmouth in 1630. John Wheelwright made one of the first settlements in between the Piscataqua and Merrimac rivers in 1638. General Sullivan lead a raid on Fort William and Mary in Portsmouth Harbor. E. Unique Facts 1. New Hampshire was the first state to install a green LED traffic light in May 17, 1996. Sources: 1. " N e w H a m p s h i r e . " H i s t o r y o f t h e U S A . H i s t o r y o f t h e U S A, n. d . W e b . 1 2 S e p 2 0 1 0 . < ht t p : / / w w w . u s a h i s t o r y. i n fo / N e w - E ng l a n d / N e w H a m p s h i r e . ht m l > ; . 2. " N e w H a m p s h i r e . " I n f o p l e a s e : A l l t h e K n o wl e d g e Y o u N e e d . I n fo p l e a s e , n. d . W e b . 1 2 S e p 2 0 1 0 . < h t t p : / / w w w . i n fo p l e a s e . c o m/ i p a / A 0 1 0 8 2 4 4 . ht m l > ; . 3. " T he W a r f. " P o r t s m o u t h B l a c k H e r i t a g e T r a i l . S e a c o a s t N H . c o m, n . d . W e b. 1 2 S e p 2 0 1 0 . < h t t p : / / w w w . s e a c o a s t n h . c o m/ b l a c k h i s t o r y/ t r a i l 1 . ht m l North Carolina A. Political History 1. When and by whom was the colony planted? The colony was planted by some Virginians that would later form the colony of North Carolina. The leader of these Virginians was Sir Walter Raleigh 2. Why was it planted? The colony was formed because the early settlers were sent to that region to discover new areas and gain lands. 3. How did the government change over time? North Carolina's history as an organized governing system led by a governor may be viewed in five chronological stages: the Virginia colony, the southern plantation, the Lords Proprietors, the Royal colony. 4. Did it become a royal colony? Yes, North Carolina became a royal colony. It became a royal colony in 1729 when seven of the eight Lords Proprietors agreed to sell their shares of North Carolina to King George II. He made it a royal colony. 5. Where is the colony? The colony is located south of the Virginia colony and north of South Carolina. B. Economic History 1. What form of economy dominated the colony¶s early history? The colonial economy was based on tobacco, foodstuffs, livestock, naval stores, and lumber products. 2. How did the economy change over time? The economy remained the same for the most part. However, later on, slave trade became a major factor in the colony¶s economic industry. 3. How did the environment and geography affect the economy? With the abundant forests and fertile soil, North Carolina was perfect for growing tobacco and trading and exporting lumber. C. Social History C. Social History 1.) The dominating ethnic groups were the Scottish, Scot-Irish, and the Germans. 2.) They traveled to North Carolina because of the ever-growing colony. Virginia was a prime spot for people to live. Once Virginia became rather crowded, people decided to move down to North Carolina since it had a similar climate with similar soil to grow grains on. 3.) For one, slaves were relied on for hard work. The slaves worked by growing crops, sailing ships, and building new buildings. The white people depended on them for a lot of things. The Africans also really help set the African and West Indian culture in the colony. 4.) If a woman was not married, she was legally allowed to act on her own as an individual adult. However, if the woman was married, she must abide by her husband and work by his side. If a woman was living on a farm on her husband, not only did she take care of domestic duties, but she also worked on the farm herself, just not doing as hard jobs as the men. 5.) Knowledge on the first native villages is scarce. The first recorded village was the village of the Neccoes, near the mouth of the Cape Fear River. Apparently, these Natives had some encounters with settlers with the buying and selling of land for them to grow on, but every civilization that was built was then abandoned. Early references associate these Indians with the eastern Siouan tribes. These natives were prominent because they eventually helped the settlers in the buying of lands. 6.)The dominant religion in North Carolina in the beginning was Anglican, or the Church of England. 7.) Because of the taxes that the English put on the colony, people grew tired of following the Church of England. Because of religious unrest, some religions were eventually established like Lutheran, Baptist, and Methodist. 8.) The first Great Awakening was when religion became a vital part to all of the colonies. There was not very much effect on North Carolina from the Great Awakening. D. Biography- Throughout colonial times, who were the colony¶s three most important leaders and why were they important? - One important figure of North Carolina was Joseph Hewes. Hewes was elected to represent North Carolina in the Continental Congress is 1774 because of his activism. He is important is because he was able to represent North Carolina in a crucial time period for American and he would eventually be one of the men to sign the Declaration of Independence. Another important leader in North Carolina was James Iredell. He had always been one of the best essayists of North Carolina and had written themes that strongly resembled the Declaration of Independence before it had been establish. He is important because he is credited for organizing the laws of North Carolina and he was eventually elected as the youngest Supreme Court Judge By George Washington. Finally, the last important figure in North Carolina is Charles Eden. Eden was elected governor in 1713. He is important to the history of North Carolina because he helped put an end to the threatening piracy in the colony going up against the infamous Blackbeard. E. Is there anything truly unique about this colony? 1. The large portion of society was composed of powerful, Christian men and women. 2. Of all the thirteen colonies, North Carolina was the least commercial, the most provincial, and the farthest removed from European influences. "North Carolina: Definition from Answers.com." Answers.com: Wiki Q&A Combined with Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, and Encyclopedias. Web. 13 Sept. 2010. . Walbert, By David. "A Royal Colony - North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. Web. 13 Sept. 2010. . "History of Governorship in North Carolina | NCpedia." NCpedia Home Page | NCpedia. Web. 13 Sept. 2010. . Kelly, By Martin. "North Carolina Colony." American History From About. Web. 13 Sept. 2010. . "North Carolina Indian Tribes." Access Genealogy: A Free Genealogy Resource. Web. 13 Sept. 2010. . http://www.lib.unc.edu/stories/slavery/story/colonial3.html That, By. "The Great Awakening." Wake Forest University ² Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Web. 13 Sept. 2010. . Sexton,, By Timothy. "About Religion in North Carolina in the Colonial Times | EHow.com." EHow | How To Do Just About Everything! | How To Videos & Articles. Web. 13 Sept. 2010. . South Carolina Hollis Mugford A. Political History 1. The first attempt to colonize South Carolina was when Jean Ribault, a French naval officer, navigator, and a colonizer, attempted to settle with a colony of Frenchmen, but failed, and now, after a hundred years had passed, it was left for the English to lay the permanent foundations for a commonwealth. The first English settlement was made in 1670, when William Sayle sailed up the Ashley River with three shiploads of English emigrants from the Barbados, and built a town, which has since disappeared. In 1671, Sir John Yeamans joined the colony, bringing with him about two hundred African slaves, and two ships bearing Dutch emigrants from New York. Ten years after the first settlers arrived, a point between the Cooper and Ashley riverts was chosen as a more favorable place to settle, and here Charleston was founded in 1680. 2. Jean Ribault came to the Americas trying to start more French colonies in the New World. After this attempt failed however, the English sent a settlement party to expand their colonial empire and opportunity for trade. Many came to the Americas for religious freedom and economic opportunity. 3. The first immigrants landed when a popular assembly began to frame laws. Sayle was their leader and first governor, but he soon died and was succeeded by Yeamans, who ruled for four years and was then followed by a man named John West. The people of South Carolina resisted the laws in the Fundamental Constitutions and based their laws however on their right from the settlement charter to make their own laws. Eventually, the people won this fight for liberty and the laws were never again enforced in America. At this point England still controlled the colony. The colony has an assembly to pass new laws and ideas but the House of Lords would have to approve any change. Eventually the colony, in addition to the rest of America, gained independence from English rule in the Revolutionary War and eventually became part of the 50 united states under the American Constitution. 4. South Carolina formally became a royal colony in 1729 after the colony demanded royal protection from Native Yamasee Tribe. The attacks from the natives were sparked by frustration caused by exploitation of the Yamasee people. First they received Francis Nicholson as a royal governor from the crown. nine years later the crown agreed to give royal status to the colony. On February 5, 1778, South Carolina became the first state to ratify the first constitution of the U.S., the Articles of Confederation. 5. The colony is on the east coast of the United States. It neighbors Georgia to the south and North Carolina to the north. B. Economic History 1. South Carolinas enconomy was earliest dominated by the theory of mercantilism. 2. South Carolina was one of the country's richest areas. Its economy depended on foreign commerce and agriculture, especially indigo, rice, and later cotton. After the Civil War, the state suffered severe economic depression. Not until the 1880s did the textile industry²today the state's major employer² begin to develop. 3. South Carolinas warm weather and humid environment made it a prime spot to grow cotton, rice, and indigo. Rice grows best in marshy ground and swamps, and therefore south carolina was the perfect place for this, due to all of their marshland. C. Social History 1. The three ethnic groups that mainly dominated South Carolina by the middle of the 1700s were English, Africans, and Dutch. 2. The English came to colonize America, looking for religious freedom and economic opportunity. The Dutch came on three ships from New York, pursuing the same as the English. The Africans however were brought into the colonies as slaves. Rice and indigo marshes can be toxic when worked too long in the hot heat of day, especially somewhere like South Carolina where the heat is very intense and the humidity is high. The Africans were brought in because the fatal marshes were work for a man of "lesser value". The products brought the colony so much wealth hoever, the whites were willing to threaten the Afrian's lives by setting them up for this job. 3. One example of African American history in South Carolina is them being shipped to the colony under the supervision of Sir John Yeamans. This was the first arrival of the Africans in the colony. Another example explaining their role in the colony was their hard physical labor in the rice marshes. Many died due to the toxic fumes the marshes produce in the intense southern heat. 4. During the 18th century, the women¶s role and work was extremely difficult, exhausting, and society was unappreciative. Women's responsibilities included cleaning, taking care of the children, making household goods to sell, taking care of the animals, maintaining a fire and tending to the kitchen gardens. They often had servants to help them with their work. However socially women had difficult and high expectaions. After women married, they were considered legally dead- they were now one with their husbands. Another example of this restricted lifestyle are the little rights they had legally. They had no control of their earnings, enheritance, property, and could also could not appear in court as a witness nor vote. Husbands could legally beat their wives. 5. At least 29 distinct groups of Indians lived within South Carolina. Tribes were weakened by European diseases, such as smallpox, for which they had no immunity. Epidemics killed vast numbers of Indians, reducing some southeastern tribes by as much as two-thirds. Populations declined even further due to conflicts with the settlers over trade practices and land. he Catawba, Pee Dee, Chicora, Edisto, Santee, and Chicora-Waccamaw tribes are all still present in South Carolina as are many descendants of the Cherokee. 6. Early religions in the colonies were a. Presbyterians b. Quakers c. Baptists d. Jewish e. Methodists 7. Presbyterians were the first dissenter group in South Carolina and the original members were from England, New England and French ProtestantsQuakers were among the earliest settlers of South Carolina. Many of the immigrants were from Barbados and Bermuda. In 1715 a meeting house was built in Charleston. By 1791 there were only 15 members in Charleston. The Baptists were another early dissenter group and were present in the colony by 1670. The Jewish were also in South Carolina during the colonial period, and established their first synagogue in 1749. The Methodist Church, as with the Congregational Church, was established to reform the existing Church of England rather than provide an alternative religion. Methodists first appeared in the province when visited by the Wesley brothers in 1736 but no congregation was established until the 1770's. Members of the Methodist Church were still considered members of the Church of England. It wasn't until the December 1784 - January 1785 Conference that the Methodist Episcopal Church was established as a separate entity. 8. The Great Awakening was a religious revitalization movement that swept the world, and especially the American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, leaving a permanent impact on American religion. In the Southern colonies, the Awakening was influential among Presbyterians. Northern Baptist and Methodist preachers converted both whites and blacks, enslaved and free. The Baptists especially welcomed blacks into active roles in congregations, including as preachers. Before the American Revolution, the first black Baptist churches were founded in the South in Virginia, South Carolina and Georgia; in Petersburg, Virginia, two black Baptist churches were founded. D. Biography 1. Throughout the colonial times, the three most important people in the colony of South Carolina were Jonathan Edwards, William Sayle, and Sir John Yeamans. Jonathan Edwards was important because he was a preacher, theologian, and missionary who did not live in South Carolina but was the leading theologian figure of the era. During the Great Awakening he served as a powerful figure. He emphasized the imporatance and power of immediate, personal religious experience. He aided the spread of the awakening in the Carolinas tremendously. William Sayle is important because he was the first man to successfully settle the South Carolina. And finally Sir John Yeamans is most important because he brought in the very first ever African slaves- something that would eventually come to change the industry and economy of the colony forever. E. North Carolina and South Carolina were twin-born. Though settled at different times by different peoples, both were included in the famous charter of 1663, both were intended to be governed by the Grand Model, and as they were not separated politically until 1729, their histories run parallel for many years. sources: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/us/A0861203.html http://www.usahistory.info/southern/South-Carolina.html http://www.sciway.net/hist/indians/ http://www.timepage.org/spl/13colony.html
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