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- 0 0 i t âs s w e e t t o b e s i n g l e The truth about single-engine safety, performance, and economy in the Pilatus PC-12. ITâS SWEET TO BE SINGLE
- 03 i t âs s w e e t t o b e s i n g l e 0 2 âIF I ONLY HAD A BRAIN.â We humans are not half as objective as we would like to be. A little well-executed sleight of hand canmake us believe in magic; a few squirrels in the attic can convince us a house is haunted. Despite our powers of reason, it takes only a little expert prodding of our right brains to make the smallest fears grow into great ones. Orson Wellesâ radio drama caused panic in the streets. Hitchcock made us terrified of seagulls. Spielberg confined half a generation to dry land. (The other half was out hunting sharks.) A PARALLEL EXISTS IN AVIATION. People have been talked into an irrational fear of single-engine aircraft based on the general premise that air- planes with two or more engines are significantly safer. Proponents of multi-engine superiority have so demonized single-engine planes, itâs a wonder they havenât been systematically wiped out by panic-stricken pilots. (Little surprise many of those perpetuating the myth of multi- engine safety make their living building or selling multi-engine aircraft.) Yet, in spite of the prolonged campaign against them, single-engine aircraft are alive and well. why? Single-engine aircraft are safer than weâve been led to believe. In fact, when safety statistics from the last twenty years are examined closely and objectively, we discover something most pilots already know: in some situations, a twin can be far more dangerous than a single.Once this misperception is corrected, the real advantages of single- engineperformanceandeconomy become too compelling to ignore. This booklet will explain how sin- gles were saddled with an unsafe reputation, reveal the truth behind the hype, and show you where the Pilatus PC-12 fits in.So, relax your right brain, rev up your left, and find out why itâs sweet to be single. THE TRUTH IS SIMPLER THAN YOU MIGHT THINK: 02PIL256_S2BS_BRO_r15 7/16/02 10:28 AM Page 2
- THE MOST PERSISTENT MYTH ABOUT SINGLE-ENGINE AIRCRAFT IS THAT SINGLES ARE FAR LESS SAFE THAN MULTI-ENGINE AIRCRAFT. THATâS SIMPLY NOT TRUE OF TODAYâS TURBOPROP SINGLES, AND THE LATEST ACCIDENT REVIEWS PROVE IT. ADMITTEDLY, THERE WAS A TIME WHEN ALL AIRCRAFT ENGINES â RECIPROCATING, TURBOPROP, AND JETS â WERE FAR LESS RELIABLE AND POWERFUL THAN THEIR MODERN COUNTERPARTS. PARTICULARLY ON TRANSATLANTIC FLIGHTS, ADDITIONAL ENGINES WERE WELCOME AND SERVED AS NECESSARY INSURANCE AGAINST A POWERPLANT FAILURE. 05 s a f e t y & t h e s i n g l e e n g i n e 04 i t âs s w e e t t o b e s i n g l e âAN ENGINE FAILURE-RELATED ACCIDENT IN A TWIN IS FOUR TIMES MORE LIKELY TO CAUSE SERIOUS OR FATAL INJURIES.â â Richard Aarons, citing an NTSB repor t in FAA Document FAA-P-8740-25 AFO-800-1079 THE CULT THICKENS With increased production of multi-engine models came new investment in aircraft development, factory tooling, and new facilities. Once committed, a need to justify the huge expenditures accompanied the surge in production. Since aircraft with more engines are also more expensive, extolling their praises became an art form, one essential to drive sales, commissions, and profits. Suddenly, the multi-engine aircraft â even with its increased cost of acquisition, operation, and repair â was king, and public relations teams were tasked with keeping him on the throne. The idea of multi-engine superiority still reigns today, though like most surviving monarchies, it has lost any remaining pretense of divine right. thesingle engine THE MULTI-ENGINE MINDSET In the early days of aviation, aircraft engines lacked both power and reliability, and multiple engines were needed to lift high payloads and deliver them dependably to their destinations. Since the failure rate of engines was high compared with those on modern aircraft, adopting a multi-engine mindset was not only appropriate, it was an act of self-preservation. âThe more engines the betterâ was the philosophy, and it gave rise to a bevy of multiple-engine planes, the B-36 and B-52, the DC-4, -6, and -7, and the Lockheed Constellation among them. &safety 02PIL256_S2BS_BRO_r15 7/16/02 10:28 AM Page 4
- 07 s a f e t y a n d t h e s i n g l e e n g i n e 06 âSINGLES ARE FOR SISSIESâ Thereâs another reason singles are perceived as inferior to multi-engine planes. Pilots in training usually learn to fly in singles. Later they move on to multi-engine aircraft to earn their commercial ratings and build time. Once theyâve invested the time and money in training to become multi-engine pilots, few want to fly an aircraft they associate with their âgreenerâ days. Theyâve joined an elite group who have mastered more complex and, by extension, potentially dangerous aircraft; to return to singles once theyâve graduated to twins would seem, at least among their peers, to signal a retreat. These pilots, many of whom are working toward careers with the airlines, learn to accept the higher risks of flying multi-engine planes with far greater workloads. As a result, they must train ever harder to do so safely. AND HEREIN LIES THE IRONY The concern voiced most often about singles as an aircraft category is that theyâre inherently less safe than multi-engines. Yet the FAA, the militaries of many western countries, and most of the worldâs flight schools endorse putting the least experienced pilots in single-engine aircraft. Why? Because singles are easier to operate, easier to control, and easier to recover. All of which means, surely, that theyâre safer. But just because a single is safer doesnât mean it requires less talent; anyone who doubts flying a single isnât a badge of piloting skills hasnât flown an F-16. The militaryâs reliance on single- engine aircraft has a long history that extends to the current day with the F-16 and the single-engine turboprop chosen for the Joint Primary Aircraft Training System. 1900 1925 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 THE MOVE TO âLESS IS MOREâ The military has long seen the advantage in single-engine tactical aircraft â the F4U Corsair, P-51 Mustang, A-4 Skyhawk, and F-16 Fighting Falcon â which carry a much higher percentage of their gross weights as payload than their multi-engine counter- parts. As the sophistication and reliability of aircraft engines have increased, more manufacturers are trending back to fewer engines. Fewer engines result in less fuel consumption, lower maintenance costs, and higher payload/range capabilities. The trend can be seen in commercial aviation with the airlinesâ move from four- engine aircraft to three- and two-engine aircraft. More recently, the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy selected a single-engine turboprop platform â the Pilatus PC-9 â as the basis for their Joint Primary Aircraft Training System (JPATS), which will replace their aging twinjet training fleets with a common aircraft. Air forces in Canada and Greece have also ordered the single-engine trainer. By doing so, theyâve effectively endorsed the single-engine concept and debunked the myth of superior multi-engine safety. Furthermore, the militaries of the U.S. and nearly a dozen foreign countries have entrusted their national security to a new single-engine jet fighter, the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. â02 - Pilatus PC-21 â99 - F-35 Joint Strike Fighter â95 - Pilatus PC-12 Eagle â94 - Pilatus PC-7 MkII â94 - Pilatus PC-12 â84 - Pilatus PC-9 â81- AV-8B Harrier â78 - Pilatus PC-7 â76 - F-16 Fighting Falcon â65 - DHC-3 Otter and A-7 Corsair II â59 - Pilatus PC-6 Porter â58 - DHC-2 Beaver â57 - F-8 Crusader â56 - UH-1 Iroquois (Huey) â55 - MiG-21 â54 - A-4 Skyhawk â53 - Pilatus P-3 â49 - T-28 Trojan â47 - Bell X-1 and F-86 Sabre â45 - Pilatus P-2 â42 - F4U Corsair â40 - P-51 Mustang â34 - Stearman Kaydet and Messerschmitt Me109 â32 - Beech 17 Staggerwing â27 - Ryan NYP âSpirit of St. Louisâ â03 - Wright Flyer Great Singles in History 02PIL256_S2BS_BRO_r15 7/16/02 10:28 AM Page 6
- SPINNING THE TWIN. Over the years, some pretty tortured logic has been used to muddy the waters on the single vs. twin safety issue. Occasionally, weâre blessed with moments of clarity. Richard N. Aarons, writing on single and twin comparisons for the FAAâs Accident Prevention Program, cites this finding by the NTSB: âAn engine failure-related accident in a twin is four times more likely to cause serious or fatal injuries.â Two important factors con- tribute to the greater danger in twins with a failed engine: asymmetric thrust and altitude. In twins, the engines are mounted off the aircraftâs centerline to varying degrees. When one engine fails, the ability to climb can drop by 80%, and the unbalanced thrust on one side of the aircraft can cause the aircraft to yaw and roll dramatically. If engine failure occurs during takeoff or at low altitudes, the pilot has precious little time to compensate. A single doesnât suffer from asymmetric thrust in the event of powerplant failure, so the pilot can concentrate on landing the aircraft rather than gaining control. THE LAST DEFENSE OF TWINS. To say twins have no advantage over singles would be misleading. Their importance in building multi-engine time in preparation for a professional career is unquestionable. Under certain circumstances, namely on transoceanic flights and during engine failure or shutdown at altitude, a second engine can provide additional options. But in the latter case, the advantage isnât nearly what it used to be, though no one with a predilection for multi-engine aircraft is likely to tell you why. Today, the reliability of mod- ern turbine engines is so high that an engine malfunction is rarely the primary contributor to an accident or incident. In fact, turboprop and jet engines have advanced to the point where mechanical failures are essentially non-existent, which means any argument in favor of twins based on the presumption of engine failure is built on a false premise. Whatâs more, in some situations, a single-engine aircraft with a power loss is an arguably safer environ- ment than an aircraft with two engines, as weâve already seen. Powerplant Reliability Comparative Data, Five Year Average, 1992-1996 Single Turboprop Powerplant Aircraft Reliability, August 2000, Robert E. Breiling Associates, Inc. i t âs s w e e t t o b e s i n g l e s a f e t y a n d t h e s i n g l e e n g i n e 08 THEREâS SAFETY IN NUMBERS. Enough data is available from the FAA, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other agencies interested in aviation safety to answer, once and for all, the question of single-engine safety in modern aircraft. In 1998, in response to customer inquiries about single-engine safety, the V. Kelner Pilatus Center in Thunder Bay, Ontario, gathered the statistics published by Canadaâs TSB and the U.S.âs NTSB and set out to find what the safety record really said. Proponents of twins suggest a second engine provides a higher degree of safety in the event of an engine failure. To find out if the data supported this hypothesis, the Kelner group looked at the previous 15 years and compared fatalities in twin-engine aircraft to those in single-engine turboprops where the accidents were attributed to loss of power in an engine. The results were startling. They found that twin-engine aircraft with a power loss in one engine were associated with 219 fatalities. No fatalities were attributable to engine failure in single-engine turbo- prop aircraft. The bubble of superior multi-engine safety had dramatically burst. 09 Percent of general aviation fixed-wing aircraft accidents attributed to power loss, all causes: Single-engine turboprop 0.0% Multi-engine turboprop 8.0% Multi-engine reciprocating 27.6% Percent of general aviation fixed-wing aircraft accidents attributed to power loss, due to mechanical/maintenance/ design/manufacturer causes: Single-engine turboprop 0.0% Multi-engine turboprop 4.0% Multi-engine reciprocating 8.9% Single Turboprop Powered vs.Twin Turboprop Powered Fixed Wing Aircraft (Accidents per 100,000 flight hours) U.S. & Canadian Registered Aircraft â Certification through 2001 Single-Engine Turboprop Aircraft Accident Analysis, Robert Breiling Associates, Inc., April 2002 Fatal Accident Rate 0.97 0.57 0.00 5.21 0.88 0.81 Aircraft CE-208 TBM-700 PC-12 PA-46TP Single Turbine Powered Aircraft Twin Turbine Powered Aircraft Fatal Accidents 35 02 00 01 38 321 Cumulative Flight Hours 3,604,056 349,186 360,500 19,200 4,308,942 39,481,499 Accidents 81 07 05 03 96 918 Accident Rate 2.24 2.00 1.39 15.63 2.23 2.33 02PIL256_S2BS_BRO_r15 7/16/02 10:28 AM Page 8
- so1o 11 The cabin volume of a PC-12 is 330 cu. ft., making it roomier than the King Air B200âs 307 cu. ft. and much larger than the Citation CJ1âs 186 cu. ft. The PC-12âs forward-mounted engine keeps the propeller away from the cabin for increased passenger safety and comfort. With Pratt & Whitneyâs PT6A-67B engine, the PC-12âs horsepower-to- weight ratio is comparable to a P-51 Mustang fighter. 10 Multi-engine aircraft have vir tually no advantage over single-engine turboprops when it comes to safety. Singles, however, can have tremendous advantages over comparable twins when it comes to per formance and economy. Particularly a new-generation design such as the Pilatus PC-12. going THE PILATUS PC-12: ONE OUTSTANDING SOLO PERFORMANCE THE POWER OF ONE The concept of outfitting a light and efficient airframe with one massively powerful engine isnât new; itâs been demonstrated in tactical military aircraft such as the F4U Corsair, P-51 Mustang, F-86 Sabre, and the F-16 Fighting Falcon. Pilatus borrowed the concept (and little else) when it set out to produce a âclean sheet of paperâ aircraft that married state-of-the-art structural design with a powerful, turbine engine. âSINGLEâ DOESNâT MEAN âSMALLâ When most people think of a single, they imagine a two- or four-seat aircraft with a reciprocating engine flown for training and recreation. In con- trast, a high-per formance turboprop single can pack a lot horsepower. And since itâs free of the extra weight, drag, and fuel that come with twins, it can lift more of its gross weight as payload. The PC-12, for example, is bigger than a King Air B200, nearly twice as large as a CitationJet, and has a max payload of over 3,100 pounds. THE CANADIAN ENGINE THAT COULD The PC-12âs per formance is made possible by Pratt & Whitney Canadaâs PT6A-67B engine, a power ful variant of the most dependable engine ever produced, the PT6. The -67B pro- duces 1605 shaft horsepower (shp), but itâs flat-rated to 1200 shp in the PC-12. Rating the engine at only 75% means the stresses and temperatures it was designed to withstand are never imposed on it, reducing engine wear and maintenance costs. g o i n g s o l o Pilatus PC-12 King Air B200 Citation CJ1 02PIL256_S2BS_BRO_r15 7/16/02 10:28 AM Page 10
- BORN TO GLIDE The PC-12 is vir tually a Short Takeoff and Landing (STOL) aircraft. At maximum gross weight and a cruising altitude of 30,000 feet, a PC-12 without power can continue to fly 32 minutes and travel 89 statute miles before landing at a slow and safe touchdown speed. Whatâs more, the PC-12 is even certified to land safely on dir t and grass. THE âLESSERâ BENEFITS OF SINGLES In a several ways, singles deliver less than twins. Fortunately, delivering less is the singleâs most compelling quality. When you purchase a twin, the cost of the second engine adds hundreds of thousands of dollars to the acquisition price. When you operate a twin, you burn far more fuel. You also log hours on two engines instead of one, so your costs of maintenance and overhaul essentially double. A single is simply less expensive to acquire, operate, and main- tain than a comparable twin. For example, the PC-12âs direct operating cost is about a third less than a comparable multi-engine aircraft and nearly half that of the nearest comparable jet. All of which is less likely to upset your accountant. 1>2 13 g o i n g s o l o FORBES.COM NAMES THE PC-12 âBEST TURBOPROP, 2001.â âThe gold standard among turboprops has always been the Raytheon â formerly Beech â King Air, but that stalwart is long in the tooth and too expensive. We have opted instead for a much newer design, the Pilatus PC-12, a [$3] million single-engine turboprop made in Switzerland that has become the favorite of Silicon Valley venture capitalists. âThe PC-12 is actually larger than a King Air B-200 and just as fast, carrying up to nine people more than 2,500 miles for nearly coast- to-coast performance.â â Mark Stephens, author, âThe Best Private Planesâ â Engines delivered 30,400 (through 2001) Power range of series 580 to 2,000 shp Hours flown world wide 235,100,000 (through 2001) In-flight shutdown rate 1 per 333,333 flight hours Pratt & Whitney Canadaâs PT6 Turboprop Engine Data 30,000 ft 89 mi. 02PIL256_S2BS_BRO_r15 7/16/02 10:28 AM Page 12
- 1 14 i t âs s w e e t t o b e s i n g l e THE WIZARD REVEALED: OR, WHAT TO TAKE WITH YOU IF YOU GO BACK TO KANSAS Thereâs a meaningful scene in The Wizard of Oz that seems appropriate to mention here. Itâs when Toto pulls the curtain back to show a diminutive man fumbling with the machinery he uses to keep the entire Emerald City in fear of The Wizard. Once the deception is revealed, the man can do little but leave town by the nearest available means, which is, fittingly, a hot air balloon. Much of the general fear of single-engine aircraft has been similarly manufactured. Hopefully, this guide threw some well-deserved light into that dark corner. But in case a few shadows still linger, hereâs a summary of the most important points: â¢ The argument that single-engine aircraft are less safe than multi-engines is based on the presumption of engine failure. â¢ However, modern turbine engines are so reliable they are rarely the primary cause of an accident or incident. â¢ According to an NTSB report, when engines do fail, serious injury or death is four times more likely to occur in a multi-engine aircraft than a single. â¢ This is because multi-engine aircraft experience asymmetric thrust and rapid loss of climb per formance up to 80%, which can be extremely dangerous at low altitudes. â¢ Single-engine aircraft donât experience asymmetric thrust, and they typically have higher glide ratios and can land at slower speeds. â¢ As reliability has improved over the last 75 years, airlines have specified fewer engines on new aircraft designs. â¢ The U.S. military continues to rely on single-engine aircraft to provide for the nationâs security. â¢ Singles carry a higher proportion of their weight as payload. â¢ Singles cost less to acquire, operate, and maintain than comparable twins. This may be a bitter pill for multi-engine mavens, but the truth is sweet to the rest of us. 02PIL256_S2BS_BRO_r15 7/16/02 10:28 AM Page 14
- 16 THE PILATUS PROFILE Swiss, over 60, and still single. Pilatus has been designing, building, and supporting single-engine aircraft for more than 60 years. We donât stay single because we have to. We do it because we choose to. Because the single-engine concept is sound, economical, and safe. And because we believe the power of single-engine design lies in the marriage of technology and simplicity. Pilatus has built more single-engine turboprops than any other manufacturer. These aircraft are considered the most versatile in the world and have earned us a loyal following that grows every day. If you want to know more about single-engine safety, per formance, and economy, call 1 800 PILATUS. And if youâre single already, stay single. If youâre not, find out what youâve been missing.
- 1 800 PILATUS www.pilatus-aircraft.com