Other  types  of  searches:   •  Arrests  justify  searches  of  the  arrestee's  person   and  the  area  within  his  immediate  control,  and   Buie  sweeps  allow  checks  of  adjoining  rooms.   •  Police  may  search  a  vehicle  incident  to  arrest  if   it  is  within  the  arrestee's  grab  area  at  the  time  of   arrest;  it  is  reasonable  to  believe  the  vehicle   contains  evidence  of  the  offense  of  arrest;  or  they   impound  it  and  inventory  search.   Does  the  defendant  have  a  subjective  expectation   of  privacy?   Was  it  a  search?   AND   Is  society  willing  to  recognize  that  expectation  as   reasonable?   •  OfCicer  may  frisk  a  (justiCiably)  Terry-­‐stopped   individual  if  he  has  articulable  facts  that  lead  to  a   reasonable  inference  that  his  safety  is  in  jeopardy,   and  only  for  weapons.  Vehicles  can  be  frisked.   •  Special  needs,  if  the  government  interests   outweigh  the  privacy  intrusion.  Checkpoints   require  a  special  programmatic  purpose.   •  Consent  to  search  must  be  voluntary,  cops  must   be  reasonable  in  their  belief  of  common-­‐authority   and  cannot  search  over  a  dissenting  party's  wish.   If    YES:  Was  there  a  warrant?   If  NO:  This  is  not  a  search.    Remember  dog  sniffs,   open  Cield  or  outside-­‐curtilage  observation,   knowing  exposure  to  the  public.   If  NO:  Were  the  facts  and  circumstances  within   the  ofCicer's  knowledge  and  of  which  they  had   reasonably  trustworthy  information  sufCicient  in   themselves  to  warrant  a  man  of  reasonable   caution  in  the  belief  that  contraband  or  evidence   of  a  crime  will  be  found  in  a  particular  place?   AND   Did  the  ofCicer  reasonably  suspect  the  presence  of   exigent  circumstances  such  that  the  needs  of  law   enforcement  made  the  warrantless  search   objectively  reasonable?   If  YES:  Given  all  the  circumstances  set  forth  in  the   afCidavit  –  including  those  within  the  ofCicer's   knowledge  and  those  based  on  information  from   a  CI  with  veracity  and  a  known  basis  of   knowledge  –  is  there  a  fair  probability  that   contraband  or  evidence  of  a  crime  will  be  found   in  a  particular  place?   •  OfCicer  safety   •  Destruction  of  evidence   Emergency  aid  does  not  require  PC:   •  Fire  prevention   •  Prevention  of  ongoing  violence   •  Searching  for  old  people  who  might  have  died   The  traditional  warrant  requirement  is  unsuited   to  the  search  of  an  automobile:   •  The  police  may  search  an  automobile  and  the   containers  within  it  where  they  have  PC  to   believe  contraband  or  evidence  is  contained.   •  With  PC  for  the  car,  it  is  permissible  to  inspect   passenger's  belongings  found  in  the  car  that  are   capable  of  concealing  the  object  of  the  search.     If  the  warrant  was  based  on  something  untrue,   did  the  afCidavit  include  perjured  or  recklessly   false  statements,  or  merely  negligent,  innocent   falsehoods?   Was  the  location  particular  enough  to  permit  an   ofCicer,  with  reasonable  effort,  to  ascertain  and   identify  the  place  intended?   For  warrantless  searches,  PC  is  reviewed  de  novo   on  appeal,  using  a  clear  error  standard  for   Cindings  of  historical  fct  and  giving  due  weight  to   inferences  drawn  from  those  facts  by  resident   judges  and  law  enforcement  ofCicers.   As  long  as  the  afCidavit  is  not  based  on  lies  or   misrepresentations,  ofCicers  acting  on  facially   valid  warrants  will  not  have  their  evidence   excluded  if  the  afCidavit  turns  out  to  be  less  than   PC.   If  YES  and  they  still  search  the  wrong  place,  the   ofCicer's  failure  to  realize  its  overbreadth  must   have  been  reasonable.    
Please download to view
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
...

Probable Cause FlowChart

by mkelly1021

on

Report

Category:

Documents

Download: 0

Comment: 0

74

views

Comments

Description

Download Probable Cause FlowChart

Transcript

Other  types  of  searches:   •  Arrests  justify  searches  of  the  arrestee's  person   and  the  area  within  his  immediate  control,  and   Buie  sweeps  allow  checks  of  adjoining  rooms.   •  Police  may  search  a  vehicle  incident  to  arrest  if   it  is  within  the  arrestee's  grab  area  at  the  time  of   arrest;  it  is  reasonable  to  believe  the  vehicle   contains  evidence  of  the  offense  of  arrest;  or  they   impound  it  and  inventory  search.   Does  the  defendant  have  a  subjective  expectation   of  privacy?   Was  it  a  search?   AND   Is  society  willing  to  recognize  that  expectation  as   reasonable?   •  OfCicer  may  frisk  a  (justiCiably)  Terry-­‐stopped   individual  if  he  has  articulable  facts  that  lead  to  a   reasonable  inference  that  his  safety  is  in  jeopardy,   and  only  for  weapons.  Vehicles  can  be  frisked.   •  Special  needs,  if  the  government  interests   outweigh  the  privacy  intrusion.  Checkpoints   require  a  special  programmatic  purpose.   •  Consent  to  search  must  be  voluntary,  cops  must   be  reasonable  in  their  belief  of  common-­‐authority   and  cannot  search  over  a  dissenting  party's  wish.   If    YES:  Was  there  a  warrant?   If  NO:  This  is  not  a  search.    Remember  dog  sniffs,   open  Cield  or  outside-­‐curtilage  observation,   knowing  exposure  to  the  public.   If  NO:  Were  the  facts  and  circumstances  within   the  ofCicer's  knowledge  and  of  which  they  had   reasonably  trustworthy  information  sufCicient  in   themselves  to  warrant  a  man  of  reasonable   caution  in  the  belief  that  contraband  or  evidence   of  a  crime  will  be  found  in  a  particular  place?   AND   Did  the  ofCicer  reasonably  suspect  the  presence  of   exigent  circumstances  such  that  the  needs  of  law   enforcement  made  the  warrantless  search   objectively  reasonable?   If  YES:  Given  all  the  circumstances  set  forth  in  the   afCidavit  –  including  those  within  the  ofCicer's   knowledge  and  those  based  on  information  from   a  CI  with  veracity  and  a  known  basis  of   knowledge  –  is  there  a  fair  probability  that   contraband  or  evidence  of  a  crime  will  be  found   in  a  particular  place?   •  OfCicer  safety   •  Destruction  of  evidence   Emergency  aid  does  not  require  PC:   •  Fire  prevention   •  Prevention  of  ongoing  violence   •  Searching  for  old  people  who  might  have  died   The  traditional  warrant  requirement  is  unsuited   to  the  search  of  an  automobile:   •  The  police  may  search  an  automobile  and  the   containers  within  it  where  they  have  PC  to   believe  contraband  or  evidence  is  contained.   •  With  PC  for  the  car,  it  is  permissible  to  inspect   passenger's  belongings  found  in  the  car  that  are   capable  of  concealing  the  object  of  the  search.     If  the  warrant  was  based  on  something  untrue,   did  the  afCidavit  include  perjured  or  recklessly   false  statements,  or  merely  negligent,  innocent   falsehoods?   Was  the  location  particular  enough  to  permit  an   ofCicer,  with  reasonable  effort,  to  ascertain  and   identify  the  place  intended?   For  warrantless  searches,  PC  is  reviewed  de  novo   on  appeal,  using  a  clear  error  standard  for   Cindings  of  historical  fct  and  giving  due  weight  to   inferences  drawn  from  those  facts  by  resident   judges  and  law  enforcement  ofCicers.   As  long  as  the  afCidavit  is  not  based  on  lies  or   misrepresentations,  ofCicers  acting  on  facially   valid  warrants  will  not  have  their  evidence   excluded  if  the  afCidavit  turns  out  to  be  less  than   PC.   If  YES  and  they  still  search  the  wrong  place,  the   ofCicer's  failure  to  realize  its  overbreadth  must   have  been  reasonable.    
Fly UP