THE ROMANTIC PERIOD ( 1820 1850 ) INTRODUCTION  The term romantic applies to literature , music , graphic arts of 1820-1850 era  Emphasizes emotion , sentiment and feeling  Was against formal classical styles of 17th and 18th century  Concerned more with content , less with form; preferred to break rules  Romanticism was a rebellion against restrictions on artistic expressions  Declined after the revolution in France in 1848-1849 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Romantic movement was played out against following political background : ENGLAND  Prince Reagent became King George IV in 1820 , but scandals surrounding marital life made him unpopular  1st professional police force was created at Scotland Yard ; Roman Catholics were permitted to sit in parliament  William IV succeeded his brother in 1830 ; during his reign parliament enacted Reform Bill , redistributing seats in House of Commons and extended voting rights to more men  With death of William IV in 1837 , his niece Victoria became queen and ruled till 1901 FRANCE  After fall of Napoleon , Bourbon monarchy was restored from earlier monarchial periods  Louis XVIII , brother of Louis XVI became king , gave written constitution  Restoration of Bourbons along with the historicism of Romantic writers to the revival of styles from earlier monarchial periods and to an interest in costume balls  In 1824 Louis s brother succeeded him as Charles X ; he attempted to restore royal absolutism , led to revolution in July 1830 .  This revolution was led by journalists , republicans , unemployed working men , students : who were supporters of rebellious spirit of Romanticism THE UNITED STATES  By the mid 19th century , the cultivation of cotton dominated the economy of Southern States ; with cotton so important to the Southern economy slavery flourished .  By 1840 , almost half of the population in Louisiana , Alabama ,Mississippi were slaves .  The abolitionists tried to use moral suasion and political influence to end slavery ; did not favor the use of force to end slavery , their efforts in publicizing the evils of slavery helped to prepare Northerners for the terrible struggle that divided the country when Civil War came in 1861  In Monroe Doctrine of 1823 , United States gave notice to European powers that Western hemisphere was no longer open to colonization ; was becoming politically independent of Europe COSTUME FOR WOMEN  Period between 1820 -1825 was a period of transition between the Empire styles and the newer Romantic mode .  Change in the location of waistline took place.  By 1825 , waistline had moved downward from just under the bust to several inches above the anatomical location of waist .  By 1825 , along with change in waistline ; women s costume also developed large sleeves , which continued to grow larger , along with Gored skirts which were widening and becoming shorter . 1820 1835        GARMENTS Women s undergarments included chemises , drawers , stays and petticoats . Chemises were wide , about knee length , usually had short sleeves ; no change in drawers . Stays shortened and laced tightly to pull in the waist . Multiple layers of petticoats supported the wider skirts of dresses . Bustles , cotton filled pads tied around the waist at back , held out skirt in back . Dresses were classified as morning dresses , day dresses , walking or promenade dresses , carriage dresses , dinner dresses , evening or ball dresses . Morning dress was most informal , made of white cotton or fine linen with lace trimmings .  Day , promenade , carriage dresses are often indistinguishable from each other.  Daytime dresses with their lower waistlines , wide sleeves and full skirts fastened either in front or back .  In 1820s and 1830s , many bodices had V shaped revers extending from shoulder to waist in front and back .  Wide , capelike collars in matching colors or white work were popular .  Sleeves were exceptionally diverse ; were given many different names to the styles they showed ; i.e. MANCHERONS , MARIE SLEEVE , DEMI GIGOT , GIGOT , IMBECILE OR IDIOT SLEEVE .  Waistlines remained straight with buckled belts or sashes at the waist , until about 1833 after which V shaped points were used .  Skirt lengths changed gradually .  PELISSE ROBE : a daytime dress , was a sort of coat dress , close down the front with buttons , ribbon ties .  Fabrics included muslins , printed cottons , challis , merinos(wool) and batistes  Lowered necklines with square , round , elliptical or even off shoulders  Evening dresses were made of silk satins or softer gauges and organdy held out by full petticoats . ACCESSORY GARMENTS FOR DRESSES  Fillers i.e. chemisettes or tuckers raised the necklines of daytime dresses . Were separate from dress , could be worn with different bodices  Wide , capelike collars extended over the shoulders and down the bosom called pelerines , were popular .  Variant of pelerine ; fichu pelerine had two wide panels or lappets extending down the front of the dress and passes under the belt . HAIR AND HEADDRESS  Women parted their hair at the center front .  In 1820s , hair around the forehead and temples was arranged in tight curls and the back pulled into a knot , bun or ringlets .  After 1824 , elaborate loops or plaits were added .  The style called a la Chi noise was created by pulling back and side hair into a knot at the top of the head, while hair at forehead and temples was arranged in curls .  Day caps were worn indoors by adults , made of white cotton , linen or silk .  Hats were large brimmed with high , round crowns with decorations .  Bonnet styles that framed the face , tied under the chin ; one bonnet , the capote , had a soft fabric crown and a stiff brim . 1836 1850 DRESSES  Silhouette of dresses became more subdued  The change in sleeve shaping has been compared to a balloon that started to deflate  With fitting of sleeves , skirts lengthened  Bodices ended at waist , which was likely to come to a point at the front and to close with hooks or buttons down the front or back .  Dresses were one piece ; some were even two piece jacket and skirt styles .  One popular style gilet corsage , imitation of men s waistcoat .  Most sleeves were set low , off the shoulder after 1838 .  Famous ones are : bishop sleeve , sleeve en bouffant or en sabot , Victoria , under sleeves .  Fullness of the skirt was gathered into the waist .  Pockets were made separately , tied around the waists . HEAD AND HEADDRESS  Parted in the middle , hair was pulled smoothly to the temples where it was arranged in hanging sausage shaped curls or in plaits or with a loop of hair encircling the ear . At back , hair was pulled into a bun or chignon .  Adult women wore small white cotton or linen caps indoors .  Predominant hat shape was bonnet ; both utilitarian and decorative styles ; including the sunbonnet : to keep the sun from faces of women who worked outdoors .  Made of quilted cotton or linen with a bavolet or ruffle at the back .  Fashionable bonnet styles included drawn bonnets , capotes ( with soft crowns and rigid brims ) and even small bonnets that framed the face .  For evenings , hair decorations were preferred over hats . COSTUME COMPONENTS FOR WOMEN :1820-1850 OUTDOOR GARMENTS  Pelisse followed the general lines of dress and sleeve styles till mid 1830 , replaced by variety of shawls and mantles worn outdoors .  About 1836 , full length mantles predominated ; later shortened .  Evening styles were made luxurious with velvet or satin .  Fashion terminology for mantle proliferates , including : mantlet or shawl mantle , pelerine mantle , burnous , peletot , pardessus . FOOTWEAR  Stockings were knitted of cotton or silk or worsted wool .  For evening in 1830s and 1840s black silk stockings were fashionable  Slipper type shoes with square shaped toes with very small heels .  Black satin slippers predominated till 1840 ; when ribbon sandals and white satin evening boots appeared .  In cold weather women wore leather shoes or boots with cloth gaiters ( a covering for the upper part of the shoe and the ankle ) in colors matching that of the shoe .  Rubber galoshes or overshoes were introduced in the late 1840s . ACCESSORIES  Gloves were worn for both daytime and evenings  Daytime gloves were short and made of cotton , silk . Evening gloves were long until later 1830s , after which they were shortened.  Gloves , cut to cover the palm and back of the hand but not the fingers , were called mittens or mitts .  Hand carried accessories included reticules , handbags , purses , fans , muffs and parasols . JEWELRY  In 1820s and 1830s women wore gold chains with lockets , scent bottles or crosses attached  Chatelaines were ornamental chains worn at the waist from which were suspended useful items , i.e. scissors , penknives .  Other items were brooches , bracelets , armlets , and drop earrings . COSMETICS AND GROOMING  rice powder was used to achieve a pale and wan appearance , but obvious rouge or other kinds of face paint were not considered proper COSTUME FOR MEN 1820 - 1840  No major changes took place in the kinds of undergarments being worn .  Use of corsets and padding to achieve fashionable silhouette .  Shirts were cut with deep collars , long enough to fold over a cravat or neck cloth wrapped around the neck .  Daytime shirts had tucked insets at the front, insets for evening shirts were frilled .  Sleeves were cuffed , closing with buttons or studs .  With these men either wore stocks ( wide , shaped neckpieces fastening at the back that were often black) or cravats .  Coats , waistcoat and trousers were components of a suit. Tail coats and frock coats were the most common types of coats .  Waistcoats were sleeveless and had either straight, standing collars or small , rolled collars without a notch between the collar and lapel. Both single and double breasted waistcoats were worn .  It was fashionable to use a different color , or at least a different shade of same color for each part of costume . 1840 -1850  Components of suit underwent some changes.  Coat styles were either Tail coat or frock coat styles ; single or double breasted .  Collars were cut high behind the neck with the rolled collar joined to a lapel to form either a V shaped or M shaped notch .  Gathering and padding in the sleeves disappeared .  New coat styles include the new market , which differed from the tail coat in that the coat sloped to the back from above the waist rather than having a squared , open area at the front .  Waistcoats lengthened at the front and developed a point (Hussar front or beak ) . Lapels curved and were less curved.  Wedding waistcoats were white or cream colored ; evening waistcoats were made of silk satin , velvet and cashmere .  By 1840 , breeches were limited to sportswear and ceremonial full dress and trouser were daily wear . OUTDOOR GARMENTS 1820 -1850  After 1820s , Spencer went out of fashion but many other garments were quite similar to those of the Empire and included :  Greatcoats : general term for overcoats  Box coats (curricle coat ) : large , loose greatcoats with one or more capes at the shoulder .  Paletot : a short greatcoat , either single or double breasted with a small flat collar and lapels ; had a waist seam .  Chesterfield : applied to either a single or double breasted closing ; had no waistline seam , a short vent in back , no side pleats , a velvet collar .  Macintosh : waterproof coat made of rubber and cut like a short , loose overcoat . HEAD AND HEADDRESS  More men wore their hair in loose curls or loosely waved ,short to moderate in length , cut short at the back .  Beards , beginning with a small fringe of whiskers , returned to fashion around 1825 , and grew to larger proportions .  Top hat was predominant headwear style for day and evening . Crown was a cylinder of varying height and shape with a slight outward curve at top . Brims were small , turned up at side .  Gibus hat , a collapsible top hat for evening was fitted with a spring so that hat could be folded flat , and carried under the arm .  Derby hats ( in United States ) or B bowlers ( in England ) began to be worn ; had stiff round , bowl shaped crowns with narrow brims . FOOTWEAR  Most stockings were knitted from worsted , cotton or silk .  Shoes had square toes and low heels .  Formal footwear was open over the instep and tied shut with a ribbon bow .  Boots were important for riding .  1st rubber soles for shoes were made about 1832 . By 1840s rubber overshoes , galoshes and elastic sided shoes were available .  Gaiters made of sturdy cloth and added to shoes for bad weather or for hunting were called spatter dashers or spats. ACCESSORIES  Most important were the gloves , usually made of doeskin or kid leather , of worsted wool , or of cotton for daytime ; silk for evening .  Men who took snuff ( a tobacco ) that was inhaled carried pocket handkerchiefs .  Canes and umbrellas were used for rainy weather . JEWELRY  Men wore little jewelry other than cravat pins, brooches worn on shirt fronts , watches , jeweled shirt buttons and studs and decorative gold watch chains and watches . COSTUME FOR CHILDREN  GIRLS  Dresses were like those of women but shorter, had low necklines , short sleeves  White , lace trimmed drawers or leg lets , a sort of half pantalette tied around leg were worn under dress  Hat , bonnet , or starched cap was worn outdoors  BOYS  Eton suit consisted of a short , single breasted jacket , ending at waist .  Tunic suit consisted of a jacket , fitted to the waist where it attached to a full , gathered or pleated skirt that ended at knee . FOOTWEAR  Both boys and girls wore ankle high boots .  Girls also wore slippers .  Both wore white cotton stockings .
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THE ROMANTIC PERIOD

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THE ROMANTIC PERIOD ( 1820 1850 ) INTRODUCTION  The term romantic applies to literature , music , graphic arts of 1820-1850 era  Emphasizes emotion , sentiment and feeling  Was against formal classical styles of 17th and 18th century  Concerned more with content , less with form; preferred to break rules  Romanticism was a rebellion against restrictions on artistic expressions  Declined after the revolution in France in 1848-1849 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Romantic movement was played out against following political background : ENGLAND  Prince Reagent became King George IV in 1820 , but scandals surrounding marital life made him unpopular  1st professional police force was created at Scotland Yard ; Roman Catholics were permitted to sit in parliament  William IV succeeded his brother in 1830 ; during his reign parliament enacted Reform Bill , redistributing seats in House of Commons and extended voting rights to more men  With death of William IV in 1837 , his niece Victoria became queen and ruled till 1901 FRANCE  After fall of Napoleon , Bourbon monarchy was restored from earlier monarchial periods  Louis XVIII , brother of Louis XVI became king , gave written constitution  Restoration of Bourbons along with the historicism of Romantic writers to the revival of styles from earlier monarchial periods and to an interest in costume balls  In 1824 Louis s brother succeeded him as Charles X ; he attempted to restore royal absolutism , led to revolution in July 1830 .  This revolution was led by journalists , republicans , unemployed working men , students : who were supporters of rebellious spirit of Romanticism THE UNITED STATES  By the mid 19th century , the cultivation of cotton dominated the economy of Southern States ; with cotton so important to the Southern economy slavery flourished .  By 1840 , almost half of the population in Louisiana , Alabama ,Mississippi were slaves .  The abolitionists tried to use moral suasion and political influence to end slavery ; did not favor the use of force to end slavery , their efforts in publicizing the evils of slavery helped to prepare Northerners for the terrible struggle that divided the country when Civil War came in 1861  In Monroe Doctrine of 1823 , United States gave notice to European powers that Western hemisphere was no longer open to colonization ; was becoming politically independent of Europe COSTUME FOR WOMEN  Period between 1820 -1825 was a period of transition between the Empire styles and the newer Romantic mode .  Change in the location of waistline took place.  By 1825 , waistline had moved downward from just under the bust to several inches above the anatomical location of waist .  By 1825 , along with change in waistline ; women s costume also developed large sleeves , which continued to grow larger , along with Gored skirts which were widening and becoming shorter . 1820 1835        GARMENTS Women s undergarments included chemises , drawers , stays and petticoats . Chemises were wide , about knee length , usually had short sleeves ; no change in drawers . Stays shortened and laced tightly to pull in the waist . Multiple layers of petticoats supported the wider skirts of dresses . Bustles , cotton filled pads tied around the waist at back , held out skirt in back . Dresses were classified as morning dresses , day dresses , walking or promenade dresses , carriage dresses , dinner dresses , evening or ball dresses . Morning dress was most informal , made of white cotton or fine linen with lace trimmings .  Day , promenade , carriage dresses are often indistinguishable from each other.  Daytime dresses with their lower waistlines , wide sleeves and full skirts fastened either in front or back .  In 1820s and 1830s , many bodices had V shaped revers extending from shoulder to waist in front and back .  Wide , capelike collars in matching colors or white work were popular .  Sleeves were exceptionally diverse ; were given many different names to the styles they showed ; i.e. MANCHERONS , MARIE SLEEVE , DEMI GIGOT , GIGOT , IMBECILE OR IDIOT SLEEVE .  Waistlines remained straight with buckled belts or sashes at the waist , until about 1833 after which V shaped points were used .  Skirt lengths changed gradually .  PELISSE ROBE : a daytime dress , was a sort of coat dress , close down the front with buttons , ribbon ties .  Fabrics included muslins , printed cottons , challis , merinos(wool) and batistes  Lowered necklines with square , round , elliptical or even off shoulders  Evening dresses were made of silk satins or softer gauges and organdy held out by full petticoats . ACCESSORY GARMENTS FOR DRESSES  Fillers i.e. chemisettes or tuckers raised the necklines of daytime dresses . Were separate from dress , could be worn with different bodices  Wide , capelike collars extended over the shoulders and down the bosom called pelerines , were popular .  Variant of pelerine ; fichu pelerine had two wide panels or lappets extending down the front of the dress and passes under the belt . HAIR AND HEADDRESS  Women parted their hair at the center front .  In 1820s , hair around the forehead and temples was arranged in tight curls and the back pulled into a knot , bun or ringlets .  After 1824 , elaborate loops or plaits were added .  The style called a la Chi noise was created by pulling back and side hair into a knot at the top of the head, while hair at forehead and temples was arranged in curls .  Day caps were worn indoors by adults , made of white cotton , linen or silk .  Hats were large brimmed with high , round crowns with decorations .  Bonnet styles that framed the face , tied under the chin ; one bonnet , the capote , had a soft fabric crown and a stiff brim . 1836 1850 DRESSES  Silhouette of dresses became more subdued  The change in sleeve shaping has been compared to a balloon that started to deflate  With fitting of sleeves , skirts lengthened  Bodices ended at waist , which was likely to come to a point at the front and to close with hooks or buttons down the front or back .  Dresses were one piece ; some were even two piece jacket and skirt styles .  One popular style gilet corsage , imitation of men s waistcoat .  Most sleeves were set low , off the shoulder after 1838 .  Famous ones are : bishop sleeve , sleeve en bouffant or en sabot , Victoria , under sleeves .  Fullness of the skirt was gathered into the waist .  Pockets were made separately , tied around the waists . HEAD AND HEADDRESS  Parted in the middle , hair was pulled smoothly to the temples where it was arranged in hanging sausage shaped curls or in plaits or with a loop of hair encircling the ear . At back , hair was pulled into a bun or chignon .  Adult women wore small white cotton or linen caps indoors .  Predominant hat shape was bonnet ; both utilitarian and decorative styles ; including the sunbonnet : to keep the sun from faces of women who worked outdoors .  Made of quilted cotton or linen with a bavolet or ruffle at the back .  Fashionable bonnet styles included drawn bonnets , capotes ( with soft crowns and rigid brims ) and even small bonnets that framed the face .  For evenings , hair decorations were preferred over hats . COSTUME COMPONENTS FOR WOMEN :1820-1850 OUTDOOR GARMENTS  Pelisse followed the general lines of dress and sleeve styles till mid 1830 , replaced by variety of shawls and mantles worn outdoors .  About 1836 , full length mantles predominated ; later shortened .  Evening styles were made luxurious with velvet or satin .  Fashion terminology for mantle proliferates , including : mantlet or shawl mantle , pelerine mantle , burnous , peletot , pardessus . FOOTWEAR  Stockings were knitted of cotton or silk or worsted wool .  For evening in 1830s and 1840s black silk stockings were fashionable  Slipper type shoes with square shaped toes with very small heels .  Black satin slippers predominated till 1840 ; when ribbon sandals and white satin evening boots appeared .  In cold weather women wore leather shoes or boots with cloth gaiters ( a covering for the upper part of the shoe and the ankle ) in colors matching that of the shoe .  Rubber galoshes or overshoes were introduced in the late 1840s . ACCESSORIES  Gloves were worn for both daytime and evenings  Daytime gloves were short and made of cotton , silk . Evening gloves were long until later 1830s , after which they were shortened.  Gloves , cut to cover the palm and back of the hand but not the fingers , were called mittens or mitts .  Hand carried accessories included reticules , handbags , purses , fans , muffs and parasols . JEWELRY  In 1820s and 1830s women wore gold chains with lockets , scent bottles or crosses attached  Chatelaines were ornamental chains worn at the waist from which were suspended useful items , i.e. scissors , penknives .  Other items were brooches , bracelets , armlets , and drop earrings . COSMETICS AND GROOMING  rice powder was used to achieve a pale and wan appearance , but obvious rouge or other kinds of face paint were not considered proper COSTUME FOR MEN 1820 - 1840  No major changes took place in the kinds of undergarments being worn .  Use of corsets and padding to achieve fashionable silhouette .  Shirts were cut with deep collars , long enough to fold over a cravat or neck cloth wrapped around the neck .  Daytime shirts had tucked insets at the front, insets for evening shirts were frilled .  Sleeves were cuffed , closing with buttons or studs .  With these men either wore stocks ( wide , shaped neckpieces fastening at the back that were often black) or cravats .  Coats , waistcoat and trousers were components of a suit. Tail coats and frock coats were the most common types of coats .  Waistcoats were sleeveless and had either straight, standing collars or small , rolled collars without a notch between the collar and lapel. Both single and double breasted waistcoats were worn .  It was fashionable to use a different color , or at least a different shade of same color for each part of costume . 1840 -1850  Components of suit underwent some changes.  Coat styles were either Tail coat or frock coat styles ; single or double breasted .  Collars were cut high behind the neck with the rolled collar joined to a lapel to form either a V shaped or M shaped notch .  Gathering and padding in the sleeves disappeared .  New coat styles include the new market , which differed from the tail coat in that the coat sloped to the back from above the waist rather than having a squared , open area at the front .  Waistcoats lengthened at the front and developed a point (Hussar front or beak ) . Lapels curved and were less curved.  Wedding waistcoats were white or cream colored ; evening waistcoats were made of silk satin , velvet and cashmere .  By 1840 , breeches were limited to sportswear and ceremonial full dress and trouser were daily wear . OUTDOOR GARMENTS 1820 -1850  After 1820s , Spencer went out of fashion but many other garments were quite similar to those of the Empire and included :  Greatcoats : general term for overcoats  Box coats (curricle coat ) : large , loose greatcoats with one or more capes at the shoulder .  Paletot : a short greatcoat , either single or double breasted with a small flat collar and lapels ; had a waist seam .  Chesterfield : applied to either a single or double breasted closing ; had no waistline seam , a short vent in back , no side pleats , a velvet collar .  Macintosh : waterproof coat made of rubber and cut like a short , loose overcoat . HEAD AND HEADDRESS  More men wore their hair in loose curls or loosely waved ,short to moderate in length , cut short at the back .  Beards , beginning with a small fringe of whiskers , returned to fashion around 1825 , and grew to larger proportions .  Top hat was predominant headwear style for day and evening . Crown was a cylinder of varying height and shape with a slight outward curve at top . Brims were small , turned up at side .  Gibus hat , a collapsible top hat for evening was fitted with a spring so that hat could be folded flat , and carried under the arm .  Derby hats ( in United States ) or B bowlers ( in England ) began to be worn ; had stiff round , bowl shaped crowns with narrow brims . FOOTWEAR  Most stockings were knitted from worsted , cotton or silk .  Shoes had square toes and low heels .  Formal footwear was open over the instep and tied shut with a ribbon bow .  Boots were important for riding .  1st rubber soles for shoes were made about 1832 . By 1840s rubber overshoes , galoshes and elastic sided shoes were available .  Gaiters made of sturdy cloth and added to shoes for bad weather or for hunting were called spatter dashers or spats. ACCESSORIES  Most important were the gloves , usually made of doeskin or kid leather , of worsted wool , or of cotton for daytime ; silk for evening .  Men who took snuff ( a tobacco ) that was inhaled carried pocket handkerchiefs .  Canes and umbrellas were used for rainy weather . JEWELRY  Men wore little jewelry other than cravat pins, brooches worn on shirt fronts , watches , jeweled shirt buttons and studs and decorative gold watch chains and watches . COSTUME FOR CHILDREN  GIRLS  Dresses were like those of women but shorter, had low necklines , short sleeves  White , lace trimmed drawers or leg lets , a sort of half pantalette tied around leg were worn under dress  Hat , bonnet , or starched cap was worn outdoors  BOYS  Eton suit consisted of a short , single breasted jacket , ending at waist .  Tunic suit consisted of a jacket , fitted to the waist where it attached to a full , gathered or pleated skirt that ended at knee . FOOTWEAR  Both boys and girls wore ankle high boots .  Girls also wore slippers .  Both wore white cotton stockings .
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