What is procrastination? Why do you procrastinate?Benefits/pros of procrastination?Cons of procrastination?Does procrastination = laziness? Personal distracters?
What it isCommonA habitManageable
What it isntPersonal deficit(Simply) putting things offWhen it isntPersonal style (if it works)Taking time (for needs/ reflection, etc.)
The PerfectionistHesitant to start or finish a project unless confident of doing it perfectly.The DreamerHas great ideas but doesnt want to do the work to fulfill them.The WorrierPreoccupied with security and minimizing risk, avoids challenges or significant change.The DefierEager to rebel or be different, reacts against others rather than determining own course.The Crisis-MakerWaits to the last minute then needs adrenaline boost to barely make deadlinesThe OverdoerTakes on too many tasks to get them all done reasonably on time.
Source: Sapadin, L., & Maguire, J. (1996). Its about time: The six styles of procrastination and how to overcome them. New York: Penguin Books.
The Procrastination ProcessThoughts/CognitionsEmotions/FeelingsActions/Behaviors
Motivation, Ambivalence, & Human Nature
Mood & Other Issues
If the work gets hard, its not worth doing.
Im so bright that I shouldnt have to work hard.
If I dont try to be perfect, I will be a total failure.
If I try hard, I may still not do well, so its not worth the risk.
My grades determine my worth as a person.
I only do good work when Im in the right mood to study, so Ill wait to start until the mood hits.
I wont start until I know exactly how to do the whole assignment.
Fear ofFailureSuccessLosing a battleTaking risksLost feelings of controlOut of your comfort zoneReactions to authority
As a coping strategyAvoiding feelings of inadequacy
2-8 / 8-2 principle (expansion/contraction of time) If you have 2 hours it will take 2, if you have 8 then it will take 8so make 8 hours get done in 2 to save time by giving yourself a deadline.Action & reward (which one comes first)(Overly) ambitious goalsLow frustration toleranceBehaviors continue until costs outweigh rewards
Time managementSet deadlinesDefine goalsBreak goals down into tasksSet priorities Create deadlinesAppointments/MeetingsTakes advantage of 2-8/8-2Contract with others10-minute ruleUse organization toolsNote cardsPost-It notesPDAsIncrease resourcesUse consultationDecrease demandsSet realistic goals/reward yourself for completionSet limits with others (assertiveness)
Confront human natureFirst things firstDo before you reward yourselfBe flexiblePractice self-careTake care of your body: exercise, sleep, dietMake your needs a priority once in a while
Stress ManagementBreathe Breathe BreatheChallenge beliefs that may no longer be effective for managing emotionsAll-or-nothing
Build self-efficacyTake risksExplore new opportunitiesEmbrace inadequacyConsultationSocial supports/outletsIf you avoid anything, avoid keeping struggles to yourself
Value the journey/processOutcome is not always the most important measure of ones effortFailure is often a better teacherLook for hidden outcomes/benefitsUn-link doing from beingAvoid determining your value/worth of self based upon what you doWork with your styleIf youre an apple, dont strive to be a pear
Effective self-talkMaintain a positive (realistic attitude)Bad days happen theyre just daysThis too will pass back on track tomorrowProgress, not perfectionDoing something is better than doing nothingClarify purpose & motivationAsk the why questions in your lifeMake a bedtime list: what to look forward toRemind yourself of who you are ValuesInterestsNeedsBeliefsPassions
Give yourself credit for what does get done (however small it may be)Dont hold your breath til the end (when giving credit)Celebrate the mini-goalsUse affirmation give yourself credit for what youre putting into the process
Make your intentions public.Plan with other people!Work together and keep each other on track.Work parallel to someone else.