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Muslim Rajputs Ahmed Rubbie Jamshad Mahnoor Asif Wajiha Samreen Qurat ul ain Khalid Anum Fatima Alishae Khar Ali Atta BSC 3 Section B The Lahore School of Economics Sociology Dr.Anees Alam June 2011 [Muslim Rajputs] Table of Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. XVII. History««««««««««««««««««««««.3 Conversion to Islam«««««««««««««««««.4 During the British raj««««««««««««««««...6 Beliefs and customs«««««««««««««««««.7 Titles«««««««««««««««««««««««8 Martial Traditions«««««««««««««««««..10 Demographics«««««««««««««««««««12 Prominent Rajputs«««««««««««««««««.14 Chib««««««««««««««««««««««...16 Janjua««««««««««««««««««««««.20 Bhatti««««««««««««««««««««««.24 Meo«««««««««««««««««««««««27 Minhas«««««««««««««««««««««...30 Khokar«««««««««««««««««««««...33 Khanzada««««««««««««««««««««...36 Conclusion««««««««««««««««««««.40 References««««««««««««««««««««.41 [Sociology] Page 2 [Muslim Rajputs] History Muslim Rajputs are Muslims belonging to the Hindu Rajput Kshatriya[1] (warrior) groups of Indian subcontinent, who (or whose ancestors) converted to Islam.[2] The term Rajput is traditionally applied to the original Suryavanshi, Chandravanshi and Agnivanshi clans, the ancient Hindu ruling dynasties of South Asia. Among Yaduvanshi Ahirs who were converted as Muslims are known as Ranghar or Muslim Rajput.[3][4][5] The history of the Muslim Rajput coincides with the Muslim conquest of South Asia. The Rajputs started converting to Islam due to various reasons beginning with the conquest of Indus Valley from Multan to Debal by Muhammad bin Qasim of Umayyad Caliphate from Taif(now in Saudi Arabia) in 711 AD. At the time of arrival of Islam, the north and western regions of South Asia were ruled by Rajput clans. The Rajputs and Muslim armies fought many battles for the control of South Asia. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni conquered the regal power of Rajput Maharaja JayapalaShahi of the North Western South Asian(modern day Pakistan) region by 1026, through successive battles. Towards the end of the 12th century the Persian Shahbudin Muhammad of Ghor conquered Delhi after defeating last defense of the Rajputs in the second battle of Tarain 1192 , by Maharaja Prithvi Raj Chauhan. Later his successor in India Qutb-ud-din Aibak established the Delhi Sultanate in 1206. In 1527, the Muslim Janjua Rajput clan aided the Mughal conquest of South Asia by taking part in the Imperial Mughal armies as Generals.[6] Hindu Rajputs also took part in these conquests as allies and even took part in marriages with the Mughals such as Raja Man Singh of the Kachhwaha clan, who aided Emperor Akbar in 1568 against the Sesodias. The Mughal princes and emperors had maternal Rajput blood. Emperor Bahadur Shah I's mother was a Muslim Rajput Nawab Bai Begum Sahiba (second wife of Emperor Aurangzeb) being the daughter of Raja Taj-ud-Din Jarral (Raja Chatar Shena Jarral) the late Raja of Rajauri, in Kashmir. Emperor Jahangir's mother was a Kachhwaha Rajput princess, the daughter of Raja Bharmal and the aunt of Raja Man Singh. [Sociology] Page 3 [Muslim Rajputs] Conversion to Islam Many Rajput clans were converted to Islam during the early 12th century and were given the title of Shaikh (elder of the tribe) by the Arab or Mirza by the Mughal rulers. Rajputs converted to Islam due to many reasons including physical or economic duress,[9] pragmatism and patronage such as social mobility among the Muslim ruling elite or for relief from Jazia taxes for being a non-muslim ( Dhimmi ),as a result of the actions of Sufi "saints" and involving a "genuine change of heart",conversions of "lower" castes for "social liberation" and as a rejection of the "oppressive" existent caste structures.,[8] as a socio-cultural process of diffusion and integration over an extended period of time into the sphere of the dominant Muslim civilization and global polity at large whereas some conversions also took place for political reasons. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughaldynasty encouraged the martial [{Malik Rajput}] clans to convert to Islam. Conversions to Islam continued into the 19th century period of the British Raj. ³ The fact of subsequent conversion to other faiths, did not deprive them of this heritage; just as the Greeks, after their conversion to Christianity, did not lose pride in the mighty achievements of their ancestors, of the Italians in the great days of the Roman Republic and early empire... Christians, Jews, Parsees, Moslems. Indian converts to these religions never ceased to be Indian on account of a change of their faith.... ²From The Discovery of India by Jawaharlal Nehru[9] ´ Nehru also mentioned his own personal experience with Muslim Malik Rajputs as he grew up, "I grew to know; the Malik Rajput peasant and petty landholder, still proud of his race and ancestry, even though he might have changed his faith and adopted Islam." More importantly he bears testament to the fact that despite his change of faith, a Rajput is still a Rajput.[10] ³ The Muslim conquests undoubtedly accelerated this change of religion, but the preaching of several renowned Muslim saints, especially Baba Farid of Pakpattan, whose eloquence drew large numbers to hear him, helped considerably to this end... ²From Punjabi Musalmans by J.M.Wikeley[11] ´ [Sociology] Page 4 [Muslim Rajputs] Jawaharlal Nehru made mention of Islam's mass appeal, "...The impact of the invaders of the north-west and Islam on India had been considerable. It pointed out and shown up the abuses that had crept up into Hindu society-the petrifaction of caste, untouchability, exclusiveness carried to fantastic lengths. The idea of brotherhood of Islam and of the theoretical equality of its adherents made a powerful appeal, especially those of the Hindu fold who were denied any semblance of equal treatment..."[12] He further stated the conversions of Hindu upper castes to Islam, "Some individuals belonging to the higher castes also adopted the new faith, because for political economic reasons because of personal devotion... though all their social structure was based on the group (caste/social class), in matters of religion they were highly individualistic.... It is worth noting as a rule, conversions to Islam were group conversions to protect their entire race...Among the upper castes individuals may change their religion...almost an entire village would convert... group life as well as well as their functions continued as before with only minor variations with regards worship etc."[13] Rajput of the Punjab Hill States and Kashmir History of the Punjab Tribes by J. Hutchinson and J.P.Vogel lists a total of 22 states (16 Hindu and 6 Muslim) that formed the State of Jammu following the conquest of Kashmir by Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1820. Of these 6 Muslim states, two (Kotli and Punch) were ruled by Mangrals, two (Bhimber and Khari-Khariyala) were ruled by Chibs one (Rajouri) was ruled by the Jarrals and one (Khashtwar) was ruled by the Khashtwaria. Of these 22 states, 21 formed a pact with Ranjit Singh and formed the State of Jammu. Only Poonch ruled by the Mangrals retained a state of semi-autonomy. Following the War of 1947 Poonch was divided and is now split between Pakistan Administered Kashmir Poonch District (AJK) and Indian Administered Kashmir Poonch.[14] As stated in History of the Punjab Hill States by J.Hutchinson and J.P. Vogel; "Kotli was founded about the fifteenth century by a branch of the royal family of Kashmir.Kotli and Punch remained independent until subdued by Ranjit Singh in 1815 and 1819 respectively." [Sociology] Page 5 [Muslim Rajputs] British Raj references of Muslim Rajputs According to many British Historians like Edward Balfour and Sir Denzil Ibbetson Yaduvanshi Ahirs of Punjab {now Haryana} who were converted as Muslims are Known as Rangar or Muslim Rajputs. A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province based on the census report for the Punjab, 1883 written by Sir Denzil Ibbetson has reference to the Mangral Rajput. Under Western Rajputs, he writes that "The third Group is the Rajpoots of the western hills including the Salt Range Tract, comprising both dominant tribes of proud position such as Janjua and Mongrel Rajpoots from the Jammu hills" [15] During the British era, the English quickly recognized the martial spirit of the Muslim Rajput and conferred great respect on their prominent clans and also documented their presence in the British army, praising their Martial traditions and abilities. In 1922 there is a mention of Muslim Rajputs having their own regiments as well as taking part in other famous regiments; y y y y y y 18th Musalman Rajput regiment Punjabi Musalmans 35th Scinde Horse 36th Jacob's Horse 17th Musalman Rajput regiment of Wana, Bengal Army Mauritius 18th Muslim Rajput regiment The Jhelum District Gazetteer[16] states clearly the esteem of the Muslim Rajput tribes of Janjua and Tiwana; ³ "the recruiting ground par excellence for Punjábi Musalmáns...The Janjúas of the Salt Range are considered second to none in martial spirit and tradition, and with the Tiwánás form the élite of the Punjábi Musalmáns ´ [Sociology] Page 6 [Muslim Rajputs] Beliefs and customs Change of name A custom during Rajput conversions was to adopt a new name to reflect their change of faith. Many Rajput kings changed their names, but also retained their ancestral/lineal titles such as tribal Clan names. This sense of identity has never been lost and Islam did in fact support and recognize "tribal identity". Marriages Hindu Rajput code dictates that Rajputs can only marry amongst other Rajputs. However, tradition of marriages into only one group or clan because of caste reasons is not permitted in Islam. This led to a great change in the traditional Rajput marital policy. Muslim Rajputs therefore started to marry from other dominant aristocratic Muslim clans. This was to continue the tradition of royal or strategic marriages without prejudice to Rajput affiliation. This was further realized when some major Rajput clans of Punjab intermarried into other clans of foreign descent. However, Mostly Muslim Rajputs still follow the custom of only marrying into other Muslim Rajput clans only. Being recent converts to Islam from a culturally Rajput background, there was very little difference between Rajasthani and Uttar Pradeshi Hindu and Muslim Rajputs (outside of religious practices).[17] Hence up until recently, marriages between Muslim and Hindu Rajputs also took place.[18] Genealogical family trees This is a strong tradition that exists amongst the most distinguished of Rajputs of all faiths, the recording of family names and continuance of the family tree. Muslim Rajputs of prominence hold and continue to record their genealogical trees since their Hindu past even after their conversion to Islam, to the present day. The less distinguished Rajputs or claimants of Rajput heritage will more than likely not have ancestral records of family lineage. [Sociology] Page 7 [Muslim Rajputs] Titles Majority of Muslim Rajputs use their ancient Royal titles such as Raja, Rana, Rao and Rai. All these titles originated from the ancient Sanskrit word Rajanya. Many Muslim Rajputs were also conferred titles by the Delhi Sultans and the MughalEmperors such as Sultan (king), Malik (Royal, King), Nawab ( Provincial Governor), Sardar (Chief), Khan, Mian and Mirza (Royal prince), Sheikh (elder,Royal, King of the tribe), after embracing Islam. y Raja: It was not uncommon for such titles to continue down the line of descent. Although the majority of Muslim Rajputs use Raja as their ancestral title. y Rana: Rana is a princely title of Royalty means The King of Kings or A Great King. Muslim Rajputs in Pakistani Punjab mainly in Lahore, Sheikhupura, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Sialkot use the title of Rana. y Rao: The majority of Raos in Pakistan are Muslim Punwar (Pawar) Rajputs. Raos can be found all across Pakistan and are found in large numbers in the Punjab Province. Raos are the brave people of the country as the majority of Raos are in Army forces of Pakistan. y Rai: Rai was a title of honor for certain Bhatti Rajput rulers, like Rai Khala, the ruler of Raikot State-Ludhiana 1705 AD and Rai Bular ruler of Nankana The title today is found mostly in the Pakistani province of Punjab. y Chaudhary: is used by landowning ethnic group and tribes, mainly by Rajputs and Jats. Traditionally, the term is used as a title indicating the ownership of ancestral land, but in contemporary usage it is often taken as a surname or title. The spelling of the word varies in different areas. In some cases it may also mean "power". y Kunwar: (pronounced Koo-war)Many Hindu Rajput Clans use the title of Kunwar with their names. The variation of the pronounced word, Kanwar is also used by Muslim Janjuas also. Kanwar Muhammad Dilshad being the Secretary of the Election Commission of Pakistan. [Sociology] Page 8 [Muslim Rajputs] y Khan: Khan or Khaan. the title of Khaan. It is also spelled as Khaan. Khaan is considered as true spellings because it is in Urdu. Khaan means the royal blood or Prince Equal to Rajput. so, originally it is Khaan. almost all Muslim Rajputs use the title of Khaan or Khan instead of Singh Title. y Sardar: This title is manily used by the Sikh Minhas Rajputs. However, lately some Muslim Minhas Rajput clans in Azad Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab Sialkot&Chakwal have also started using this title due to various reasons. y Sultan: The Janjua Rajputs of Jhelum were bestowed the title of Sultan, currently still used and recognised in Kusuk, Watli and the Sultan of Makhiala. It was bestowed upon the Houses of Watli and Makhiala by Emperor Babur is only used by the one head man of each Dynasty respectively.[19] The current Sultan of Watli Fort and riyasat of Watli being Raja Sultan Azmat Hayat Janjua. y Nawab: The title Nawab was conferred on the ruler of the Darapur State, Malik Talib Mehdi Khan. His current descendants use the title as Nawabzada since the abolition of Princely States in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Current chief of the famed Darapur Dynasty being, Nawabzada Iqbal Mehdi Khan. y Mirza: Some also adopted the Persian title of Mirza instead of Rajput to distinguish their Muslim identity from their previous Hindu one as it is a Persian word meaning prince of the blood, the equivalent of Raj-putra. Although the Rajputs of the Jarral dynasty were ordained as Mirza's after their intermarriage with the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir. That lineage today resides in Saman Burj, Wazirabad and some continue to use Mirza as prefix but the majority descendents of Jarral Rajputs continue to use Raja as recognised by the Queen. y Malik: The title Malik (meaning king) is used by a branch of the Jhelum Jodh branch of Janjua. Malik Darwesh Khan and Malik Hast (Asad) were known by these titles. Janjuas of Shadia Dist Mianwali are also referred to as Malik. (They are in dominance in Shadia and have the following sub clans; Mulkai Khel, Pattu Khel, Aziz Khel, Longi, Musi, Shah Mir Khel, Janu Khel, Ahmed Khel, Shah-wali Khel, Mehrwan Khel, Zaid Khel, [Sociology] Page 9 [Muslim Rajputs] Malu Khel and Sikandri Janjuais also used by Khokhars and Khokhran, and refers to chiefs. y Mian: This title was conferred upon the 'Punjab Hill Chiefs' by the Mughal King, Jhangir and was used by most of the Rajput tribes in the Punjab Hills for many centuries. The elder brother was called Raja, whereas his younger brothers were called Mian. Lately, the Rajputs have decided to use 'Thakur' instead of this Mughal title. y Jam: Some Muslim Rajputs use the title of honor Jam/Jaam. Jam is considered as true spellings but pronounced as Jaam . Jam means having the royal competency or Prince Equal to Rajput and almost all Muslim Rajputs use the title of Jam to call someone honorably. Martial traditions The Royal Graveyard of Sultans of SindhSamma Rajputs at Makli. The Punjabi Rajputs has a long martial tradition which has continued into modern times. Punjabi Rajputs, being recognised in history as the warrior aristocracy, prior to this they were designated by the British Empire as a Martial Race and recruited into the Imperial Army. Muslim Rajputs naturally engaged in the Pakistani military in strong numbers, reaching ranks of Generals and the highest grade of Chief of Staff such as 7th Chief of Army Staff General Tikka Khan and the 10th Chief of Army Staff General Asif Nawaz Khan Janjua. Some of the most respected officers of the Pakistan Army including its first General, PA 1, Muhammed Akbar Khan (Order of the British Empire), PA 2 General Muhammad Iftikhar Khan(designated to become the first C-in-C, but died in an aircrash), PA 12 Brig.General [Sociology] Page 10 [Muslim Rajputs] Muhammed Zafar(first Indian to become Commander of Cavalary) and PA 48 General Muhammad Anwar Khan all hail from this clan. General Anwar is considered the father of Pakistan's Corps of Engineers, and also served as Chairman OGDC. Top military awards Daily Mirror Khudadad Khan was awarded Victoria Cross, the first native Indian to receive this honour Members of Punjabi Rajput tribes have the honour of receiving top military awards both in British India and in Pakistan. Khudadad Khan VC (20 October 1888 ± 8 March 1971) was the first Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest military award for gallantry in the face of the enemy given to British and Commonwealth forces. He was the first native-born Indian to win the Victoria Cross. Victoria Cross On 31 October 1914, at Hollebeke, Belgium, 26-year old Khan performed an act of bravery for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross during the First World War. y Khudadad Khan [Sociology] Page 11 [Muslim Rajputs] Hilal-e-Kashmir Hilal-e-Kashmir is equal to Nishan-e-Haider. Saif Ali Janjua Shaheed received Hilal-e-Kashmir. He fought and was killed in the Kashmir sector during the 1948 War. Nishan-e-Haider Five Rajputs was awarded Pakistan's top military honour, the Nishan-E-Haider . y y y y y Muhammad Sarwar Shaheed Bhatti Sawar Muhammad Hussain Shaheed Janjua Major Raja Aziz Bhatti Shaheed Rashid Minhas Shaheed Major Shabbir Sharif Shaheed Nishan-e-Haider Demographics The 1931 census of British India was the last to record caste affiliation in a manner that provides reliable information on Rajput demographics. Any present-day estimates are therefore speculative; they also vary widely. The 1931 census reported a total of 10.7 million people self-describing as Rajput. Of this population, about 8.6 million people also self-described as being Hindu, about 2.1 million as being Muslim Rajput and about 50,000 as being Sikh Rajput by religion. Distribution The Joshua Project reported that 16,561,000 Pakistani's describing as Muslim Rajputs about 10% of the total population of Pakistan. Largest Provinces on file the Punjab (8,969,000), the Sindh (4,720,000), the Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (643,000), the Islamabad (223,000), the North-West Frontier Province (174,000), the Balochistan (37,000). Major languages spoken by the Muslim Rajputs of Pakistan: Punjabi, Western (7,459,000 speakers), Sindhi (2,671,000), Seraiki (1,592,000), Urdu (1,458,000). [Sociology] Page 12 [Muslim Rajputs] As well as Pakistan Joshua Project also reported that 2,310,000 of Indian describing as Muslim Rajputs. Largest States on file the Uttar Pradesh (1,528,000), the Jammu and Kashmir (176,000), the Haryana (161,000), the Rajasthan (91,000), the Delhi (68,000), the Uttarakhand (65,000), the Gujarat (57,000), the Punjab (28,000), the Maharashtra (28,000), the Andhra Pradesh (17,000). Major Languages Spoken by the Muslim Rajputs of India.Urdu (1,725,000 Speakers), Kashmiri (73,000), Panjabi, Eastern (72,000), Marwari (63,000), Gujarati (39,000). After independence of Pakistan in 1947, nearly all Muslim Rajputs of East Punjab, Haryana and other parts of northern India migrated and settled in Pakistan. [Sociology] Page 13 [Muslim Rajputs] Prominent Muslim Rajputs Historical figures y y y y y y y y y y Shibli Nomani- Muslim religious scholar from Azamgarh India. Muhammad Ali Jinnah- Founder of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan Fatima Jinnah - Sister of Jinnah and "Mother of Pakistan" Nawab Qaim Khan - Ameer of the Delhi Sultanate and The Chief of Qaimkhani tribe. Malik Feroz Khan Noon - Former Prime Minister of Pakistan Rai Bhoe Bhatti - Founder of Nankana Sahib. Chaudhry Chaku Khan - founder of Chakwal and the chief of Mair Minhas tribe Muhammed Akbar Khan - The first Muslim to become a General in British Indian Army. Iftikhar Khan - the first local Commander in Chief of the Pakistan Army Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana, Prime Minister of the Punjab province, 1942±47. Pakistani politicians y y y y y y y y Muhammad Khan Junejo- Former Prime Minister of Pakistan Manzoor Wattoo- Former Chief Minister of Punjab Rana Sanaullah Khan - Minister for law in punjab Pakistan Mian Mumtaz Daultana - Former Chief Minister of Punjab Raja Pervaiz Ashraf- Former Minister for Water and Power of Pakistan. Rao Sikandar Iqbal- FormerDefense Minister of Pakistan Nisar Ali Khan - Current opposition leader in the National Assembly Rana Muhammad Iqbal Khan- Speaker Punjab Assembly -2008 Chief Justice y Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry 20th Chief Justice of Pakistan, Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry was born on 12 December 1948 (age 61) in Queeta, Pakistan. Chaudhry belongs to the Ghorewaha clan of Muslim Rajputs. [Sociology] Page 14 [Muslim Rajputs] Armed forces Pakistan Army y y y General Tikka Khan former Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army General Asif NawazJanjua, former Chief Of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army General Muhammad Yusaf KhanKaimkhani, former Vice Chief Of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army Pakistan Air Force y Air Chief Marshal Rao Qamar Suleman, current Chief of Air Staff of the Pakistan Air Force y y Rashid Minhas Air Chief Marshal Kaleem Saadat, previous Chief of Air Staff of the Pakistan Air Force Cricket y y y y y Wasim Raja Rameez Raja Rana Naved-ul-Hasan Rao Iftikhar Anjum Saqlain Mushtaq Arts y Inayat Hussain Bhatti (1928±1999) Multidimensional icon of Pakistan. His body of work includes contributions as a singer, actor, producer, director, script writer, social worker, columnist, religious scholar and a protagonist of the development of Punjabi language and literature. [Sociology] Page 15 [Muslim Rajputs] Prominent Clans of the Rajput Chib Rajputs, are a Chandravanshi Rajput clan found in the northern parts of India and Pakistan. They are a kashmiri and punjabi tribe found in both India and Pakistan. The majority of Chib Rajput have converted to Islam and are therefore are Muslims, while a lot still remained Hindus and a very few are Sikhs as well. After independence in 1947, nearly all Muslim Chib migrated to Pakistan while Hindu Chib moved to India. A Chib Rajput is considered a person from a very fine cast or tribe. The ancestry of the Chib Rajput can be found in the Kangra region of India. The last Thakial Maharaja of the State was Siripat. It was at this time that Partab Chand, a prince of Kangra started his journey from Kangra to Bhimber. When he reached the hill tops near Bhimber, Partab Chand observed that it was very difficult to capture the state. He set a camp there and named this hilltop as Kangra and the village still exists by the same name even today. Partab Chand stayed for a long time with his troops on the hilltop waiting for a suitable opportunity to attack and capture the state but this did not arise as he had run short of supplies for his men. Partab Chand sent his soldiers in disguise with his own jewellery to go down to the markets of Bhimber to get the much needed supplies. His men went to a Jeweller who was astonished when he saw the royal jewels. The Maharaja of Bhimber, Siripat Thakial learned about the men with the royal Jewels and found out about the deployment of the Kangra troops on hill top. He sent his ambassador to Partab Chand which resulted a friendly meeting between the Partab Chand and the Maharaja of Bhimber. Maharaja Siripat Thakial had no sons but had a daughter. He married the princess with the oldest son of Partab Chand, the Raj Kumar Chib Chand. On the death of Maharaja Siripat, the Raj Kumar Chib Chand became the Maharaja of Bhimber. Raja Dharam Chand was the seventh Raja of the Chib Chand line. At present on dated 27 March of every year Hindu chibs of jammu and kashmir region celebrate the birth of maharaja Dharam Chand at the placed called Nud ka Khu appx. 35-40 kilometer from jammu toward Akhnoor. At that place a temple in name of maharaja Dharam Chand and Rani is set up (on occasion of the day is called mael )and He converted to Islam and was named as Raja Shadab Khan of Bhimber. He was killed by Ibrahim Lodhi and his [Sociology] Page 16 [Muslim Rajputs] tomb still exists on the hills of Bhimber by the name of Hazrat Sheikh Baba Shadi Shaheed (Rehmat-Ulla-Alae). Therefore the current Chib clan can claim its ancestry from the union of the Royal Thakial Princess (Rani) and the royal Raj Kumar Chib Chand.[20] The first Chibh to become a Muslim was one Sur Sadi of the time of Aurangzeb. He died a violent death and is still venerated as a martyr, and the Mahomedan Chibh offer the scalp locks of their male children at his tomb, till which ceremony the child is not considered a true Chibh, nor is the mother allowed to eat meat. This ritual is against Islam, but like many other in the region the culture have some hindu rituals left. Sur Sadi's (or Shadi Khan's) Hindu name was Dharam Chand. He was famed for his skill in medicine and was summoned to Delhi to attend the Emperor Jehangir. He was successful in effecting a cure and received a daughter of the Emperor in marriage, became a Muslim and changed his name to Shadi Khan. He deserted his bride and fled home, and was eventually killed in an invasion of his country by the Moghals.[21] After the advent of Islam into the Punjab a section of Chibs were converted to Islam . The Gujrat District Gazetteer of 1921 contains much information on the Chibs. It states the Hindu Chibs were a bandit tribe and its main objective was to levy blackmail from peaceful farming communities. The Chibs would raid villages and kill and rob innocent people until Chaudhry Yar Muhammad from the Pabbi range declared war against them. It is recorded in the Gujrat District Gazetteer that the Chaudhry made a village rest house chabootra(terrace) from the skulls of Chibs. Most of the Chibs were Hindus living in villages of Deva and Battala.[22] The Muslim Chibs helped the English during the mutiny against British rule in the Jhelum Cantonment which had rebelled. When the mutineers were half way across the Jhelum river on an island, the Chibs and the British gave them battle and defeated the mutineers. The Chibs for their service to the British received the honorary title of 'Raja' and the area nearing Jhelum river crossing was given as jageer for their loyal service. A lot of Pakistani Chib Rajputs have done service in the Pakistani army since the country got its independance in 1947. The Muslim Chib Rajputs abilities in war were also used by the british [Sociology] Page 17 [Muslim Rajputs] rule of India. Prakash Singh Chib Rajput was the first Indian soldier to be awarded the Victoria Cross During World War II. There is a concentration of Chib villages in Bhimber District in Pakistani Kashmir, in Kotli, Azad Kashmir, Khoi Ratta, Segyum and Supplah. They claim descent from Raja Shadab Khan also known as Hazrat Sheikh Baba Shadi Shaheed (Rehmat-Ulla-Alae). There are also several Chib Rajput areas in the most northern part of Punjab, just before the hills to Kashmir, like Kharian in Gujrat District and the Pabbi Hill region of Jhelum District. In India, the Chib Rajputs are concentrated in the Jammu region of Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir, especially Jammu District. Though Muslim and Hindu Rajputs are considered the warriors of the region alongside the Jatts the Chib Rajput also were focused towards Sufism, which is considered among some, another and more spirutual way to practice Islam. You are able to find some few sikh Chib Rajputs, like at the village of Lasara in distt Jalandhar in India Punjab. Prominent Chibs; Raja Allahdad Khan High ranking noble and Land Lord of Lehri Jagir. Jagirdar, and grandson of the last ruler of the Princely state of Khari Kharyali and Bhimber, he was the descendant of Raja Umar Khan. He was the Last holder of the Ramkot Fort at Mangla. He reestablished his Jagir with the intervention of the Maharaja of Kashmir and he was awarded the title of Grand Jagirdar of the state of Jammu and Kashmir with a seat in the Royal court. Raja Habib ur Rahman Khan, (late) (Panjeri) In recognition of his contribution to the freedom struggle the Azad Jammu and Kashmir Government, awarded Raja Habib ur Rahman Khan the following honours: Fateh-e-Bhimber (Liberator of Bhimber). Fakhr-e-Kashmir Ghazi-e-Kashmir The Raja Habib ur Rahman Khan degree college of Bhimber is named after him. [Sociology] Page 18 [Muslim Rajputs] Government of Pakistan awarded him the Civil and Military honors Sitara-e-Pakistan Nishan-eImtiaz(Military), Tamgha-e-Imtiaz Tamgha-i-Khidmat [Sociology] Page 19 [Muslim Rajputs] The Janjua (also spelt Janjooa, Janjuha, Janjuah) is a Rajput royal warrior clan of South Asia. They have been referred to as the most Valiant Warriors of Punjab.[23] Their warlike nature and dominant rule of their kingdoms against other tribes earned them a powerful reputation in Western Punjab, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and the Valley of Kashmir.[24] The Mughal Emperor Jalaludin Mohammed Akbar's record keeper Abu Fazl celebrated the Janjua Rajput as among the most renowned Rajputs of South Asia.[25] The Janjua Rajput were later referred to by researcher Christopher Birdwood as among "the hardest breed in the Continent."[26] They have a recorded history that spans centuries through famous Maharajas, Rajas, Emperors, Sultans, Nawabs and Princes since the Vedic age to the modern era. They were among the earliest R jput to convert to Islam. Rebelling against the Delhi Sultanate in the early 13th and 16th century, the Janjua princes aided the Mughal conqueror Babur in his conquest of India. They served as generals in the Imperial Mughal Army and have played a major part in Punjabi history through the battles, rebellions and alliance. Under the British Raj of India, they were designated as a "Martial Race"[27] and provided strong numbers to the British Indian Army and fought in both World Wars. The Janjua Rajputs have a distinctly rebellious reputation against authority[28] remaining always turbulent, defiant and restless[29] having remained peaceful only when their kingdoms remained independent from Empiral authority or when politically engaged at Imperial strategic levels.[30] Main branches The most prominent Muslim Janjua Rajputs of today are chiefly represented by the sons of Raja Mal Khan. The princes were Raja Bhir Khan, Raja Jodh Khan, Raja Kala Khan and Raja Khakha Khan. Jodh and Bhir were born of a Gakhar princess while Kala, and Khakha were born of another Rajput Rani.[31] [Sociology] Page 20 [Muslim Rajputs] Raja Khakh Khan was succeeded by three sons, Faggal Khan, Aliya Khan, Mangi Khan who took over from him on his death. The Raja's of the Khakh Janjua of Kashmir and Pakhlibecame a renowned tribe of the Kashmiri region. Raja Khaka Khan's descendants inhabit Muzaffarabad, Kot Khakh amongst other villages near the Jammu frontier of Kashmir.[32] The descendants of Raja Jodh had continued to rule this region through various interruptions until the age of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Raja Bhir (also spelt Veer, meaning "brave") meanwhile took over Malot (Rajghar) state in Chakwal from his father. Raja Bhir's son, Raja Acharpal became a famous chief after his father's death. The Janjuas and the Mughals There is a handwritten Parwana (letter of gratitude) by the minister of Amir Timur to the Janjua Sultan family of Watli, Pakistan for their service to his entourage, which is still held by them to this day.[33] The Janjuas were honoured by Amir Timur for supporting his conquest of India, throughout his campaign. This formed the foundation for the later alliance between Amir Timur's celebrated descendants, the Mughal Emperor Babur and the Janjuas. Babur as Emperor, receiving a courtier The Mughal conqueror Babur made overtures to the Janjuas, and detailed them in his famous Baburnama: [Sociology] Page 21 [Muslim Rajputs] ³ They have become the traditional rulers of the mountaineers and of the people and tribes between Nilab and Bhera. Their rule, however, is benevolent and brotherly, they do not take whatever they want....The people (subjects) also serve in their army....the chief is called Rai and his younger brothers and sons are known as Malik ²Mughal Emperor Babur, detailing the Janjuas just administration and the organisation of titles among the Janjua[34] Characteristics The Janjua Rajputs possess a martial reputation and rank as the "aristocracy of the Salt Range." Their pride in their ancestry is renowned and are always addressed by their ancestral title of Raja.[35]Their exploits and reputation has earned them the regard as the most valiant Kshatriyas (warlords) in the Punjab. The tribal system of loyalty to the clan is still adhered to, and they tend to only align with other tribes of equally high social rank and reputation. ´ ³ The great Janjua tribe have retained their pride of lineage and their Rájput title, and can be ranked as Míán Sáhu or first class Rájpúts...physically well-looking, with fine hands and feet; much given to military service, especially in the cavalry;...with great pride of race and are always addressed as Raja ²Sir Denzil Ibbetson[36] ´ The Janjua are famed as a "restless and warlike Muslim R jput tribe" and are "doubtless pure R jputs".[37] Today a great many Janjua are employed in the Pakistan Army and Navy, as well as the Police Forces in Pakistan and the United Kingdom. [Sociology] Page 22 [Muslim Rajputs] Diaspora Janjuas are spread throughout Punjab both in India and Pakistan. There are Sikh, Muslim and Hindu Janjuas,[38] the majority of Muslim Janjuas are in Pakistan. y Raja Bhir's descendants reside primarily in Malot Chakwal and Jhelum holding some sub-branches in Rawalpindi. y Raja Jodh's descendants inhabit mainly the Jhelum region although some sub branches were displaced during the Sikh Conquest, and whilst the last Raja of Jalalpur, Raja Abdullah Khan, conquered Ratyaal, Gujar Khan presently held by the descendants of Raja Mirza Atta Mohammed Khan, renaming it Ratala Rajgaan. Some numbers are also in Azad Kashmir, Islamabad and Gujrat. Raja Kala Khan's descendants inhabit the Kahuta region of Rawalpindi, with some residing in Gujar Khan. y y Raja Khakha Khan's descendants reside in the lower Jhelum valley of Kashmir in Muzaferabad and Kot Khakha. [Sociology] Page 23 [Muslim Rajputs] Bhati Bhati is a Yadav Rajputs/Khatrisclan and is one of the largest tribes among Khatris/Rajputs. They claim descent from the legendary king Yadu who founded the Yadav[39] dynasty,[40] the first Lunar Dynasty.[41] Bhati are a Yaduvanshi[42] Rajput clan. They reside for the most part in Rajasthan, central Punjab, the Jaisalmer region, in border villages of Bikaner and some tehsils of Jodhpur in India. The Bhati are also found in Uttar Pradesh. They are divided into about forty gotras or clans of Rajputs . They are one of the royal races of Rajputs. According to Hinduism and the caste system, Lord Krishna had eight wives.[43] Rukmini was the senior wife whose son Pradyumna was married to a Vidarbha Princess who bore his two sons, Aniruddha being the prominent one. Aniruddha had son Vajra (Vajranabh). Vajra was the lone survivor of Yadu dynasty and re-established Mathura after Krishna's death with help of Kuru King Parikshit. [Sociology] Page 24 [Muslim Rajputs] Historian R. V. Russell wrote that Yaduvanshi Ahirs had claimed to be descended from the Yadavas, who now form the Yadu and Jadaun/Bhatti clans of Rajputs and the probability of a historic connection between the Ahirs and Yadavs had already been noticed.[44] The state of Jaisalmer was positioned right on the route from Afghanistan to Delhi. Taking advantage of this strategic position, the Bhatis levied taxes on the passing caravans, Bhati Rajputs were proficient horse riders,marksman and warriors. Their reign spread to the Punjab,Sindh and beyond, to Afghanistan. The City of Ghazni was named after a brave Bhatti warrior Raja Gaj. In Lahore, a monument exists to this day, which is called the Bhati Gate, named so probably because it opens in the direction of the "Sandal Bar", an area ruled by Rai Sandal Khan Bhatti Rajput. The majority of the inhabitants of Jaisalmer are Bhati, who take their name from an ancestor named Bhati, renowned as a warrior when the tribe was located in the Punjab area. Shortly after this the clan was driven southwards, and found a refuge in the Indian desert, which was henceforth its home. Prince Deoraj, a famous prince of the Bhati family, is esteemed the real founder of the Jaisalmer dynasty, and with him the title of Rawal commenced. In 1156 A.D. Rawal Jaisal, the sixth in succession from Deoraj, founded the fort and city of Jaisalmer, and made it his capital as he moved from his former capital at Lodhruva (which is situated about 15 km to the southeast of Jaisalmer). In 1293, the Bhatis so enraged the emperor Ala-ud-din Khilji that his army captured and sacked the fort and city of Jaisalmer, so that for some time it was quite deserted. Some Bhatti's migrated to Talwandi, now Nankana Sahib in Distt. Nankana Sahib and others settled in Larkana (in Sind, Pakistan) under the name of Bhutto. In Nankana Sahib, the Bhatti Clan can be traced from the lineage of Rai Bhoe and Rai Bular Bhatti. After this there is nothing to record until the time of Rawal Sahal Singh, whose reign marks an epoch in Bhatti history in that he finally gave in and acknowledged the supremacy of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. The Jaisalmer princes had now arrived at the height of their power, but from this time till the accession of Rawal Mulraj in 1762 the fortunes of the state rapidly declined, and most of its outlying provinces were lost. In 1818 Mulraj entered into political relations with the British. Maharawal Salivahan, born in 1887, succeeded to the chieftainship in 1891. The Maharajas of Jaisalmer trace their lineage back to Krishna through Jaitsimha, a ruler of the Bhati Rajput clan. The major opponents of the Bhatti Rajputs were the powerful Rathor clans of Jodhpur and Bikaner. They used to fight battles for [Sociology] Page 25 [Muslim Rajputs] the possession of forts, waterholes or cattle. Jaisalmer was positioned strategically and was a halting point along a traditional trade route traversed by the camel caravans of Indian and Asian merchants. The route linked India to Central Asia , Egypt, Arabia, Persia, Africa and the West. The Bhatti tribe settled throughout the Indus River Valley, from Kashmir in the north to Thatta in the South. They have adapted in many cultures and speak a variety of languages and also in rawalakot azad Kashmir. Bhati clans in Sindh The Muslim population of the Sindhi Bhattis is found predominantly in the Sindh province. In Sindh the major clans of Bhattis are the Dadani, Mahar, Mangrio, Bhutto, Kamario, Rajpar, Bhamban and Indhar. All Bhattis are related to Samma clans as they are Yadubansi too. For example, Abro's sub-clans (Mungrani, Kehar, Odho, Sarki, Bhootani, Pechoho, Unar, Khuhro, Bhayo, Junejo, and Phulpoto) are related to Bhattis. Bhati clans in Punjab There are about forty sub-branches of the Bhattis/Bhati. In Punjab the major clans of Bhattis are the Pensi and Keela. Many other Rajput tribes in Punjab trace their origin to the Bhatti. Some of these tribes include Mair Rajputs of Punjab, Rajput Jenjer/Janjar, Rajput Mers of Kathiawar, Rajputs of the Bajju clan as well as the famed Jats of the Sidhu dynasty (currently ruling Patiala). Other Jat clans claiming Bhatti origin include the Khaira, Brar, Sahasi, Sansis and Manes clans. In addition the Manj Rajputs are also Bhatti. Other Rajput clans claiming Bhatti origin include the Alpial, Indhar (from which the Rais of Bhong are), Kalyar, Kanju, Uttera, Noon, Dhandla, Wattu, Bhabha, Diyal, Mittru, and Hattar. In Pakistani administered Kashmir, the Narma Rajputs also claim a Bhatti origin. [Sociology] Page 26 [Muslim Rajputs] Mayo or Meo or Mewatiis a prominent Rajput origin Muslim tribe from North-Western India, some of whom migrated to Pakistan after independence in 1947. They are also mixed with Meena tribe.[45] Representing the largest part of the Muslim population in Rajasthan and Haryana, the Meos number approximately 20,000,000 (according to 1984 data). They are crowded into the Alwar and Bharatpur districts in the northeastern part of the state, as well as in the Mewat District of the adjacent state of Haryana. Meos are inhabitants of Mewat (pronounced Mewat), a territorial region that falls between the important urban centers of Delhi, Agra and Jaipur and consists of Mewat district of Haryana and some areas of adjoining Alwar and Bharatpur districts of Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, where the Meos have lived for a millennium. They were Rajput Hindus and converted to Islam during 14th century. They have shared this region with a number of other Muslim Rajput communities, such as the Khanzada, Qaimkhani and Malkana .[46] Meos claim to be twelve tribes of one father. They are prohibited to marry their offsprings out of their own tribe. They claim descent from the of old rulers of India known as khatriya or Chatri. The Kursi namas of Khashtri shows that the ancestors of all the Meo Pal (Clan) and Goth are from the seven royal families (Rajkul) known as Yadu or Jado, Tomar, Parmar, Badgujar, Kashwaha, Chouhan and Rathor. Nowadays the word Rajput is being used as a Synonym of Khashtari all over the South Asia and people are becoming unaware of the basic word Khashtari.Rajpotana (present Rajasthan) has always been considered a strong hold of Khashtaris since ancient times. Its three major parts are Marwar, Mewar, and Mewat. Meos are the inhabitants of Mewat. Although Meos are also residing in Dakan, Uttar Pardesh and other parts of Rajasthan yet Mewat has the dominating majority of Meos. Meos owns the major part of the agricultural land of Mewat for centuries. Present Mewat starts from Mehrauli in the southern part of Delhi , in Haryana province, Ballab Garh and Gurgaon tehsiles, District Nuh(Mewat) some part of Faridabad. It also includes Alwar, Tijara, Kishangarh, Tapokra, Ramgarh,Gobind Garh, LaxmanGarh, Kathomar, Kanma, Pahari and Deeg tehsiles of Alwar &Bharatpur districts Some parts of district Dholpur in Rajisthan province., western part of district Mathura of Utter Pardesh province is also a part of Mewat. Aravali Hill chain is spread throughout Mewat. Its famous branch popularly known as Kala Pahar has a special significance in Mewat. [Sociology] Page 27 [Muslim Rajputs] Hasan Khan Mewati represented Meos in the battle of Kanwah along with Rana Sangram Singh (Rana Sangha) in 1526 against the Mughal invader Zahiru Din Babur. Hasan Khan and his Meo warriors gave a brave fight. Hasan Khan was killed in the battle of Kanwah while his son Tahir Khan was captured by the Mughals. Later on, Tahir Khan fled from the Mughal camp. The Mughal Emperor Babar has also written about Hasan khan mewati in his auto biography. To the Mughals, the Mewatis were "rebels". To British ethnographers, they were "criminal tribes". Conversion to Islam Almost all Meo embraced Islam due to the efforts of Sufis, historical changes and different movements. Although it happened gradually over the time, but now Meos are the largest, single sect, Muslim population all over India-Pakistan. Initially Islam was introduced to Meos by the brother in law of Sultan Mahmood Ghaznvi, Commander Salar Sahu and his son Masud Salar Sahu. In this chain other important names are Moinn-ud-Din Chishti (Ajmari) Hazrat Meeran Hussain Khang Sawar and Shah Naseer-ud-Din Chiragh Dehalvi. Moulana Muhammad Ilyas the founder of famously known " Tableeghi Jamaat" has introduced Meos at International level because the pioneer preachers of this movement are Meos. Almost every Meo village has a mosque. Many Rajasthani Meos still retain mixed HinduMuslim names. Names such as Ram Khan or Shankar Khan are not unusual in the Meo tracts in Alwar. The Muslim community of Meos is highly Hinduised. They celebrate Diwali and Holi as they celebrate Eids. They do not marry within one's Gotras like Hindus of the North though Islam permits marriage with cousins. Solemnization of marriage among Meos is not complete without both nikah as in Islam and circling of fire as among Hindus. Meos believe that they are direct descendants of Krishna and Rama. Hybrid culture The Meos have two strong identities, both of which they are equally proud of: y Their Muslim identity, going back to their conversion to Islam by various Sufi saints who began settling in their territory from the 11th century onwards, and whose shrines/mausoleums or dargahs/mazars today dot the entire countryside in Mewat. [Sociology] Page 28 [Muslim Rajputs] y Their Rajput heritage and lineage, which they are very proud of. Despite their conversion to Islam, they still follow some Hindu practices to this day as inherited customs. y A penetrating sense of superiority of their Rajastani culture with the bravery of their warlords. Without reservation, Gias-u-Din Balban and Mughal kings faced perennial defeats by the Meo warrior tribe around Delhi and in the interiors of Rajastan.[47] y In Pakistan In Pakistan, the Meos are found in the Punjab and Sindh provinces. Many Mayos dispersed form mewat to other rural areas of the country for saving their lives from the rulers against them and then migrated to Pakistan after its formation in 1947.Partition forced the Mayos to migrate from Rajasthan. Migration claimed thousands of people and people who reached Pakistan were completely devastated. In India, they are more than 10 million in numbers. The Mayo families that migrated from India in Thaska, Karnal and Anbala mostly settled in Mewat Kasur,Lahore,Tehsil Samundri district Faisalabad & other rural areas of Faisalabad distt.,Toba Tek Singh,Ahmad Pur Sial District Jhang,Tehsil Safdarabad Distt.Nankana Sb.,Sargodha, Gujranwala, Wazirabad, Multan, Bahawalpur, Layyah, and Shehr Sultan a remote town in District Muzaffargarh, Karachi and many cities of Sind Province. As like in India, Meo are still major contributor in Tablighi activities in Pakistan. Later on, Meo who have settled in United States and other regions started to pull back and settle down in Pakistan, they mostly opted to reside in Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The Meo who have settled in Pakistan maintained many of their traditions, such as maintaining gotra exogamy but some families started breaching this Hindu tradition due to Islamic education. They continue use Mewati, but most are now conversant in Urdu, Sindhi, English and Punjabi.[48] [Sociology] Page 29 [Muslim Rajputs] Minhas or Manhas is a Suryavanshi Rajput clan from the Punjab region and Jammu&Kashmir in India and Pakistan. It is an off-shoot of Jamwal-Dogra Rajputs, the founders of the city and state of Jammu and its rulers from ancient times to 1948 CE. In antiquity of rule, which is generally considered a benchmark of royalty, they are second to none, but the great Katoch Rajputs of Trigarta and Kangra. Paying tribute to the antiquity of their royal lineage, Sir Lepel Griffin says, ³These royal dynasties may have been already ancient when Moses was leading the Israelites out of Egypt, and the Greeks were steering their swift ships to Troy.´ Minhas Rajputs are spread throughout Punjab Region and Jammu&Kashmir in India and Pakistan. Hindu Minhas Rajputs reside in the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Indian Punjab, Sikh Minhas Rajputs, mainly inhabit Punjab (India) and Muslim Minhas Rajputs reside in Pakistani Punjab and Pakistan controlled Kashmir. The Minhas and Bhatti Rajput clans were extremely powerful during the time of the Hindu Shahi dynasty of Kabul and ruled over many small kingdoms extending from eastern Afghanistan through the Jammu/Sialkot areas of West Punjab and up to the Jalandhar/Kangra area of eastern Punjab. According to Farishta, during the second battle of Tarain between Prithviraj Chauhan and Mohammad Ghori in 1192, Chauhan's left flank consisted of Hindu Pathancavalry. It is said that this Hindu Pathan cavalry was led by a minhas raja from the northwest. A famous Manhas/Minhas in history was Baba Chamliyal also called Duleep Singh Minhas, a warrior saint, whose Sam dhi (place of cremation) is still visited by hundreds and thousands of Pakistanis and Indians each year in the month of June. The Mela (fair) which is held in honour of Baba Chamliyal, was celebrated for the 317th time on Thursday, June 22, 2006 as the man-made boundary between India and Pakistan lost its importance momentarily and people from both sides participated in the mela with vigour. Banda Bahadur, the famous disciple of Guru Gobind Singh who was the tenth Sikh Guru and the founder of the Khalsa Brotherhood, was born into a Minhas Rajput family in Rajouri in the Jammu region. Banda Bahadur was an accomplished warrior-general, who almost destroyed Mughal presence in eastern Punjab and arguably created the first Sikh State. [Sociology] Page 30 [Muslim Rajputs] Muslim Minhas Rajputs Muslim Minhas Rajputs mainly reside in Pakistani Punjab and Pakistan Administered Kashmir. Prior to partition, the districts of Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Gurdaspur were home to a large number of Muslim Minhas. In what became Pakistani territory, they were and are found in numbers in Jhelum, Rohtas fort, Gujrat, Sialkot and Rawalpindi districts, which all bordered Jammu and Kashmir. The Mair Minhas, are found in Chakwal District, Nagyal are found in Daultala, Gujar Khan and the Manes and Lodhra branches were found in south Punjab. In Sialkot and East Punjab Minhas used Mian as a title, and so do the Manes and Lodhra in South Punjab while many Minhas in Lahore, Sialkot and Shekhupura use Rana as a title. The Mair Minhas use Chaudhary and Khan as a title, while the Gujrat and Potohar Minhas use Raja as a title. Minhas Rajput clans in Pakistan Administered Kashmir use Sardar as a title. Muslim Minhas Rajputs are recognised in history as the warrior aristocracy. They were designated by the British as a Martial Race and recruited into the Imperial Army. Muslim Minhas are naturally engaged in the Pakistani military in strong numbers. They have been referred to as the most Valiant Warriors of Punjab. Their warlike nature and dominant rule of their territories against other tribes earned them a powerful reputation in upper Punjab and the Valley of Kashmir. The city of Chakwal is named after a Minhas chief, Chaudhry Chaku Khan and his decedents remained the Taluqdars of Dhanni(present day Tehsil Chakwal) till Punjab was annexed by the British after the Second Anglo Sikh War in 1849. Mair-Minhas of Chakwal In Chakwal, the Minhas Rajputs are called Mair-Minhas (also spelt Maair) after their ancestor, Raja Mair, a Jamwal prince who converted to Islam in 1190 CE. According to the legend, Raja Mair (whose name before conversion was Raja Bhagir Dev) was son of the Raja of Jammu and had come to the Dhanni area (present day Chakwal) for hunting. He fell in love with a local Muslim Gujjar woman, converted to Islam and married her. The city of Chakwal is named after their Chief, Chaku Khan whose father, Raja Sidhar ruled the area at the time of Mughal King Babar's invasion. The Mughal emperor Zaheerudin Babur conferred upon Raja Sidhar, the title of Chaudhry and made him the Taluqdar (area [Sociology] Page 31 [Muslim Rajputs] administrator) over 84 villages of the Dhani country, which since then has been known as Dhan 84. The Mair-Minhas tribe rose to further prominence during the short rule of Sher Shah Suri who handed them the control over the adjoining territories, as far as Swan River in Potohar and Kahoon in the South. Other Minhas Clans The Mair-Minhas tribe is almost entirely confined to the Chakwal District. However, besides Chakwal, there are a quite a few other Minhas (other than Mair-Minhas) villages scattered all over the province including the famous villages of Sagri, Shohwa (known in area as Karkan Shohwa) near Rawalpindi, Sihala in Islamabad, Gujar Khan, Kahuta, Sargodha and Faisalabad. Members of Muslim Minhas tribe have the honour of receiving top military awards both in British India and in Pakistan. Subaidar Khudadad Khan was awarded Victoria Cross, the first native Indian to receive this honour and Rashid Minhas was awarded Pakistan's top military honour, the Nishan-E-Haider. He was also the youngest man and the only member of the Pakistan Air Force to win this coveted award. The Pakistan Air Force base at Kamra has been renamed in his honour. Khan Bahadur Raja Sahib, Chaudhry Aurangzeb Khan of Chakwal was a famous Minhas Rajput during the British era. In 1892 CE he was given the title of Khan Bahadur for his services in establishing the town of Lyallpur (now Faisalabad). He was also conferred upon the title of 'Raja Sahib' as a mark of hereditary distinction by Qaiser-e-Hind, His Majesty, King George V. His son, Raja Muhammed Sarfraz Khan (MLA 1929-58) played an important role in the local politics during Pakistan Movement. [Sociology] Page 32 [Muslim Rajputs] Khokhar or Khokar are a people of Pakistan and India. According to H.A. Rose[49] they are the gotra of Rajput, Jat/Jaat, Arain, Nai, and Churah. According to Sir Denzil Ibbetson they are also a gotra of the Tarkhan and Khatri tribes. In terms of religion, they are Hindu, Muslim, Sikh and Christians. Many Muslim Khokhars, commonly known as Qutb Shahi Khokhars, also claim ancestry from Qutb Shah,[50] who is said to have come from Ghazni with Mahmud of Ghazni.] In Pakistan they are predominantly Muslim with a Christian minority and are one of the largest Rajput clans in Punjab, [51] they are also commonly found in Azad Kashmir and the Hazara Division of the North-West Frontier Province. In India, where they are predominantly Hindu or Sikh, they are mainly found in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The Khokhars were designated as an agricultural tribe.[52] Before the partition of India, many Sikh and Hindu Khokhars[53] lived in Lahore, Rawalpindi and Multan of West Punjab. Likewise (before Partition), many Muslim Khokhars lived in Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur, Amritsar and Jalandhar districts of East Punjab. Most of these emigrated to West Punjab, now called Pakistani Punjab, after independence in 1947. In central and northern Punjab, they were and are still found in Lahore, Jhang, Chiniot, Gujranwala, Jhelum, Kasur, Sialkot, Multan, Khushab, and Gujrat. Hindu and Sikh Khokhars can be found in many regions of Indian Punjab (Batala, Chandigarh, Gurdaspur, Ropar, Patiala, Fatehgarh Sahib), Jammu and Kashmir and Gujarat, many Hindu and Sikh Khokhars moved from Pakistan to India after the partition of British India. In addition, Muslim and Hindu Khokhars are also found in western region of Uttar Pradesh. Origins of Muslim Khokars A Governor of Herat and a general in the army of Mahmud of Ghazni, Qutub Shah was a Hashemite descendant of the Prophet Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Ali (but by a wife other than the Prophet's daughter, Fatimah).[54] It is asserted that Qutb Shah and six of his sons accompanied and assisted Mahmud in his early eleventh century conquests of what today forms parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Northern India. It is claimed that in recognition of their services and valor, Mahmud bestowed upon Qutb [Sociology] Page 33 [Muslim Rajputs] Shah and his sons (who, according to tribal traditions, settled primarily in the Salt Range) the title of Awan, meaning "helper".[55] Tribal historyholds that Qutb Shah and his sons married local women who converted to Islam from Hinduism. Qutb Shah¶s sons are said to have settled in different regions of the Punjab and to a lesser extent, what now constitutes parts of the North West Frontier Province; Gauhar Shah or Gorrara, settled near Sakesar, Kalan Shah or Kalgan, settled in Kalabagh, Chauhan colonized the hills close to the Indus, Mohammad Shah or Khokhar, settled by the Chenab, and Tori and Jhajh settled in Tirah. Their descendants not only came to heavily populate these regions, but a number of Awan sub-clans that trace their origins to these six individuals, give their names to various localities such as Golera in Rawalpindi, Khewra in Jhelum, Banjara in Sialkot and Jand in Attock. Military History After Raja Jaipal the Shahi king lost to Mahmud Ghazni, his successor Anandpal organised a confederacy of Hindu kings including the rulers of Ujjain, Gwalior, Kanauj, Delhi and Ajmer . the khokars supported Anandpal. Many campaigns were undertaken against the Khokhars by Ghori in the Punjab and ultimately he is killed by the Khokhars of the Salt Range in 1206. In 1240 AD, Razia, the daughter of Shams-ud-din Iltutmish marched with her husband Altunia to recapture the throne from her brother Muizuddin Bahram Shah, she is reported to have headed an army composed mostly of mercenaries from the Khokhar tribe of the Punjab[56] Shaikha/Sheikha or Shuja Khokhar was a chief of the Khokhars in the 14th and early 15th century and a contemporary of Taimur's (Tamerlane) invasions into Punjab. Shaikha occupied Lahore in 1393.[57] [Sociology] Page 34 [Muslim Rajputs] Geographical distribution From map of India by Dodd, Mead and Company, 1903. Khokhars are mainly found in the Punjab region. In Pakistan, Khokhars can be found in the regions of Jhang, Gujranwala, Jhelum, Mianwali, Khushab, Khanewal, Shahpur, Rawalpindi, Lahore, Sargodha, Bhera, Chiniot, Gujrat, Gujar Khan, Multan, Sukkur, Bahawalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Vehari, Pakpattan and adjoining areas. Khokhars are also found in areas of Kashmir including Azad Kashmir and Mirpur. In India, areas include Batala, Chandigarh, Gurdaspur, Ropar, Patiala, Fatehgarh Sahib and Jammu and Kashmir. Khokhars are now based all around the world. Muslim Khokhars are also found in Moradabad District in Uttar Pradesh, where they are said to have settled in the 18th century, and are considered as a clan of the Ranghar community. [Sociology] Page 35 [Muslim Rajputs] Khanzada, or Khanzadah, Hindi is a subdivision[58] of Rajputs, now found mainly in the Rajasthan, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh of India; and Sindh, Punjab provinces of Pakistan. Khanzadahs,[59] the royal family of Muslim Jadon (also spelt as Jadaun) Rajputs, accepted Islam on their association with the Sufi Saints.[60] Khanzadah, the Persian form of the Rajputana word 'Rajput', is the title of the great representatives of the ancient Yaduvanshi royal Rajput family, descendants of Krishna and therefore of Lunar Dynasty. They are the Mewatti Chiefs of the Persian historians, who were the representatives of the ancient Lords of Mewat.[61] Khanzadah, or " the son of a Khan " is precisely the Musalman equivalent to the Hindu Rajput or " son of a Raja "... ²From Panjab Castes by Denzil Ibbetson [62] Khanzada = Khan (Raj) + zada (put) = Rajput. The word Khanzada or Khanzadeh in Persian means 'son of a Khan', 'Khan means king'. While Khanzadi is used for daughters of Khan. Mewat - The Kingdom of Khanzadahs The ancient country of Mewat is roughly contained within a line running irregularly northwards from Dig in Bhartpur to about the latitude of Rewari, then westwards below Rewari to the longitude of a point six miles (10 km) west of the city of Alwar, and then south to the Barah stream in Ulwur. The line then turns east Dig, to form the southern boundary. The Mewat country possesses several hill ranges. Those by Ulwur, and those that form the present boundary to the north-east were the most important. Tijara, lying near the latter, contended with Ulwur for the first place in Mewat. Mewat is repeatedly mentioned by the bard Chand in the Pirthwi Raj Rasa. Mungal, Lord of Mewat and Pirthwi Raj married sisters, who were daughters of the Dahima Rajput, Chief of Biana, whose fort was afterwards so celebrated in Mughal history. That these Lords of Mewat were of the Yadu Rajput clan, would appear from the fact that local tradition declares it, and from converted Jadus being called by the old Musalman historians " [Sociology] Page 36 [Muslim Rajputs] Mewattis," a term Chand applies to a Mewat chief of the Lunar race, of which race the Jadu Maharaja of Karauli calls himself the head. ... ²From Gazetteer of Ulwur However, it is prominently a division of Jadubansi Rajputs.[63] But afterwards, the term 'Khanzada' was used for other Muslim Rajputs as well. From the middle of the 19th Century, the term Khanzada was extended to refer to all those Rajput clans, who had converted to Islam in Awadh and neighbouring Benaras division. The term is now used in the same manner as the term Ranghar, which refers to any Muslim Rajput in western Uttar Pradesh, and Khanzada is now used to describe any of the Muslim Rajput clans of eastern Uttar Pradesh.... ²From The Caste system of Northern India by E.A.H Blunt[64] Acceptance of Islam The family records of Khanzadahs, states, that during one of the hunting expedition Kunwar Samar Pal and Kunwar Sopar Pal, the sons of Jadon Raja Lakhan Pal, met with Sufi saint Hazrat Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud, Roshan Chiragh-i Dehli (a disciple of Chisti Shaikh Hazrat Nizam-UdDin Auliya, Mehboob-e- Illahi). The acceptance of Islam by Khanzadahs have been a 'enlightenment of heart' come about from their association with the Sufi saints. Hazrat Nizamuddin, was a famous Sufi saint of the Chishti Order in South Asia, an order that believed in drawing close to God through renunciation of the world and service to humanity. He is one of the great saints of the Chishti order in India.[65] His predecessors were Moinuddin Chishti, Bakhtiyar Kaki and Fariduddin Ganjshakar. In that sequence, they constitute the initial spiritual chain or silsila of the Chisti order, which is widely prevalent in India and Pakistan. [Sociology] Page 37 [Muslim Rajputs] Nizamuddin Auliya like his predecessors stressed upon the element of love as a means of realisation of God. For him his love of God implied a love of humanity. His vision of the world was marked by a highly evolved sense of secularity and kindness.[66] It is claimed by the 14th century historiographer Ziauddin Barani that his influence on the Muslims of Delhi was such that a paradigm shift was affected in their outlook towards worldly matters. People began to be inclined towards mysticism and prayers and remaining aloof from the world.[67] Haryana State Gazetteer states: One of the members of Yaduvanshi Rajput family who had been ruling over northern Mewat accepted Islam. He was Bahadur Nahar who better known to history as the founder of the Khanzada tribe. Glorious Khanzada Kings Raja Bahadur Khan or Bahadur 'Nahar', is one of the most prominent figures in Delhi history for about a dozen years just before and after the invasion of Timur. He is said to have received the title of Nahar or Tiger, from Delhi Emperor Firoz Shah, because he had killed a tiger single handed. Khanzadah Jalal is the great hero of the Khanzadahs, who are never tired of relating his gallant deeds, of which, perhaps, the most surprising was the asserted capture of Amber, the stronghold of the KachwahaRajas, and the carrying away of one of its gates to Indore, where it is still to be seen. Khanzadah Raja Jalal probably died about AH. 845, and was succeeded by his brother Ahmad.[68] [Sociology] Page 38 [Muslim Rajputs] Raja Hasan Khan, Mewatpatti; In AD 1526 a new power appeared in India. Babar, who claimed to be the representative of Timur Lang, after winning the battle of Panipat, took possession of Dehli and Agra ; and determined that his enterprise should not be a mere raid like Timur's, but the foundation of a new and lasting empire. Then it was that the Rajputs made their last great struggle for independence. They were led by Rana Sankha, a chief of Mewar, who invited the Mewatti chief, Hasan Khan, to aid the nation of his birth in resisting the new horde of Musalmans from the north. [Sociology] Page 39 [Muslim Rajputs] Critical evaluation and conclusion There is no doubt that the Kshatriya blood still rages in the Rajput tribes of today as they continue to display their martial valor in military services throughout the subcontinent but it is worth noting that the warrior clans changed their old Hindu beliefs not when they were conquered rather when they were preached of peace and love by the Sufi saints. It is this global message of tolerance and peace that should be made universal as that is the only way the differences of the past will be healed and divided castes will unite to form a single nation. Taking pride from individual achievements hampers the unity that defines the Muslim culture and old Hindu traditions will have to be done away with so that a new era of peace comes between the Muslim Rajputs and various other tribes. The clash of the Arains and the Rajputs is an old one but during research in this project we have found out that actually their lineage goes back to a common ancestor Rai Jaj who was the grandson of Lav the founder of Lahore. It is crucial to study our past so that we can understand that we share a similar lineage and that tolerance will be key to our continued survival and holding on to old glory is not going to get us anywhere. The caste system defines our lineage but what makes us who we our is our national identity and now more than ever we need to set or differences aside once and for all and work towards the betterment of nation as cracks on the basis of tribal nationalism our growing in various parts of our Pakistan. [Sociology] Page 40 [Muslim Rajputs] References 1. UNHCR Refugee Review Tribunal. IND32856, 6 February 2008 2. 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