3 characteristics used to delineate a wetland
3 characteristics used to delineate a wetlandWetland hydrologyHydrophytic vegetationHydric soils
Wetland HydrologyWaterlogged groundSaturation within 12 inches of surfaceWater marks on trees or grassesVisible mud or dry mud cracks
Hydrophytic VegetationAdapted to anaerobic soilsButtressed trunksShallow root systemFloating leavesSpecialized tissue (aerenchyma) that is spongy and transports air from the leaves and stems to the roots
Hydric SoilExcessive moistureRotten egg odor (hydrogen sulfide_A predominance of decomposed organic matterGleyed coloring below surface or major color of soil is dark and dullCoral Reef ThreatsNitrogenand phosphorus addition can fertilize algae and result in algal blooms. Because algae can potentially grow so much faster than coral, they can out-compete corals. Creation of unwanted algae covers the coral and does not allow the zooxanthellae to perform photosynthesis. Or an algal bloom above can lessen sunlight penetration resulting in the zooxanthellae not receiving enough sunlightHuman activities on land such as theclearingof forests, road building, and other development can lead to increased rates of sedimentation. High sediment load can reduce light penetration and reduce the photosyntheticactivity ofzooxanthellae. The problem of sedimentation ofcoral reefshas been increased by the removal ofmangroveand seagrass communities that naturally filter out sediments.Coral Reef ThreatsIntroduction of invasive species such as the lionfish, can alter trophic interactions and cause unexpected indirect effects on the environment. For example, in areas where predatorshave been removed increases in population size of their prey have resulted in unintended effect on the environment. An increase in herbivorous fishes in the coral reef can overeat the macroalgae of the coral and thus indirectly decreasing the biodiversity of the coral reef.
Lionfish prey on herbivorous fishes that consume macroalgae and help protect corals from algal overgrowth.As the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, from the atmosphere, it becomes more acidic and makes it difficult for polyps to create their skeletons. The calcification rates of corals and other reef organisms has already begun to decrease, leading to fears that reef building will not keep pace with climate change. With increased CO2 in the water, coral may form weaker skeletons, making them more vulnerable to storm damage, careless tourists, and destructive fishing practices.Soils of terrestrial biomeshttps://php.radford.edu/~swoodwar/biomes/