Department of Development Studies, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics Islamabad 10 December, 2014 A journey through disasters 1992-2014 Sarwar Bari National Coordinator Pattan Development Organisation A disaster is a sudden, calamitous event that seriously disrupts the functioning of a community or society and causes human, material, and economic or environmental losses that exceed the communitys or societys ability to cope using its own resources. Though often caused by nature, disasters can have human origins. IFRC H x V = Disaster What is disaster? 1992 Super floods: 1997 Floods 99-2001 Draught 2005 Earthquake 2009 Flight of IDPs from Malakand 2010 Mega floods 2011 Floods 2012 Floods 2013 Floods 2014 Floods The Disasters I worked in Decade US $ million Lost lives Affected villages Flooded Areas (Sq-km) 1950-59 1720.00 3200 36954 139233 1973-78 11868.00 2266 48121 193577 1981-88 1367.40 671 3065 13310 1992-95 4229.05 2030 21682 61012 2010 10000.00 1985 17553 160000 Total 29,184.45 10,152 127,375 567,132 Decade wise losses Compiled from FFC data Disasters: blessing for mullah, politicians, governments, private sector, NGOs etc. Flood prone people dont leave their area despite repeated warnings. Disaster hit people tell lies in order to grab relief items. The people of kutcha areas are dacoits. Thin presence of public services: schools, health centers in riverine belt. Thick presence of coercive hand of the state apparatus and its close collaboration with feudal/political elite. What I saw & observed? Public policies & interventions disempower/marginalise riverine communities and undermine their resilience, traditional coping mechanisms and aggravate their vulnerabilities. Gender segregation and restrictions on women weakened. Repeated mega disasters failed to fracture stubbornness of our governments not to learn lessons: BFG All disasters are manmade & government induced. Disasters: What I learnt? A Case Study of 2014 Floods Flood Routes Aug 3, APP quoted FFD that Chenab River would attain a high flood at various places during next 24 hours. High flood may inundate low-lying districts of Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Hafizabad and Mandi Bahauddin around the river-bed. Authorities warned to take precautionary measures to avoid the losses of human lives and property. Flood warning 3rd Sep Flood Forecasting Division Issued another alert Water level at Mangla Dam 02-Sep 03-Sep 04-Sep 05-Sep 06-Sep 07-Sep 08-Sep OverallHeight1227.85 1227.25 1229 1236 1240 1240.4 1240.7 1242 Compiled from DDF data Structure Mangla Marala Qadirabad Trimmu Design Capacity 1,060 1,100 807 645 Inflow - outflow In Out In Out In Out In Out 3 Sep 23 19 42 15 31 9 21 9 4 Sep 150 15 136 109 31 9 23 9 5 Sep 516 15 485 480 271 261 25 9 6 Sep 190 282 320 323 649 656 55 71 7 Sep 124 101 563 560 774 776 124 127 8 Sep 103 90 127 124 256 256 163 163 9 Sep 80 54 85 82 102 103 298 298 10 Sep 82 73 79 76 94 94 509 509 11 Sep 77 73 79 76 89 89 592 592 Compiled from FFD Lahore Inflow and outflow of water from major structures September 3 to 11, 2014 (000 cusecs) On 9th September 1992 about 1 million cusecs of water was released from Mangla dam while River Chenab was at its exceptionally high level. On 30th July 6 am 600,000 cusecs of water was released from Tarbela dam at a time when 400,000 of cusecs of water was flowing in River Kabul at Attock bridge. Unnecessary breaches multiplied losses. Repetition of blunders Disaster risk reduction is the concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyse and reduce the causal factors of disasters. Reducing exposure to hazards, lessening vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improving preparedness and early warning for adverse events are all examples of disaster risk reduction. UN-ISDR What is Disaster Risk Reduction? Efforts versus Results Efforts 1990s stop disaster decade HFA 2005 -2015 MDGs 2005 -2015 Results Globally during 2005-14, 1.5 billion people got affected by disasters, 144 million were displaced and about 0.7 million people were killed. Total economic losses about $1.3 trillion. In Pakistan between the 90s and 2000-08 the number of affected people were doubled from 17.5 million to 33.03 million. During the same periods, the economic losses jumped from $1.3m to $17.0m per year. The damage caused by the 2010 floods cost the country and its people about US10.85 billion which makes one-third of the country's budget 2009-10. Amend disaster law Let the disaster prone people take the leadEstablish strong local government system. Improve governance. Establish mechanisms for transparent accountability. Address poverty, inequalities, deprivations and vulnerabilities Change disaster narrative A way forward Dominant versus Alternative Dominant Blame nature, global warming, victims, India etc. Take shelter by declaring flooding as sudden and unprecedented occurrence. Gods wrath. Relief Alternative Do soul searching: Identify underlying factors, Analyse causes of poor governance, Trust people. DRR. Liberate DRR from elite capture. DRR?