A REVIEW OF THE EARLY TERTIARY FORMATIONS OF CHINA

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  • A REVIEW OF ThE EARLY TERTiARY FORMATIONSOF CHINA2

    B

    C. C. YouNG (&)Cenozoic Research Laboratory, Geological Surtey

    INTRODUCTION

    The Early Tertiary formations in China have not been studied sys-tematically for a long time, since they are iess well exposed and less fossiif er-otis than the Pliocene or Pleistocene beds in the same areas. No further re-view of those deposits for North China has been made ever since the publica-tion of the fundamenta' Essays of Dr. G. J. Andersson2. Furthermore, wehave as yet not attempted to give a general exposition. of our knowledge con-cerning the subject for South China. Most of the recent work on the Chine3eCenozoic has been devoted, to the study of the Pontian and later deposits5.

    In the course of the past ten years, however, much information con-cerning the older Tertiary beds has been accumulated by geologists of Peking.Nanking and Canton, working all over China.

    Owing to the paucity of fossils, the data on hand do not as yet allowus to attempt a detailed stratigraphy. In most cases, Oligocene cannot beseparated from Eocene, and even the distinction between Eocene and UpperCretaceous is often uncertain, a condition specially prevailing in the con-glomerates and sandstones south 0f the Tsinling range.

    I Received for publication April 1934.2 Andersson, G. J., 1923. Essays on the Cenozoic of Northern China. Mcm. Geol.

    Sury. China, Ser. A, No. 3.3 Cf. chiefly the publicatiois of the Cenozoic Research Laboratory of the Geological

    Survey of China.

  • 470 Bulletin of the Geelogical Society of China

    in spite 0f such gaps, it would be of obvious advantage if all theavailable information, hitherto given in a large number of publications, werelisted and briefly summarized in a single memoir.

    To give a short review of this kind is the aim of the present paper.In the following pages, the Early Tertiary formations of China are consideredin a roughly geographical order, horn North to South. Each locality is num-bered to correspond with the map at the end of the paper. A few generalviews, and a tentative correlation with the Eocene and Oligocene formationsof Mongolia (as recognised by the Central Asiatic American Expedition) arepresented as a conclusion.

    1. THE CHALAINOR COAL SrnEs OF HEILUNGKFANG

    (OLIGoCENE?) (1)

    The Chalainor lignite-bearing formation (between Manchouli andHailar) has been described, many years ago, by Dr. Ahnert4, and more recent-ly studied by Teilhard5 and Hou6. From the report given by the latter one,we will take the following description. "The Coal-bearing Measure: TheChalainor coal (lignite) Series lies directly upon the volcanic series (Mesozoicandesites and rhyolites7). Between those two series there is probably an un-conformity though apparently they strike and dip almost in the same direction.The coal-bearing strata strike in NN-E direction and dip towards the South-eastat comparatively smaller angles of 14 to 19 degrees. They are distributedin a great depressed area of the Chalainor basin. Being concealed by thickyounger deposits, the out-crop can only be found along the small Argua river(Mutnaya) consisting of no more than thirty meters of black shale and clay.

    4 Ahnert, E. E., 1929. Mineral Resources of North Manchuria. Mem. Ceci.Surv. ina, Ser. A, No. 7.

    5 Licent, E. and TeiUard de Chardin, P. 1930. Geological Observations inNorthern Manchuria aoci Bargn (Hailar). Bull. Geol. Soc. Cnina, Vol. IX,pp. 37-44.

    6 Hou, T. H. 1932. Geology of the Bitumen Deposits and the lignite field ofChalainor. Heilungkiang Province. Bull. Cool. Surv. of China, No. 19. P. 54.

    7 (The words in bracket were added by the author of this publication).

  • The basal part as well as top part of this series remain unknown. Theknown strata are all argillaceous soft rocks with brown coal seams. This seriesis continuousiy distributed on the South-east 0f Chalainor station and becomesmore gentle in dip toward the SE: this may represent the undulating or wavingstructure of the strata under the great depressed plain but it has not yet beenproved by investigation.

    Fossils are difficulty preserved in such soft rocks. But sometimes plantfossil fragments are found like pieces of charcoal from which fern leaves havebeen recognizd by my colleague Mr. H. S. Wang. h is not easy to basethe age of this series on such scanty evidence. thologically, the soft argil-laceous strata with abundant pebbles of the volcanic rocks (both andesite andrhyolite) show, anyhow, that the Chalainor coal series is younger than thevolcanic series. 1f the volcanic series is proved to be Cretaceous, tMs seriesis probably early Tertiary in age."

    hi addition to the Chalainor beds, another formation (the Nanling andTungshan series) might be regarded as representing the Lower Tertiary in

    C. C. Young: Review of Early Tertiary Foirnauioru 471

    The cross section through the No. 9 shaft of the coal mine is exactly shownas follows (iii ascending order): -

    Thickness in metersRiver and lake deposits (Alluvium & white sand) 5.75

    j. Dark gray and black argillaceous sandstone and shales ...... 63.9j. Coal seam (la) ................I ............ 9.93h. Black argillaceous and sandy strata with coal seam ...... 11 .33g. Coal seam (lb) ........................ 9.8f. Sandy and argillaceous layer .................. 10.65

    (Fault Height more than 48.01)e. (Undefined) 100.11d Sandy and argillaceous strata .................. 68.16c Coal seam (2) now worked .................. 6.65b. Black clay and shale ......................... 50.63a. Coal seam (3) ........................... 1 .49

    Total thickness of coal-bearing strata ............ 332.85

  • 472 Bulletin of the Geological Society of China

    Hei!ungkiang. Those beds, consisting in Conglomerates and tuffs respective-ly, occur at the Hokang Coal field8.

    Il. THE COAL-BEARING FORMATION OF WUSHUN (OuGocENE?) (2)

    The famous Wushun coal mine lies 60 Ii E. of Mukden. Accord-ing to Andersson (1923) the coal-bearing formation, fills an East West"graben", in a gneissic and Palozoic floor. The beds, diping N. 30in average, may be divided into two parts: a lower, and an upper (or main)coal-bearing series, followed by a thick series of barren slates. The lowevcoal series consists of tufaceous sandstone, conglomerate and shales, in whichtwo coal seams are interbedded. The main coal series contains a thick coalseam, amongst shales, but no sandstone. The upper shales were formerlyreaching a thickness of about 2500 feet (as measured by residual hills). Basaltforms the southern part of the coal field, occurring as shet, specially betweenthe lower and the main, and in the lower coal-bearing series.

    On the base of palobotanical determination, the Wushun Formationhas been referred by Palibin9 and Florin'0 to the Early Tertiary (Oligocene?).

    According to Florin, the composition of the flora is as follows'1:

    Lygodium kaulfussii HeerOsmunda lignitum (Giebel) Stur.Sequoia langsdorfii (Brongn.) HeerGlyptosfrobus europus (Brongn.) Ung.Populus glanduli/er HeerA mus kclersteinii Ung.

    8 Tan, H. C. 1934. Geology of Hokang Coal field, Heilungkiang. Bull. Geot.Surv. No. 6, pp. 4-5.

    9 Palibin, J. W, Fossile Pflanzen aus den Kohienlagern von Fushun in der sudli-chen Mandschurei. Verh. Kais. Russ. Miner. Ges. Ser. 2, Bd. 44. St.Petersburg.

    10 Florin, R., Zur alttertiren Flora der sdlichen Mandschurei. Pal. sin., Ser.A, Vol. I, Fasc. I, 1922.

    Il Abstracted from An1ersson (1923). p. 98.

  • C. C. Young:Review ej Early Tcrtiary Formations 473Dryophyllum deuialquei Sap et Mar.Fagus? jeroni Ung.Zelkova ungen KovatsCarpinus grandis iJng.Panax? ion gissimum Ung.Viburnum nordenskioldi Heer

    Amber, containing Insects, also occurs in the formations, but it has not yet beenstudied..

    North of Mukden (at Changtu) the railway cuts a thick, gently dippingseries of conglomerates and soft sandstones which are also possibly of an earlyTertiary age. But the oniy fossil we collected in 1929 is an undeterminablepiece of bone. The formation, cut by basaltic necks, contains pebbles of allthe Mosozoic rocks of the area, and cannot be earlier therefore than of theUpper Cretaceous.

    Ill. THE SUB-BASALTIC GRAVELS OF THE WEICHANG'2 (EOCENE?) (3)

    Along the valley running SE of Chuitsushan, at the border of thWeichang Plateau, a basaltic flow (20 m. thick) 'lies, on about 80 metenabove the actual bottom of the valley, over a thick, dark red or green, con..glomeratic formation. The beds are strongly tilted, and do not contain basal..tic (but only rhyolitic) pebbles.

    It is difficult to decide whether those conglomerates are Eocene, orshould not rather to be referred to th Upper Cretaceous (as it is the casefor the rhyolitic conglomerates of Kalgan and Jehol).

    IV. THE SUB-BASALTIC PLANT-BEDS OF KALGAN (OLIGOCENE) (4)North of Kalgan, the extensive basaltic flows capping the Mongolian

    Plateau are commonly held on the base of physiographic character3. aOligocena. Interbedded with those rocks occur several layers of lignite-bearing

    12 Teilhard de Chardin, P. Th0 geology of Weichang area. Bull. Geol. SurvChina. No. 19, p. 18, 1932.

    13 Barbour, G. B. Geology of Kalgan area. ibid. No. 6, 1929.

  • 474 Bulletin of the Geologicd Society of China

    clays and sand in which Dr. Andersson'4 collected a few plants determinedby Florin5 as: Pinus sp., Comptonia onderssoni F., Carpinus sp. and Phyllitessp. (see fig. 1).

    This apparently is the Wushun flora.4 + +

    4' p + 44 + +44.4.4+ + ++4+4

    -

    + + + .p++4.+.r2 4.4+4 + + #4. + 4 + fD DcD

    -

    _

    Fig. 1. deal section at Tachingkou, Hanjopa. L Gravel, 2. Lower basalt. 3.Plants-bearing shale, 4. Upper basalt. (After Andersson 1923, p. 103.)

    +44+

    4.. +4+4 4 +++ +

    +4.+, + ++ 44+ + 44 ++ 44 ++ +

    ++ + 4- 4 + + +444+ + +4- +44 4.4+44 + ++ + 4+++1.+

    . + +44+ + + 4 + + + 4 444 4. +4. #;++4+ f ++4+4+ ++ ++4 ++ + + + + 4 +

    +4.. + 4+44k C

    .4$.4an $'ap Xc,. i7:'

    Fig. 2. Section at Slian Yang Kou village.Archan rocks.and d. Sand and clay.Basalt.

    (After Wang from Andersson 104.)14 Andersson, J.G. Essays on the Cenozoic of Northern China. Mern. Ceol. Surv,

    China. Ser. A, No. 3, p. 99. 1923.15 Florin, R. Einige chinesiscJe Tertirpflanzen. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift. 1920.

    Bd. 14, H. 2-3. pp. 239-243.

  • C. C. Young:Review of Early Tertiary Forr,iation, 475A snnilar flota occurs, under the same conditions at Fanchibsien (N.

    Shansi)'6. (7) (see fig. 2)The Hatt in Sumu and Peilingmiao basalts are most probably post

    Pontian.

    V. T}-IE CHANGSINTIEN GRAVELS (EOCENE OR OLIGOCENE) (8)

    Neat Changsintien (SW. of Peking) a thick series of tilted conglomeratesand red days was referred tentatively in 1923 by Dr. Andersson17 to the Eocene.This age has been safely established in 1929 by the discovery (made by W. C.Pei) o1 a few bones, including an upper premolar of Amblypod (see below).

    lior/zoiwal &ah' j 4 rno,4lete,

    Fig. 3. Lower Tertiaiy Beds of Changsintien, near Peking.g. Gr.ivel, c. Red clay, s. Sandy lense. L. Loess (After Hsieh 1933, p. 524)

    Lately, a more complete study of the whole area has been undertaken b7Prof. Hsieh, who has traced the formation all along the NE wing of a longanticline running between Changsingtien and Tahuichang10. According tothis recent paper: "The gravel is intercalated by several layers of purple clayand thin lenses of yellow sand. . . . A distinct dip amounting to 15 ormore is seen at both section.

    The gravel is usually roughly stratified and may be quite indurated atcertain places. The pebbles are composed essentially of igneous rocks amongwhich agglomerate, rhyolite, trachyte, andesite are all represented. Lime-stone and quartzite of Sinian age are also found though they are much less in

    16 Andersson, J.G. ibid. p. 103.17 Aidersson, J.G. ibid.18 HsieJ, C.Y. 1933. Note on the Geology of Changsinfien-Tuoli Area, S.W.

    of Peiping. Bull. GeoL Soc. China. Vol. Xli, pp. 513-532.

  • 416 Bulletin of the Geological Society of China

    quantity. The size of pebbles varies within wide limit. The lazgea boulderobserved has a diameter of about half a meter." (see fig. 3)

    NOTE ON 11-lE FOSSILS FOUND IN THE CHANGSINTIEN FORMATION

    The discovery of a few mammalian remains in the Changsintien formationhas been already announced by Mr. Pci in the meeting of the Geological Societyof China, in 1930". But their description was never published. The presentpaper affords an opportunity for giving on those pieces some detaik greatlyneeded by the Stratgraphy.

    19 Bull. Geol. Soc. ina, Vol. IX, 1930, p. 5.For accidental reasons, the localityhorn which the fossils have been collected has not yet been excavated.

    Fie. 4. Amblypoda indet. Left 3 or P4 of ?Eudinoceras sp. indet. anteriot, crownand outer views. 2/1 nat. size,

    The collection made by Mr. Pci COnSIStS only of the following remains:a large pelvis, an incisor belonging to a Rodent of the size of a Crcetodon,and an upper premolar referable to an Amblypocla. This latter specimen 3nlyis really interesting and has to be described with some detail.

    DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIMEN (see text-fig. 4)

    The tooth is rather worn by use. But still the pattern of the orowncan be recognised distinctly.

  • C. C. Young:Review of Early Tertiary FornjtiopjCrown formed by a single main external crescentia cusp (paracono)

    and a sub-crescentic well developed internal accessory cusp (protocone). Para-style represented by a small cusp terminating the anterior wing of the paracone.Metastyle not individualized. Crescentic outer wall of the tooth interruptedby a distinct median fold statting from the apex of the protocone. Anteriorcmgulum short and weak. Posterior cingulum strong, and forming a slightlyexpanded lobe.

    Maximum length of the crown. 14.5 mm. Maximum breadth, 23 mm.

    COMPARISONS

    Fhe above described tooth cannot be regarded as a molar of Creodont(because the main external cusp is simple), nor as a premolar of Artiodactyle(because of the crescentic form of the same external cusp).

    We shall therefore refer it to an Amblypoda, but still with hesitation.First the tooth is relatively small. Secondly, the paracone is distinctly less deeplycrescentic than in Eudinoceras or Coryphodon, nor is there in any Amblypodawe know a median ridge in the middle of the concave extcrnal side of theparacone, on the upper premolars. Some likeness however can be notedbetween the tooth of Changsintie.n and the premolars (P2 and P) of Eudinoceraskholobolchiensis, horn Mongolia.

    Several Amblypoda have been discovered by the American Expeditionin the Upper Eocene and the Oligocene of Mongolia.

    The pelvis found by Mr. Pci in association with the tooth abovedescribed is rather large (size approximately as in a modern Camel). And judg-ing from its posterior part, which is considerably expanded, it seeIu to beref erable to au Ungulata. lt might therefcre belong to the same animal as thepremolar.

    20 We use here, for the cusps, the saine names as Osborn and Granger iii theirdescription of the Amblvpoda of Mongolia (s. below).

    1 Osbo'n, H.F. and Granger, W. Coryphodonts of Mongolia. . . Amer. MusNovit. No. 459 1931. p. 6, fig, 3.

  • 478 Bulletin of the Geological Society of China

    VI. Tiu POST-BASALTIC GMvs OF TATUNG (LATEOLIG0cENE?) (OR MIOCENE?) (9)

    Between Kouchiapu and Hsintsun (NW. of'a Tatung, N. Shansi) C.C. Wang noted a thick,- -

    Z ' conglomeratic formation, associated with sands andclays, lying unconformably over old formations. The

    1(57 .

    , beds are strongly dipping, and contain numerousbasaltic pebbles. (see fig. 5)

    ,../,, _uY', In spite of their strongly disturbed conditions,

    4.._. those beds, because later than the basalts, cannot

    4c be older than the Oligocene. They are possiblyVu

    .I'i even as young as the Miocene. This latter assump-.J .,/,

    tion would be supported (fig. 5, A) by the presenceof a lacustrine limestOne strangely similar to the

    -

    Miocene limestone of the Tunggur basin (Inner Mon-nVOz golia).

    n(f) VII. LOWER TERTIARY BEDS OF SHANTUNG

    lu (10 and 11)In Central Shantung, several sandy or con-

    glomeratic formations occur which may be more orC",

    less safely attributed to the Early Cenozoic.t-'- n the Tsuchuan and Poshan area, the red andv green sandstone (conglomeratic at the base) de-

    .._Escribed by Tan as capping the Mesozoic coalto

    .1' 22 In spite of a phonetic analogy, those gravels must4 n

    4 not be conhised with the "Tatur.g (J.) gravels.4.' F' ' of Richthofen, which occur, west of Nanking,e

    q.

    ti'

    0)4)t) o.,a

    z

    along the Yangtze23 The Coal held of atung, Shansi. Bull. Geol. Surv.

    No. 3. 1921, p. 72.L 24 Tar., H.C. Geology of Tsuchtmn-Poshan Coal field,

    Shantung. Bull. Ceo1. Surv. china No. 4, p.85, 1922.Tan, H.C. New research on the Mesozoic andearly Tertiary Geology in Shantung. Bull. Geol.Surv. No. 5, part. li, p. 116, 1923.

  • C. C. Young:Review of Early Tertiary Formations 479series, has most probably to be regarded as Cretaceous, since the formation iscut and metamorphosed by rocks (andesites) so far riot reported as intrusive inany Tertiary sediments of N. China.

    As definitely Tertiary, on the contrary based on excellent palmon-tological evidenceshave to be held the Red Sandis of the Kuanchuang series.(see fig. 6)

    This formation is well dveleped in the Mengyin, Laiwu and Fcihsienvalley, in the Southern part of Tajan and N. part of Ningyang, and also inHsintai where it contains shells and mammal remains. It is chiefly composedof red sands, clay and conglomerates, locally interbedded with yellow or graysandstone marl and limestone, and also occasionally with dark gray shale's,.apparently carboniferoos. In the Szushui district the red sand contains gypsum,and the clay is paitty carbonaceous. The thickness 0f the formation variezfrom 600-1000 meters.

    CCI K.n-C1Lua' Sev4eS

    Fig. 6. Seciior. of Kuanchuang. (After Tan, 1923, p. 35.)

    The Mammal fauna of the Kuanchuang series, has been studied byZdansLy. According to hirn, 3 localities have yielded fossils, as follows : -

    1. KUAN-CHUANG

    Propalotheium sirense Zd.?Hqracathe,ne, gen. et sp. indet. (two speciesHeptacnodor! drthirarn Zd.? Haplorn glus sp.

    25 Zdansky, O. Die alttertiren Sugetiere Chinas nebst st'raigraphischen Berner-kuagen. Pal. Sin., Ser. C, Vol. VI, Fasc. 2, 930, p. 80.

  • 480 Bulletin of the Geological Societq of China

    "T'AN'S LOCALITY"

    Rodent gen. et sp. indet.Grangeria canina Zd.Ungulata gen. et sp. indet. (three species)

    HSIN-T'AI-HSIEN, HSI-KOLJ

    Hyracotheriine, gen. et sp. indet.Perissodactyle, gen. et sp. indet.

    According to Zdansky, the Knan-uang series proper is early Eocne,the Tan's Locality would be younger. The Hsintai fossils are too Fragmentaryfor allowing a close determinatinn of their age.

    VIII. THE TERTIARY CONGLOMERATES OF N. HONAN(EOCENE? OR RATHER PLIOCENE?) (12)

    Along the N. Honan plain border in the Hantan and Changteh area,extensive conglomeratic formations occur in the foothills, which have beendescribed by C. C. Wang in the following way: (see fig. 7)

    Fig. 7. Section of Shehsien, N. Honan. L Gonglomerates, 2. Loose red sandstone,3. White band sandstone. (After C.C. Wang, 1927. p. 4.

    "The formation unconformably overlies the Mesozoic or Palaozoicstrata. The pebbles are mostly come from the Sinian Quarztite and vary insize from I to 2 inches to 4 or 5 inches. Some basalt pebbles or of other

    26 Wang, C.C. Geology of Wuan, Shehsien, Linghsien and Anyang, N. Honan.Bull. Geot. Sury. China, No. 9. 1927, p. 4.

  • C. C. Young:Review of Early Tertiary Formations 481igneous rocks are also found. The conglomerates often form hills of 40-50meters above the ground and by weathering yield abundant loose gravel on theslope. An especially extensive area of the conglomerate occurs N.W. ofAnyang between Changho and Yuanho. The cement of the conglomerate isoften contributed by a red argillaceous and fine sandy material. It generallydips to S. E. The dip angle is steeper on the western part amounting to

    1l II

    Ili lilt//IIii!! fI1"(l'if

    II I' Iii!i'i'/:' I/I!i1'

    'iii !it!,iiti; HI

    Q OQ o 0 0o

    o oOo :000 o a

    -10m.

    -s

    -4.32

    o

    Eoeene beds,

    GraveLLoess.

    Fig. 8. Eocene beds of Yanc,h, a. Eocene beds, b. Gravel. c. Loess. (AfterZdansky from Andersson, 1923, p. 128.)

  • 482 Bulletin of the Geological Society of China

    1 6 and becomes very very gentle 2-3 in the eastern part". On account oftheir tilted conditions, the Hantan conglomerates have been frequently cor-related with the Changsintien Eocene formation. But the presence of basalticpebbles makes this age highly improbable."

    According to Teilhard (personal communication) who has observedthe formation in the Linhkou area, the conglomerates are only locally tilted,and build a series of distinctly preserved terraces, the highest of which hasprobably to be correlated with the Upper gravels (Pontian?) of Choukoutien,The lower terraces are distinctly overlain by typical red and reddish loam,

    IX. THE EOCENE DEPOSITS OF MIDDLE HUANGHO \'ALLEY (13)YANCH SEIUEs (EOCENE AND OLICOCENE)

    The Yanch Series is by far the best known lower Tertiary forma-tion in China, not only because it was described in detail by Andeisson, butalso because it contains numerous invertebrate and vertebrate fossils. Thestructure and the nature of the sediments are explained here by a sectionafter Andersson, (fig. 8). The fossils so far recognised are as follows:

    lnvertebrates:Planorbis pseudamrnonius Schioth.P. sparnacensis DeshayesP. charlieri DeshayesP. sinensis OldhenerPhysa cf. lamberti DeshayesConchilus deschiensianum DeshayesEu pera sinensis Odhener

    Vertebrates --Loc. 2 and 729 f Zdansky.

    Simplicidentaia, gen. et sp. inde. (two species)27 n the Chinese text the dip reaches 300.28 Odhrier, N.H. Lacustrine Mollusca from Eocene Deposits in China. Bull.

    GeoL Surv. China. No. 14, p. 119.29 This ocaiity lies in the South bank of Huangho and thus belongs to Mienchib-

    hsien of Honan.

  • C. C. Youiig:Review of Ear!y Tertiary Formations 4834 nthracosenev ambi guns

    Anop!otheriide, gen. et sp, indet.?bichobune sp.Cristidentinus depereti Zd.Diplalophodon similis Zd.Helatetine, gen. et sp. indet.?Isecto!ophine, gen. et sp. indet.Ar'nynodo.n sinensis 7_d.?Amynodon sp.Eomoro pus? quaciridenMus Zd.Eomoropus? major Zd.Lomoropus? rnininuis Zd.

    Loc. ('---"River Section")?'Cricetodon Schaubii Zd.Rodent gen. et sp. indet.A nthracotherium? sinense Zd.Anthracotherium? sp. indet.Hoanghonius sieh! mii Zd.

    Judging by the characters of the mammalian fauna, Zdansky thinks thatthe Yanch formation covers two different ages. Loc. 2 (Yanch) and Loe.7 (Mienchihhsin, Jentsun) are comparable with the Upper-Eocene Sharamurunand Irdin Manha formation of Mongolia, while the so-called "river section",distinctly younger in characters should be compared with the Oligocene ArdynOb0 formation of Mongolia. No clear stratigraphical break however has beenrecognised in the field for supporting thi5 idea.

    ON THE EXTENSION OF THE YNCH FORMATJON

    Outside of its original area the Yarich formation can be traced atleast in th following places:.-

  • 484 Bulletin of the Geological Society of China

    In Mienchih ami Hsinan, along the Lunghai railway where amany, sandy ?nd conglomeratic series is observed below the Hipparion redclay. By its lithological characters this series is very similar to the Yanchbeds. But no distinct dip is observed. An Early Tertiary age is neverthelessprobable30.

    In the eastern Pinglu area,. where occur the well known gypsi-ferous deposits recently described by Tsao31 and revisited by Pci and Inysel P.Judging by their stratigraphical position, their lithological characters, and theirtilted condition, those gypsiferous beds are most probably a prolongation ofthe Yanch formation. (see fig. 9)

    SSE

    HUANHO SUNGCHIAUNG

    +++ .p+++1.A a C C

    81< !fl

    Fig. 9. Section of Pinglu, A. Microgranite, C. Carboniferous. a-d. Early Tertiaryformations, e-g. Late Cenozoic deposits. (After Yoing and Pci.)

    3. More generally, we can correlate with the Yanch formation theccnspicuous series of tilted conglomerates, reported at several pIaces, alongthe Weiho depression and in the basins 0f Eastern Kansu. Such are:

    4t *4UULINTSUtI

    .r

    I/IU ujii I

    30 Young, C.C. and Pci, W.C. On the Cenozoic Geology between Loyang andSian. Bull. Geol. Soc. (lina. Vci. XIII. No. 1, pp. 73-90.

    31 Tsao, S.L. 929. Gypsum Deposits of Pinglu District, South Shensi Bull.Geol. Soc. Chifla. Vol. VIII, pp. 327-342.

    32 Young and Pci, ibid.. Vol. Xiii, No. I, pp. 73-90.

  • C. C. Yowg:Review of Early Tertiary Formatcns 485

    V) The conglomerates of Sanyuanhsien andLungtungchuan (Chinyanghsien) described by Chang33as entirely similar to the Changsingtien formation.Total thickness 200 meters. (14) (see fig. 10)

    The red sandstones, red clays, con- glomerates occasionally associated with lake deposits

    reported by Chao in Central Shensi.The Kuyuan Series of Kansu. This series

    found by H.ieh, has been recognised by Anderssonas a most probable equivalent of the Yanch forma-

    r.i3 tion. We reproduce here the section given byAndersson in order to show the general characters ofthe deposits. (15) (see fig. Il)

    g Similar formation may be traced in W. NinghsiaI(for instance, along the Huangho, a few miles South

    nf Diiincvw) and in E. Kansu. All are tilted and36

    - - gypsiferous

    South of Kuyuan, the lower Tertiary con-glornerates are observed at Tienshui, Wusan, Lungsi

    > and in the Minhsien area37.

    33 Chang, L.C. Soil regions in the Wei,ho valley,Shensi. Soil Bulletin, No. 2, 1931.

    34 Chao, K.P. Gsology of lower Chingho and Loho.Contribution 0f the Inst. of Geol. Acad. Sinica.

    00 0 No. 2, 1931 p. 80 (in inese.o

    35 Andersson, J.G. Essays on the Cenozoic ofNorthern China. Mem. Geol. Surv. No. 3, 1923,p.144.

    36 Personal communication of P. Teilhard de Chardin.

    37 Chao, Y T. and Hung, 1'. K. The Geology ofTsinglingshan and Szec,huan. Mem. Geol. Surv.China. Sr. A. No. 9, !931.

  • 486 Bulletin of the Geological Society of China

    X. Ti-ii LOWER TERTIARY DEPOSITS OF THE TSINLINGAND SZECHUAN AREA (16-17)

    in the memoir of Chao and Huang on the Geology of the Tsiolingsharrand Szechuan, several local formations are referred to Cretaceous and Eoceneage. Such are the Szechuan series, the Tsienfuyen Series, the Kuangyanformation, the hengtsianyen formation, the Tungho conglomerate and theHuihsien Series. They are all composed of conglomerates and san&tone,more or less tilted. h the text, Chao and Huang did not differentiate cleaTlywhich of those formations should rather be ref erred to the Cretaceous of tothe Eocene. In the map, however most of thera are given as Eoceae (with the

    7h,;, Pos$,Y/e,o.ts4fCyps4m (?oS fon -

    .f,4i/n/ooJE, wci'f

    A B

    Fig. L Ecene strata of Kuyuan. (Aftef Hsieh from Andcrsson, p. 44.)

    exception of the Szechuan Series, and the Tungho conglomerates). 0n thecontrary, according to C. Y. Lee who has worked extensively in those areawith T. C. Tan, most of those deposits should belong to the Cretaceous withexception of the Huihsien Series referred to the Eocene. In the absence ofany fossib, it is difficult to decide the question. Let us observe however that,since Eocene beds are clearly recognised in the Eastern section of the Tsing-bag (see below), it would be stange if the formation would be missing inthe middle part of the same range.

    38 Chao, T. Y. ad Huang, T. K. The Geology of Tsinglingshan and Szechuan,Marn. Ggol. Surv. China. Ser. A. No. 9, 1931.

  • C. C. Young: Review of Early Tertiary Formations 487

    XI. EARLY TERTIARY FORMATIONS ALONG THE SOUTHERN SLOPESOF THE CENTRAL PART OF THE TSINLING RANCE (18)

    In W. Hupeb and in the area where Rouan, Hupeh and She,usi comein contact, very thick early Tertiary formations have been found by C. Li,and S. Chu. According to them, three different series at least can be r-cognised in the formation:

    1. Fnchuan S cri es. This first series, lying unconfomably overolder formations, consists mostly of red sandstone and locally of many shaksand clay. A few conglomerates. The total thickness, in the well developedparts, reaches at least a hundred meters. The series occurs chiefly in thelower part of N. W. Hupeh and W. Honan, the best locality being Fan-chuan, from where two vertebrate fossils have been found, namely. (see fig-13).

    LIA W( HO KOU . .'

  • 188 Bulletin of the Geological Society of China

    2:o

    z

    z4

    N')

    .' - ci Lophioletes sp. or Cnolophus sp.4.J E ff Sinohadrianus sichuanensis Ping42.- Q- Q

    --

    - The mammal remains suggest an-1V 2g j Upper Eocene age comparable with the

    Irdin Manha formation in Mongolia.' ' 2. Lianghoou beds (Pre-Fan-

    chuan?) Only known between the borderIj of the Hsjnshan ( UI) and Fanhsien

    , over a small area of about twosquare lis. (see fig. 12)("4.

    .

    .. The beds overlie unconformably at,Sinian floor and begin with a basal con-

    E '' glomerate. Mostly conglomerate, sand-OQ >stone and shales, about 70 meters thick.

    - No fossils have been found u theE ..a formations. By their lithological charac-

    ter the beds differ from the other- Tertiary beds developed in the area,

    .'Ebut still more from any other older

    - , ._ Q-C . 00 Q - formation. They are referred tentative-

    E ly to a Tertiary age, earlier than the-c - " 2 Fanchuan series.

    0. .

    3. Wusiaoling marl (4) (Post2

    E - . Fanchuan series). This formation, well'-C QQ,,'

    '-2 ' " developed in Kucheng (ii), succeeds's

    -

    o - unconformably the Fanchuan series.__JC -

    41 Teilhard de Chardin, 1930. On oc-currence of a Mongolian Eocene Peris-sodactyle in the red sandstone ofSichuin, S.W. Honan. Bull. Geol.Soc. China. Vol. IX. pp. 33 l-332.

    42 Ping, C. 1929. A new fossil turtlefrom Honan. ibid. Vol, VIII. pp.231-242.

    e

    o OQ )t: Q - ,,' --rO Q Q -t:

    V)

  • C. C. Young:--Review of Early Tertiary Forrnatiors 409

    lt begins with a basal conglomerate (about 1 0 meters thick) containing pebblesderived from the Fanchuan Series. Total thickness, about 80 meters. Thebeds dip at a very gentle angle, and sometimes are nearly horizontal.

    No tossils. Li and Chu suggest an Oligocene age.1f Li and Chu's assumption is correct, the lower Tertiary beds 0f the

    Southern slope of the Central part of Tsingling can be divided into 3 forma

    XII. OTHER RECORDS OF LOWERTERTIARY BEDS IN HUpEH:-

    THE TUNGHU FORMATION (19-2 1)

    Very similar to the above described Tertiary formations oi the southTsinling is a thick series of tilted conglomerates and sandstones extensivelyspread over the Hupeh, and generally comprised under the name of "TunghuSeries". This formation is chiefly reported so far:

    From N. W. Hupeh, by Meng43, Y and Shu, where about1000 in. of limestone conglomerate and thin-bedded sandstone overlie uncon-formably the older formations. (see fig. 14)

    From Central Hupeh456

    43 Meng, H.M. Geology of Nanchang, Tangkang and Yuan An Coallields, Northwestern Hupeh, Mcm. of the Institute oI Geology. No, VIII. 1929, p. 17.

    44 Y. C.C., and Shu, W.P., Geology of Siangyang, Icheng, Chingmen, Chung..siang and Chingshan Districts. N. Hupeh, ibid. p. 52.

    45 Li, C. Geology of Puchi, Kiayu, Hsienning, Chunyang and Wuchang districtsHupe,h Province. Mcm. or the Institute of Geology, No. iii, 1928. . 23. (inChinese).

    46 on both sides of the range forming the boundary betw.een Honan and HupehProvinces, the lower Tertiary red beds are well developed, especially in thesouthern slone along the railway line particularly near the station of Yangchiachai.

    tion in chronological order as follows : -1. Wusiaoling Series Oligocene2. Fanchuan Series ......... Upper Eocene3. Lianghokou Series Lower Eocene

  • 490 Bulletin of the Geological Society of China

    3). From S. W. Hupeh (Ichang area)47 Around Ichang, thePalozoic Hwanling antidine is bordered by a thick and extensive series olimestone conglomerates and sandstones, already often described, vz. by J. S.Lee50, Hsieh and Uu'. According to our own observation, the series, E.of Ichang, can be represented by the section illustrated in hg. 15.

    In this seclion have to be observed: 1) the clear presence of two con-glomerates; 2) the presence, first noticed by Hsieh and Liu, of a 30 ni. thicklacustrine limestone (Yangchi limestone) most probably later than the secondconglomerate. By its lithological characters and the small gastropods (Byhinia?)

    W1LChieu Tse Sho.i

    Charg Chia Chun

    s N

    -

    Fig. 14. Section of Chieutsezhan to Changhiachung showing uoconformity conl:act be-tween I aiid 2 and 3. I. Hsianchi Coal Series, 2. Limestone conglomerate.3. Red clay formation. (After Meng, 1929, p. 35.)

    47 Lee J.S. and chao, Y.T., 1924. Geology of the Gorge districts of the Yangticfrom Ichang to Tzekuei with special reference to the development of the Gorges.Bull. Geol. Soc. China. Vol. 111, pp. 350-392.

    48 Hsieh, C,Y and chao, Y.T.. 1925. Geology of Ichang, Hsinshen, Tzekueiand Patung Districts. \V. Hupek. Bull. Ceo!. Surv. China. No. 7.

    49 Hsidi, C.Y. and Liu, C.C. Geology and mineral resources of South-westernHupeh. Bull. Gee!. Surv. China, No. 9. 1927, p. 41.

    50 Lee j.S. and Chao. Y.T., 1924. Geology .3f the Gorge districts of the Yangtzefrom Ichang to Tzekuei with special reference to the development of the Gorges.Bull. Ceo!. Soc. China. Vol. Iii pp. 350-392.

    51 Hsieh, C.Y. and Liu, C.C. Geology and mineral resources of South-westernHupeb. Bull. Ceo!. Surv. China, No. 9, 1927, p. 4!.

  • Fig. 15. Section of Ichang area. P.z. Paheozoic fomiation, CI. FirstS. Sandstones, G2. Second conglomerates, L. F'resh water limestone, R. Redsand and day.

    (1) HS1NHUA (22)"Red Sandstone. The distribution of the red sandstone is by far ex-

    tensive along the southeastern bank of Tze river where it unconformably over-lies the Upper Tzemenchiao limestone, and generally ha.s a dip angle of 15-2O. ta the base cf this formation a conglomerate is partially exposed nearChangkutang. Its pebbles are almost entirely composed of limestone rather

    52 Yh, L.F. and Chao, K.P. Geology and rnin'ral deposits of Yangsj Tayehand O Cheng, South-eastern Hupeh. Mem of the Inst. of Geology, N0. , 1928.

    53 Tk, C.C., Wang, H.C. and Kuc, S.Y. Report on the Geology andmineral

    resources of Hsinhua, Hunna, Bull. Geol. Surv. }-hinan. No. &, p. 17, 1929.

    C. C. Yaung:Review of Eri Tertiary Formafioru 491it contains abundantly, the Yangchi limestone seems to be decidedly ofTertiary age.

    In SW.. Hupeh, the conglomerates and sandstone occur also, ac-cording to Hsieh, in the districts of Haifan, Shihnan, and Chienshjh

    4). From SE. Hupeh. In S.E. Hupeh, the beds tilted and folded,are chiefly composed of violet sandstone, interbedded with conglomerates, Thisis very likely the same formation as the one described by C. C. Wang fromKiangsi (see below).

    XIII. T Low TERTIARY BEDS OF HUNAN (22-25)In Hunan, as in Hupeh, red conglomerates and sandstones of an ap-

    parently early Tertiary age, are found extensively. The following lines quotedfrom different geologists, describe some of the most important localities:

    w

  • 492 Bulletin of the Geological Society of China

    resembling Permian Doliolina limestone. They are of unequal size and angularshape, tightly cemented in a reddish sandy matrix. The upper part of thisformation consists of a red coarse, massive sandstone, often used for pavingroads in the Hsinhua city. The total thickness as measured to the east ofthe city exceeds 400 m. inspite to the top unknown."

    'Basing on both its lithologic tharacter and the usual presence ofgypsum and salt in the sandstones as occurring in Siangtan, it rather seems tous that this formation is probably an equivalent of the Yinchen 5andstone orthe Tunghu series of Hupei."

    (2) LILtNG (23)"Red Sandstone. This sandstone is quite similar in lithological char-

    acter to that occurring along the Siang River. In the region surveyed, it iswidely met with to the southeast of Hsienkumiao and Yuanmuling, where itforms a series of small hill-locks ranging in height from ten to twenty metersabove the ground surface. Within the area mapped, it always d:ips towardnorthwest at an angle of 10-30' and unconformably overlies the old rocks.On a hill slope about one li south of Shihmenkou it is found unconformablylying upon the Jurassic coarse sandstone, here the former dipping toward N40' W at about 100, while the latter towards S 20' E at about 40'. Thisdiscordant contact is quite remarkable and can be directly observed in the field(see Fig. 5 in the Chinese text)".

    (3) HS1ANG11S1ANGu (24-25)"Red Sandstone and Conglomerate: In the coal field, the outcrops

    are only observed on the north hill slope of ai..tzunao and at the southhill slope of Sung-shan. The exposed part is not very thick, being onlyabout 30 meters. The strata dip at a very gentle angle and are thereforerather widely distributed. The pebbles of the conglomerate in the bottom

    54 Tien, C.C. Report on the Geology of Shihrnenkou Jurassic Coal field. Liling.ibid. No. 9, p. 7, 1Q30.

    55 Tieq, C.C. and Wang. H.C.. A study of the Geology of Tzuirenhiao coalfield, Hsian'hsiang. ibid No. 13. 1932, p. 12.

  • C. C. Young: Review of Early Tertiary Forrnatio 493part are mostly of limestone: some are so sandstone, shale and granite. Theydiffer in size greatly, ranging from fist size to 1 foot in diameter and showangularity, indicating that they had not been transported very far before theywere deposited. It is very wide spread in central Hunan".

    Similar formation has been reported by Chu, a long time ago, fromLeiyang. (25)

    XIV. THE LOWER TERTIARY Bs OF THELOWER YANGTZE VALLEY

    Very similar developments o conglomerates, sandstones and redclays, all referable to an early Tertiary age, have been repeatedly re-ported by geologists working in the lower Yangtze valley. Different nameshave ben proposed for those formations. Our present knowledge on thequestion may be briefly summarized in the following way.

    TSIO t-NWONWSE

    Fig. 16. Section of Tsaoshihwo, N. Kiangsi. 1 - Yungsin series (Palmozoic) 2. Redconglomerates and sandstones. 3. Red sandstone and shales interbedded. (AfterWang, 1930, p. 38.)

    - KlANGS! PROVINCE

    In N. Kiangsi, the Tertiary beds hve been chiefly observed and de-scribed by Tan and Wang.

    a. Hangpu sand and Gravel, S. E. of Nanchin( (26)"This is a superficial covering extending above all older formations.

    The Sand and Gravel may be locally so consolidated as to become sand-56 The coal field of Leiyang, Bull. Geol. Surv. China. No. 3, 77 1922.57 Tan, H.C. and Wang, S.W. Geological reconnaissance aloflg the projected

    railway line from Nanchang to Fuchow. Bull. Ceo!. Suri,. N0. 14, 1930, p. 3.

  • 494 Bulletin of the Geological Society of China

    stone and conglomerate. The thickness varies from 20 to loo meters. Chief-ly well developed in the district of Chinhsien, Liuchuan and Chungyen. TheRed Sandstone, N. E. of Chungyen, shows distinct inclination."

    b. Wuning Red beds of Shiushu? (27)'Conglomerate predominates at the base. Then conglomerate and

    Sandstone alternate with red clay which becomes dominant in the upper part.The pebbles are mostly angular and 0f local origin. This formation as a ruleoccurs in the valleys near where the river has made young cutting of recentage. It is unconformable with all the older formation. There must havebeen however some younger movements again since the red beds themselves aredipping a

    c. Red Sandstne and Conglomerate of Yunghsin (28)"Overlying unconformaby the various series described above, is a series

    of Red Sandstone and Conglomerate. The latter consitutes the lower part,consisting of pebbles 0f limestone and quartzite 5-6 cm. in diameter. Aboveit Red shales alternate with sandstone, with the latter dominating. This isin fact the most common rock in the Kiangsi Province. In the area traversed,the best section occurs at Tsassuwan in Yuughsin. Its age is probablyTertiary." (see fig. l6.

    2. ANKWEI AND KIANGSU (29)In Anhei, the lower Tertiary beds are known as I4suannan and as

    Pukow series in Kiangsu :60 This series, studies in the field by W. S." Wangand C. Y. Li, is described as follows:

    58 Wang, C.C. Geology of Shiushui, Kiangsi. Bull. Geol. Surv. No. 14, 1930,p. 15.

    59 \Vang, C.C. On the Geology and coal resources of the districts of China. Suf uand Yunghsin in Kiangsi. Bull. Geol. Survey China. No. 2. p. 84, 1920.

    60 Wang, W.S. and L, C.Y. Geological reconnaissance along the NankingNanping Section of the projected railway line from Nanking to Kangung. Bull.Geol. Surir. China, No. 14, 1930, p. 9.

  • C. C. Young:Reoiew of Early Tertiary Formations 495

    'Red clay is well developed in Hsuancheng and Nanling in S. Anhwei.Conglomerate often occurs at the base, to be succeeded by the red clay con-stituting low rolling hills. This formation is common in Chekiang, Kiangsuand Anhwei and has been variously named the Yuhuataibl formation near Nan-king and Red Sandstone in Chekiang. Unconformable over all older forma-bon.

    GENERAL OBSERVATION ON THE RED BEDS OF THE

    LOWER YANGTZE VALLEY

    Concerning the Early Tertiary bed of those area, Dr. Wong has madethe following remarks which are worth quoting so as to serve as a base for thediscussion given below:

    "The Tertiary formations described under the different name of Hangpu(i) series in cenLial and south Kiangsi by H.C. Tan, Hsuannan (ici)series in south Anhwei by H.S. Wang, and Wuning (*) series in N.W.Kiangsi by C.C. \Vang, agree fairly well in rock characters and field structure.They all consist of Red clay, sandstone and conglomerate which may be locallypredominent. They are all unconformable with all old formations, being notfolded with them. But they are slightly tilted and faulted. The exact ageis unknown since no fossil has ever been found. They may be as old as Eoceneand equivalent to the Fanchuang (t) red sandstone on the border of Honanand Hupeh from which C. U has recently discovered fossil bones. This con-stitutes unfortunately the only fossils so far known from the Tertiary strata insouth Yangtze, and we do not know whether our red series as above namedreally correspond to the Fanchuang red sandstone. They may be as well ofNeogenic Tertiary more or less equivalent to the Pontian clay of North China.Again there lacks fossil evidence."

    6! The Yuhuatai formation is now recognised as representing a Late Tertiary horizontalterrace, traceable all along the Yangtze Valley between Naztking and Ichang. TheYuhuatai gravels dissect clearly the tilted Early i'ertiary Red Sandstones.

    62 Wang, W.H. 1930. The major stratigraphic divisions in the middle andlower Yangtze valley. Bull. Ceo!. Surv. China, No. 14, p. 28.

  • 496 Bulletin of the Geological Society of China

    'C.C. Wang m his report on the Shiushui valley described a red claylater than his Wuning series as evidenced by its overlying position and horizontalbedding. He tentatively assigned it to late Tertiary or Quaternar. Theterms red beds or red clay are rather confusing unless specially defined, forred clay, shale and sandstone are found in several quite different foi:mations.In such a case, a local name really is useful which of course shouLd be welldefined by stratigraphical and paiontological observations."

    XV. CHUKIANC RED BEDS OF S. W. CHEKIANG (30)

    This Series has been described by Liu and Chao as follows: -"The formation is preserved in the form of an elongated basin, bounded

    by high peaks of rhyolite hills both on the South and on the North. Inthis basin, the topography is rather gradual and low with the Chukiang Rivermeandering in the Center. The Chukiang Red Sandstone begins with a thickbasal conglomerate which lies unconformably upon the Rhyolite formation onthe south margin of the basin, and directly above the palozoic rocks on thenorth. The pebbles in this conglomerate are derived exclusively from thepreexisting formations in the intermediate neighbourhood. Hence on the southmargin, they are foimed entirely by rhyolite, limestones and sandstones etc.This seems to indicate the fact during the deposition of the Chukiang sand-stone, the topography was essentially of the same type as that existing to-day, viz, the streams poured their contents into the Central basin from thesurrounding mountains. The basal conglomerate is followed by a vast sequenceof red soft sandstones which have the same lithological characters as thoseoccurring in other provinces of the Yangtze Valley. The age of this formationis generally believed to be of Early Tertiary.

    At the peripheral part of the red basin, the beds dip generally at lessthan 20 degrees towards the center. in the Central part on the other hand,they are variously tilted and occasionally have an inclination attaining 65degrees such as on the east bank of the Chinhualiarig beside Langohi."

    63 Liu, C.C. and Chao, Y.T. Geology of S.W. Chekiang. Bull. Geai. Surv.No. 9, (927, p. 24.

  • C. C. Young:Review of Early Tertiary Form.atj 4917The same formation has been described later: by Shu from 'r

    Chekiang; by Yen, from Southern Cheldang; more fully by Yoh and Chi3ngfrom S. W. Chekiang; and finally by Li and Ching, along the Hungch,jgrailway line67.

    XVI. Ti*' KED ANDSTONE ER1ES OF I'WANQTUNGAND Kw.r.csi (31-36)

    A Red sedes, composed chiefly of red sandstones and conglomeratsometimes interbedded with shales and red clays is extensively developed, inKwangtung and Kwangsi. One of the most characteristic features ofdeposits is their bright blood-red colour. They cover unconformably all theprevious rocks, and are generally tilted.

    kNAN HSIyNG CITY CHU T'IEW TA FEN UNGI : * .5QmSIUJNRIUE.

    .___.

    " ' ' '100jo C b j5 o. 201

  • 498 Bulletin of the Geological Society of China

    They may be divided roughly into two different parts correspondingpossibly to a single sedimentary cycle. The lower part of the series consistsof conglomerates and cross bedded red sandstones, intercalated with red shales.The upper part is mide of red shales and red clays, intercalated with sand-stons. The lower part is typically developed in the vicinity of Tanhsiashan.where the red conglomerates and sandstones reach 300 meters in total thickness.The upper part of the red beds is well developed in the red basin of Nan-hsiung districts, with a total thickness of 300 to 400 meters. lie namesTanhsia series and Nanhsiung series were proposed by Fong and Chu forthe two parts respectively. (see fig. 1 7)

    Both dip generally 10-20 degrees, and locally much more. Theyare commonly regarded by the geologist of Kwangtung and Kwarigsi as ex-tending from a Late Mesozoic to an Early Tertiary. According to a recentwork of Chen, the Tanhsia may belong to the Upper Cretaceous, and theNanhsiung to the Lower Tertiary.

    As told above, the distribution of thic formation is remarkably exten-sive. Most of the papers publishd by the Liangkuang Geological Surveyrefer to it. For instance, outside of the type localities, the foimation isreported:

    L At Kwei, Hung, Yungchuan, Yungning and Pingyang, inKwangsi69.

    2. Along the railway line between Kwangchow and Shackuan70.

    68 Forig, K.L. and Chu, H.S. Preliminary report on the Geology and Mineralresources of Chuchiang, Jenhua, Nanhsiung and Shihhsing diircts of NorthernKwangtung. Annual Report of the Geol. Surv. Kwangtung and Kwangsi. Vol.I, 1927-1928, p. 39.

    69 hu, T.O. A preliminary Report on the Geology and Minerai Resources ofKwei, Hung, Yunchen, Yungning and Pingyang Districts, Kwangs Provinces.Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Kwangtung and Kwaiigsi. Vol. I, 1927-1928, p. 12.

    70 Fong, K.L. and Chang, H.J. Preliminary Report on the Geology along theYuehhan railroad in Kwangtung. ibid. p. 77.

  • C. C. Young:Review of Early Teriiary Formations 499In the N.E. Kwangsi71.In W. KwangtungIn the districts between the Yuehhan railway and Tungkiang73.In E. Kwangtung, where it is described by Yoh and Yao under

    the name of Meichiang Red beds74.In the Central Kwangtung75;

    GENERAL OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

    1. DISTRIBUTION OF TI-lE EARLY TERTIARY FORMATIONS IN CHINA

    Using the preceding data we are now in position to make some generalobservations concerning the distribution of the Early Tertiaiy formations inChina. It was generally believed by geologists that in China the only wellrepresented Cenozoic formations were the Loess nd the Hipparion Red Clays.We now realize that the Late Cenozoic deposits in China are not only muchricher and more complex than they were supposed to be, but also that the

    71 Fong, K.L. Geology and Mineral Resources of Kweilin, Ining etc. of Kwangsi.Ann. Rep. Vol. 2, part 2, 1928.29, p 39 and also:\Vang, C.. Geology of Chuchang coal fields, Kwangtung. Ann. Rep.Geol. Surv. Kwangtung and Kwangsi Vol. 3, Part 2, p. 73.

    72 Lee, T.C. Geology and Mineral Resources of Suiwen, Haikang, etc., Kwang.tung. Ann. Report Ceo1. Survey Kwangtung and Kwangsi. Vol. 3, Part 2.1929-30, p. 10.

    73 Lee, T.C. A summary of Geology of tise districts between the Yuehhan railwayand Tungchiang. Ann. Report Geol. Survey Kwangtung and Kwangsi. Vol.4. Part II. 1931-32. p. 15.

    74 Yob, S.S. and Yao, N.K. Preliminary Report on the Geology and MineralResources of Han Chiang region E. Kwangtung. ibid. p. 24.

    75 Hsu, J.L. and Chiang Y. A summary of Geology and Mineral Resources alongHsichiang and Kwangtung. ibid. p. 39, and also:Lee, H.T. Geology and Mineral Resource of San Shui, Kac Yao etc., Kwang-tg. Ann. Report Ceo1. Survey, Kwangtung and Kwangsi. Vol. 2, Partl 1928-29. p. 50.

  • 500 Bulletin of the Geological Society of China

    early Tertiary formations are very extensively developed. It is almost certainthat by more systematical studies, we shall be able sorne day to read thegeological history 0f the Early Cenozoic age as well in China as in Mongolia.

    A mere glance on the Map accompanying the present paper will showthat with the exception of Szechuan, Yunnan, Kweichow and Fukien Ear lvTertiary formations are zeported from every province. The big blank repre-sented by Eastern Honan, Northern Anhui and Kiangsu is simply due to thecovering of alluvial deposits.

    2. GENERAL CHARACTERS

    If we try, now , to express shortly the most general features character-izing in common those Early Tertiary formations, we come to the followingpoints : -

    I. Most of them are composed by coarse materials such as con-glomerates and sandstone especially in S. China. In the lower Yangtze Valleyonly one &rea (Hnan series) is formed of "Red Clay." In Middle China,on the contrary, several places (Yanchi series, Fanchuan series, Yanch seriesetc.) show interbedded maris and limestones.

    in N. China basalt flows are frequently found (2-7). Coal seriesor plant-bearing beds are known in several places (I 2,4,7 .)Th.

    Fossiliferous localities are very rare. Only four have yieldedVertebrate remains (8,11 13,16).

    In many localities the deposits are gypsiferous (10,13,20,33, etc.).Nearly all of the formations are more or less tilted (1 5-70

    degrees); but distinct folding is exceptional.Most of the formations are found at the foot of ranges, or along

    the border of Late Cenozoic basins.

    76 Many Cenozoic basalts occur also in S. China. (Nanking, Fukien, Kwangtung,etc.). But none of theni is associated with fossiliferous beds and stirne of theta(vg. in Nanking) are surely Late Cenozoic so that I have omitted them in the map.

  • C. C. Young:Review oJ Early Tertiary Formations 5013. CHRONOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION

    Because the lithological characters of the Early Tertiary formationsabove recorded are extremely uniform, and as long as no additional fossils arediscovered, it is very difficult to determine their precise age. The followingchronological arrangement, may be proposed, provisionally for the main seriesof localities:

    Oligocene

    Wushun seriesKalgan basaltFanshih serisJentsun series

    (Upper Yuanchu)Post-Fanchuan series

    ? Changsintien seriesEocene and Kuanchuan seriesPaleocene Lower Yuanchu series

    Fanchuan seriesLianghoko series

    Tunghu series(W. Hupeh)

    Pukow series(Kiangsu)

    Nansin series(Kwangtung)

    4. COMPARISONS WITH THE EARLY TERTIARY BEDS OF MONGOLIAIn the Map accompanying the present paper, I have reported in addi-.

    tion to the localities belonging to China proper, the chief Early Tertiary forma-tions reported in Mongolia and Ordos by the American Central-Asiatic Expedi-tionTh and by F.F. Licent and Teilhard79. According to the latest list given

    :77 In the table, no difference in age is suggested for the series referred to a samegeological peiiod. Their arrangement in the list is arbitrary.

    78 See the publications of the Central Asiatic Expedition of the American Museumof Natural History.

    79 Teilhard de Chardin, P. Mammifres fossiles de Chine et de Mongolie. An-nales de Palontologie, T. XV, 1926.

    Miocene ? Tatung beds

    Upper Cretaceous Tanhsian series (?)

  • 502 Bulletin of the Geological Society of China

    by Andrews8 there are at least 1 5 formations in the Gobi referable toPalocene, Eocene or Oligocene age. Between those formations and theEarly Cenozoic series of China, some interesting difference are noticeable.

    80 Andrews, R.C. The new Conquest of Central Asia. Natural History of CentralAsia. Vol. 1, 1932, P. 566.

    Mongolian localities Chinese localities

    1. Sediments generally fine-grained Sediments generally coarse (conglo-(Clays and sands dominant) merates and sadatones; clays excep-tionnal)

    2, Very rich in mammal fossils Poor in mammal fossils

    3. Horizontal, or nearly horizontal Mostly tilted or even folded.(except along the Mongolian Altai).

  • C. C. Young: Review o! Early Tertiary Formations 503

    EXPLANATION OF THE MAPNumber on white ground: indicates the Early Tertiary formations knownin China.

    Numbers surrounded by circle: ordinary, unfossiliferous localities.Numbers surrounded by triangle: localities with basalt flows.Number surrounded by square: fossiliferous localities.(detailed name of the localities in the text.)

    11. Numbers on black circular ground: indicate' the Early Tertiary formationfound mostly in Mongolia by the American Expedition (J -9) and by Licentand Teilhard (10-1 1).

    Oligocene Hsanda GolEocene KholobolchjMiocene LobOligocene Hsanda GolPalieocene GashatoOligocene ... Ardyn Oho

    5 Oligocene Baron SogOligocene Ulan GochuUpper Eocene a Tukhurn at Ula Usu

    b. Ulan Shireh at NorthMesa (Probably identical andprobably Irdin Manha)

    Oligocene Baron Sog (= Houidjin)Oligocene Ulan GochuUpper Eccene Shara MurunOligocene

    ' HouldjinUpper Eocene Irdin ManhaUpper Eocene ArshantoMiocene Tung Gur

    I 0. Oligocene Saint Jacques, Santaoho1 L Oligocene Shuitungkou, S.E. Ninghsia

  • C. C. Young: Review of Early Tertiary Formations Plate I1 105

    SCALE :500000000 400 500K..0 00 200