APA - In-text Citations 5th Edition

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APA - In-text Citations 5th Edition

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ContacttheeditorsSocialSciencesOverviewAPAintextcitationsAPAsintextcitationsprovideatleasttheauthorslastnameandtheyearofpublication.Fordirectquotationsandsomeparaphrases,apagenumberisgivenaswell.TheguidelinespresentedhereareconsistentwithadvicegiveninthePublicationManualoftheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation,6thed.(2010).NOTE:APAstylerequirestheuseofthepasttenseorthepresentperfecttenseinsignalphrasesintroducingcitedmaterial:Smith(2005)reportedSmith(2005)hasargued.APAintextcitations1.BasicformatforaquotationOrdinarily,introducethequotationwithasignalphrasethatincludestheauthorslastnamefollowedbytheyearofpublicationinparentheses.Putthepagenumberprecededby"p."(or"pp."formorethanonepage)inparenthesesafterthequotation.Critser(2003)notedthatdespitegrowingnumbersofoverweightAmericans,manyhealthcareprovidersstillremaineitherinignoranceoroutrightdenialaboutthehealthdangertothepoorandtheyoung(p.5).Iftheauthorisnotnamedinthesignalphrase,placetheauthorsname,theyear,andthepagenumberinparenthesesafterthequotation:(Critser,2003,p.5).NOTE:APAstylerequirestheyearofpublicationinanintextcitation.Donotincludeamonth,eveniftheentryinthereferencelistincludesthemonth.uptodirectorymenu2.BasicformatforasummaryoraparaphraseIncludetheauthorslastnameandtheyeareitherinasignalphraseintroducingthematerialorinparenthesesfollowingit.Giveapagenumbertohelpreadersfindthepassage.Foronlinesourceswithoutpagenumbers,seeNopagenumbersinitem12.YanovskiandYanovski(2002)explainedthatsibutraminesuppressesappetitebyblockingthereuptakeoftheneurotransmittersserotoninandnorepinephrineinthebrain(p.594).Sibutraminesuppressesappetitebyblockingthereuptakeoftheneurotransmittersserotoninandnorepinephrineinthebrain(Yanovski&Yanovski,2002,p.594).uptodirectorymenuhttp://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/resdoc5e/RES5e_ch09_s10001.html Go NOV ABR MAY52014 2015 2016104captures19ago105abr15CloseHelp3.WorkwithtwoauthorsNamebothauthorsinthesignalphraseortheparentheseseachtimeyoucitethework.Intheparentheses,use&betweentheauthorsnamesinthesignalphrase,useand.AccordingtoSothernandGordon(2003),Environmentalfactorsmaycontributeasmuchas80%tothecausesofchildhoodobesity(p.104).Obesechildrenoftenengageinlimitedphysicalactivity(Sothern&Gordon,2003,p.104).uptodirectorymenu4.WorkwiththreetofiveauthorsIdentifyallauthorsinthesignalphraseortheparenthesesthefirsttimeyoucitethesource.In2003,Berkowitz,Wadden,Tershakovec,andCronquistconcluded,Sibutramine...mustbecarefullymonitoredinadolescents,asinadults,tocontrolincreasesin[bloodpressure]andpulserate(p.1811).Insubsequentcitations,usethefirstauthorsnamefollowedbyetal.ineitherthesignalphraseortheparentheses.AsBerkowitzetal.(2003)advised,Untilmoreextensivesafetyandefficacydataareavailable,...weightlossmedicationsshouldbeusedonlyonanexperimentalbasisforadolescents(p.1811).uptodirectorymenu5.WorkwithsixormoreauthorsUsethefirstauthorsnamefollowedbyetal.inthesignalphraseortheparentheses.McDuffieetal.(2002)tested20adolescents,aged1216,overathreemonthperiodandfoundthatorlistat,combinedwithbehavioraltherapy,producedanaverageweightlossof4.4kg,or9.7pounds(p.646).uptodirectorymenu6.WorkwithunknownauthorIftheauthorisunknown,mentiontheworkstitleinthesignalphraseorgivethefirstwordortwoofthetitleintheparentheticalcitation.Titlesofarticlesandchaptersareputinquotationmarkstitlesofbooksandreportsareitalicized.(Foronlinesourceswithnoauthor,seeitem12.)Childrenstrugglingtocontroltheirweightmustalsostrugglewiththepressuresoftelevisionadvertisingthat,ontheonehand,encouragestheconsumptionofjunkfoodand,ontheother,celebratesthincelebrities(Television,2002).NOTE:IntherarecasewhenAnonymousisspecifiedastheauthor,treatitasifitwerearealname:(Anonymous,2001).Inthelistofreferences,alsousethenameAnonymousasauthor.uptodirectorymenu7.OrganizationasauthorIftheauthorisagovernmentagencyoranotherorganization,nametheorganizationinthesignalphraseorintheparentheticalcitationthefirsttimeyoucitethesource.Obesityputschildrenatriskforanumberofmedicalcomplications,includingtype2diabetes,hypertension,sleepapnea,andorthopedicproblems(HenryJ.KaiserFamilyFoundation,2004,p.1).Iftheorganizationhasafamiliarabbreviation,youmayincludeitinbracketsthefirsttimeyoucitethesourceandusetheabbreviationaloneinlatercitations.FIRSTCITATION(CentersforDiseaseControlandPrevention[CDC],2009)LATERCITATIONS(CDC,2009)uptodirectorymenu8.AuthorswiththesamelastnameToavoidconfusion,useinitialswiththelastnamesifyourreferencelistincludestwoormoreauthorswiththesamelastname.ResearchbyE.Smith(1989)revealedthat...uptodirectorymenu9.TwoormoreworksbythesameauthorinthesameyearWhenyourlistofreferencesincludesmorethanoneworkbythesameauthorinthesameyear,uselowercaseletters(a,b,andsoon)withtheyeartoordertheentriesinthereferencelist.(Seeitem6.)Usethosesameletterswiththeyearintheintextcitation.ResearchbyDurgin(2003b)hasyieldednewfindingsabouttheroleofcounselingintreatingchildhoodobesity.uptodirectorymenu10.TwoormoreworksinthesameparenthesesWhenyourparentheticalcitationnamestwoormoreworks,puttheminthesameorderthattheyappearinthereferencelist,separatedwithsemicolons.Researchershaveindicatedthatstudiesofpharmacologicaltreatmentsforchildhoodobesityareinconclusive(Berkowitzetal.,2003McDuffieetal.,2002).uptodirectorymenu11.PersonalcommunicationPersonalinterviews,memos,letters,email,andsimilarunpublishedcommunicationsshouldbecitedinthetextonly,notinthereferencelist.(Usethefirstinitialwiththelastnameinparentheses.)OneofAtkinsonscolleagues,whohasstudiedtheeffectofthemediaonchildrenseatinghabits,hascontendedthatadvertisersforsnackfoodswillneedtodesignadsresponsiblyfortheiryoungerviewers(F.Johnson,personalcommunication,October20,2009).uptodirectorymenu12.ElectronicsourceWhenpossible,citeelectronicsources,includingonlinesources,asyouwouldanyothersource,givingtheauthorandtheyear.Atkinson(2001)foundthatchildrenwhospentatleastfourhoursadaywatchingTVwerelesslikelytoengageinadequatephysicalactivityduringtheweek.Electronicsourcessometimeslackauthorsnames,dates,orpagenumbers.UnknownauthorIfnoauthorisnamed,mentionthetitleofthesourceinthesignalphraseorgivethefirstwordortwoofthetitleintheparentheses(seealsoitem6).(Ifanorganizationservesastheauthor,seeitem7.)Thebodysbasalmetabolicrate,orBMR,isameasureofitsatrestenergyrequirement(Exercise,2003).UnknowndateWhenthedateisunknown,usetheabbreviationn.d.(fornodate).Attemptstoestablishadefinitivelinkbetweentelevisionprogrammingandchildrenseatinghabitshavebeenproblematic(Magnus,n.d.).NopagenumbersAPAordinarilyrequirespagenumbersforquotations,summaries,andparaphrases.Whenanelectronicsourcelacksstablenumberedpages,includeparagraphnumbersorheadingstohelpreaderslocatetheparticularpassagebeingcited.Ifthesourcehasnumberedparagraphs,usetheparagraphnumberprecededbytheabbreviationpara.:(Hall,2008,para.5).Ifthesourcecontainsheadings,citetheappropriateheadinginparenthesesyoumayalsoindicatetheparagraphundertheheadingthatyouarereferringto,eveniftheparagraphsarenotnumbered.HoppinandTaveras(2004)pointedoutthatseveralothermedicationswereclassifiedbytheDrugEnforcementAdministrationashavingthepotentialforabuse(WeightLossDrugssection,para.6).NOTE:Electronicfilesinportabledocumentformat(PDF)oftenhavestablepagenumbers.Forsuchsources,givethepagenumberintheparentheticalcitation.uptodirectorymenu13.IndirectsourceIfyouuseasourcethatwascitedinanothersource(asecondarysource),nametheoriginalsourceinyoursignalphrase.Listthesecondarysourceinyourreferencelistandincludeitinyourparentheticalcitation,precededbythewordsascitedin.Inthefollowingexample,Satcheristheoriginalsource,andCritseristhesecondarysource,giveninthereferencelist.FormersurgeongeneralDr.DavidSatcherdescribedanationofyoungpeopleseriouslyatriskofstartingoutobeseanddoomingthemselvestothedifficulttaskofovercomingatoughillness(ascitedinCritser,2003,p.4).uptodirectorymenu14.SacredorclassicaltextIdentifythetext,theversionoreditionyouused,andtherelevantpart(chapter,verse,line).Itisnotnecessarytoincludethesourceinthereferencelist.Peaceactivistshavelongcitedthebiblicalprophetsvisionofaworldwithoutwar:Andtheyshallbeattheirswordsintoplowshares,andtheirspearsintopruninghooksnationshallnotliftupswordagainstnation,neithershalltheylearnwaranymore(Isaiah2:4,RevisedStandardVersion).uptodirectorymenuOrderThisbookContactUsTechSupport

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