APA Style: In-Text Citations ?· APA Style: In-Text Citations (Cont’d) 2. Parenthetical Citation In…

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APA Style: In-Text CitationsWHAT IS AN IN-TEXT CITATION?

In-text citations are little tags that quickly show your reader where you found the information you are quoting, summarizing, or paraphrasing. Every in-text citation corresponds to the sources full citation, which is listed at the end of the paper in the References page.

WHY DO I NEED IN-TEXT CITATIONS?

In-text citations give credit to the authors and ideas that have helped you write your paper. They also help your reader find the full source citation in your References page. With your in-text citations and your References page, your reader can see how well you integrated research into your paper.

WHAT GOES INTO AN IN-TEXT CITATION?

An in-text citation includes a combination of the following things. Note the color coding: well see it in some examples below.

-The authors last NAME

-The DATE the webpage, article, or book was published

-The PAGE NUMBER, if any

WHAT DOES AN IN-TEXT CITATION LOOK LIKE?

Well, you have some choices. In general, you can include most of your citation information in a signal phrase at the beginning of a sentence, or you can include most of it in a parenthetical citation at the end.

1. Signal Phrase Citation

A signal phrase helps you introduce the ideas of the author you quote, summarize, or paraphrase. You can make a basic signal phrase with nothing more than the authors last name and a verb (such as argued, noted, believed, suggested, suggested, etc.). In a signal phrase citation, the author name and publishing date (in parentheses) show up at the beginning of the sentence, and the page number (in parentheses) shows up at the end of the sentence.

Examples:

According to Andrews (2005), in-text citations are easy to create (p.4).

Bullock and Weinberg (2011) noted that paraphrases and summaries are more common than quotations in APA-style projects(p.139).

Beatty 402 wit.edu/tlctlc@wit.edu

APA Style: In-Text Citations (Contd)2. Parenthetical Citation

In a parenthetical citation, all or most of the citation information shows up in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

This is a good option when you are summarizing or paraphrasing. Its also a good option when youve already mentioned/cited an author or source in your paper; you dont need to introduce the author again through a signal phrase, so you can put that information, along with the date and page, at the end of the sentence.

Examples:

In-text citations are easy to create (Andrews, 2005, p.4).

Unlike MLA format, paraphrases and summaries are more common than quotations in APA-style projects (Bullock and Weinberg, 2011, p.139).

ARE THERE ANY EXCEPTIONS TO THESE RULES?

Here are a few little details to keep in mind:

1. If you cannot find the publishing date, type n.d. in parenthesesn.d. stands for no date.

2. Sometimes sources dont have page numbers (like in a website article), and thats okayyou dont need to include anything additional.

3. The way you list author names for a source may change depending on how many authors there are:

One author: (Andrews) Two authors: (Bullock and Weinberg) Three to five authors: (Andrews, Bullock, and Weinberg) Six or more authors (Andrews et.al.)

WHERE DO I FIND MORE INFORMATION?

From Purdues Online Writing Lab (OWL):APA In-Text Citations: The Basics

From the APA Style website:In-Text Citations

Beatty 402 wit.edu/tlctlc@wit.edu

https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/http://www.apastyle.org/learn/quick-guide-on-references.aspx#In-Text