Apatut Community Overview

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Engineers Without Borders-USA Mid-Atlantic Professionals Chapter Water for Life Project Apatut, La Union, Philippines. Apatut Community Overview. Located approximately 200 miles northwest of Manila Approximately 750 residents Approximately 300 students at school - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Pump w/ straw

Engineers Without Borders-USAMid-Atlantic Professionals ChapterWater for Life ProjectApatut, La Union, Philippines Project LeadsTechnical LeadsEWB-USA Project ManagerAmanda JacobsStephanie Cook, P.E.Sal Palalay, P.E.Stephanie Cook, P.E.Edgardo AyaquilJoshua Knight1

Apatut Community OverviewLocated approximately 200 miles northwest of ManilaApproximately 750 residentsApproximately 300 students at schoolPredominantly farming communityLarge variations in income, water access, and home quality across community

The Problem:

Apatut residents obtain water from shallow wells that show high levels of fecal coliform in water quality tests7 of 8 wells tested show contamination above allowable levelsCommunity members suffering from illnesses associated with poor drinking water quality, such as diarrhea, dysentery and stomachache Access to clean, consistent source of water is not equitable across the community In some cases, wells built immediately adjacent to latrines

Manual pumps up to 12 families, lots are brokenShallow wells water testing shows contaminationSome electric pumpsStorage tank creates indoor plumbing3EWB-MAP Project GoalsProvide clean, potable water at school (primary goal of community)Provide clean, potable water at centralized faucets (Phase 1) and to every house in community (Phase 2)Ensure equitable distribution of clean, potable water throughout the communityGet community buy-in by incorporating community feedback during design phase and community labor and financial donations during construction phaseFacilitate project sustainability by providing financial and operation and maintenance training to Water CooperativeLocal PartnersRotary: Rotary Club of Suburban East Rizal and Rotary Club of San Fernando La UnionRobert Osoteo Primary land donorCommunity established Water CooperativeSaint Louis College aided with site surveyingMarch 2010 EWB-MAP Assessment TripMeetings with Water Cooperative members, local Rotary Clubs, St. Louis College, Apatut residentsInspected mountain spring not a spring, ruled out as water sourceCollected water samples from shallow supply wells and spring shallow wells show contaminationRepaired well pumps at schoolCompleted surveying with St. Louis collegeWalked proposed pipeline runConducted visual inspection of soils classified as SM based on Unified Classification SystemMet with local well driller and local electric company representativeEvaluated tank and well sitesCompleted health surveysInstalled solar data collector to evaluate applicability of solar powered system componentsTechnical Lead CompetenciesLead NameSpecialtySal Palalay, P.E.Civil Engineer Water Distribution Piping, Stormwater Management, Erosion Control, Watershed Protection

Originally from the Philippines familiar with cultureStephanie Cook, P.E.Environmental Engineer Water Distribution Piping, Well Installation, Water Quality Testing and TreatmentEdgardo AyaquilElectrical Engineer Electrical Supply Procurement and Install, Electrical Component Connections7PROPOSED DESIGN: Gravity-Fed Potable Water System with Centralized Taps

System ComponentAlternativesSelected AlternativeWater SupplyMountain Spring, Deep Well, or Surface WaterDeep Well (~120 feet deep)Piping PVC or HDPEPVC TankConcrete Block (reinforced), Poured Concrete (reinforced), Steel, Corrugated Steel, Fiberglass, HDPEConcrete Block (reinforced)Tap StandsConcrete Tap Stand with Faucet, Pila-Style Sink, Water FountainConcrete Tap Stand with Faucet and Water Fountain (school only)Electrical SupplySingle-Phase Grid Power, Solar, Grid Power with Supplemental SolarSingle-Phase Grid PowerPump(2) 2-HP electric pumps, (2) 3-HP electric pumps, (1) 5-HP electric pump, (1) solar-powered pump(1) 5-HP Electric Submersible PumpAlternatives AnalysisWater Demand CalculationsAssumptions30 gal/capita/day residential; 1 gal/capita/day school25-year design life2% annual Growth Growth Rate = 1.49 used (Ref: Technical Note No. RWS 5.D.2, Designing A Ground Level Storage Tank)

ResidentsSchool2010 Population756300Estimated 2035 Population1,126447Delivery PointsPercent Persons ServedNumber Persons ServedUse Rate (gpcd)Total Daily Use (gallons)Water Demand 2010DP 10.31232306960DP 20.39293308790DP 30.31231306930DP 4 (school)NA3001300Subtotal (Residential)100756NA22,680Subtotal (School)NA300NA300Total Daily Use22,980Needed minimum supply for continuous pumping incl 10 % loss17.73gpmWater Demand 2035DP 10.313463010370DP 20.394373013097DP 30.313443010326DP 4 (school)NA4471447Subtotal (Residential)1001,126NA33,793Subtotal (School)NA447NA447Total Daily Use34,240Needed minimum supply for continuous pumping incl 10 % loss 26.42gpmSystem Layout

System Profile

Pipeline configuration modeled using EPA-NET hydraulic modeling software and survey data to identify pipe sizesMinimum 30 psi pressure used at outletDemand of 30 gpcd for residential and 1 gpcd for school were usedDemand patterns for residential usage and school usage were developed from conversations with residents.

DescriptionLength (ft)Diameter (in)RoughnessTank->DP29353100DP2->Junc15002100Junc1->DP14952100Junc1->Junc218202100Junc2->DP31002100Junc2->DP42002100DP3-> End (phase 2)12502100DP1->End (phase 2)7502100Solution is system with deep well, tank, 4 DPs then pipe to each homeDisinfection at minimumAlmost 4000 feet of pipe11Deep Well

Well SiteNeed 26 GPM minimumPump Testing to be completed after well installRotary or Hammer drilledApproximately 120 feet deep based on driller estimatesOverburden Construction6 diameter PVCWell to be developed after install

Pump Selection

Total Dynamic Head CalculationsAssumptions:Pump Set at 195 fbgs (worst case)Storage tank elevation 325 feetPump elevation 141 feetLosses of 70 feet observed

Total Dynamic Head = 195+184+70 = 449 ft

Brake horse power (BHP) CalculationsAssumptions:Flow is 26 gpmTotal Dynamic Head = 449 ftSpecific Gravity (SG) Water = 1Efficiency = 70%

BHP = Flow x Total Dynamic Head x SG / (3,690 x Efficiency)

BHP = 4.55 horsepower

Storage Tank

Tank Site

Designed by licensed structural engineerConcrete Block, reinforced constructed on slab20-8 by 20-8 by 8 feet tallWith interior clearance of 12 to 18 from roof, capacity = 20,774 to 22,374 (81-88%) of the daily water supply demandHigh-level and low-level floats interlocked with pumpWell site on community land near gazeboUp mountainside behind gazebo is tank siteTank site on privately-owned land donated to project

14Electrical Supply and ConnectionsAll electric work to be completed by locally-licensed electrician under oversite of EWB-MAP technical leadElectrical work to include:Obtain a single-phase power drop from local power companyConnect a main control panel (MCP) to the power dropInstall a transformerCreate a system groundCreate an emergency stop (E-STOP) button on the MCPConnect the 5 HP submersible pump to the MCPConnect the peristaltic pump (chlorine supply pump) to the MCPConnect high level and low level floats in the tank to the MCPCreate interlocks

Tapstands3 community tapstandsEach tapstand will include three taps with faucets

1 tapstand for the schoolThis tapstand area will include one set of three taps with faucets (as available in the community) and one set of three drinking water fountains (constructed the same as tapstands with a fountain mouthpiece)

Water TreatmentUnable to test water until well is drilledWell will be cased to mitigate vertical migration of impacted surficial aquiferBased on size of community, required to disinfect by Philippine governmentProposed Treatment: Bag filter and in-line chlorine disinfection (2-3 ppm)Treatment units to be housed in small pump house located adjacent to wellheadAdditional treatment to be added as required based on results of water quality testing

Watershed ProtectionDuring construction, EWB-MAP will educate the community on the importance of protecting the watershed.The immediate area surrounding the deep well (30 feet to the north, 90 feet east and west and 300 feet to the south) will be marked off-limits from development and activities that could contaminate the groundwater (building homes, farming, grazing, etc.)Any bare area shall be planted with native grasses and/or planted with trees as appropriate. Failed reforestation efforts observed during assessment trip - the project team believes that a properly sized planting area may not have been properly loosened. The team has developed a simple planting detail and instructions to help residentsSoil analyses for nutrient and other elements should be done and recommendations for soil amendments developed based on those analyses.

Construction Process and SafetyEWB-MAP to hire local General Contractor to manage subcontracting, materials acquisition, and construction progress in EWB-MAPs absenceEWB-MAP to be onsite for the following activities:Mark-out pipeline and initiation of trenching/backfillMinimum of one road crossingMinimum of one stream crossing Minimum of one tap standInitiation of well installCompletion of well installWell Capacity TestingEWB-MAP to oversee high-risk activities: well drilling and electrical connectionsAll activities to be completed in accordance with the site-specific HASP, approved construction methods, and by individuals properly trained and experienced in task at handProper PPE shall be worn by EWB-MAP at all times Well Sampling Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Electrical power drop Electric connections System interlock testing System start-up Water Cooperative TrainingOperation & MaintenanceInspection, Operation & Maintenance Manual will be provided to communityIncludes schedule for inspection/maintenance and associated logs Designated Water Cooperative members will be trained in inspection and maintenance procedures by EWB-MAP during construction/system startupEstimated O&M fees

ComponentEstimated Monthly FeeElectricity$220Water Treatment Chlorine$68Water Treatment Bag Filters$3Laboratory Fees$96Submersible Pump Replacement (Every 10 years)$42Peristaltic Pump Replacement (Every 5 years)$7Subtotal$43610% Contingency$44Total$480Water Rights and Water EquityWater Cooperative applied and paid fees for well permitMemorandum of Agreement between EWB-MAP, Water Cooperative, and community members Establishes project ownership and maintenance requirementsProvides written agreement for land donation (as needed) for project construction on private landIdentifies residential fees for water useSustainability MeasurementsHealth: measured via health surveys 2 and 5 years after system completionGoal: Improved health conditions based on original health surveysWater Quantity: measured via flow meters at tank and tapstandsGoal 1: Supply sufficient to meet current and future demandsGoal 2: Water equitably distributed and used by all residentsWater Quality: tested by certified labsGoal: 100% of samples with concentrations below Philippine National Standards for all tested parametersFinancial Stability: determined using financial documents from Water CooperativeGoal 1: Water Cooperative able to afford maintenance, repairs, and upgradesGoal 2: Water Cooperative able to successfully and routinely collect feesTechnical Stability: determined using repair and maintenance logs in O&M manualGoal 1: Inspection and maintenance conducted on a routine basisGoal 2: No service outages are experienced as a result of poor maintenance



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