Authentic Pedagogy Seminars: Renewing Our Commitment to leaching and Learning PATRICIA G. AVERY NONE! PETERSON KOUNESIU TOM ODENDAHL
I think students would really enjoy this task because it stems from their interests, but wheres the disciplinary content? As the task is written, students could com- plete it without applying any social sci- ence concepts.
-Teacher commenting on another teachers assessment task
I think the students were very engaged in the discussion. But I wasnt able to ele- vate the discussion to a higher level- how could I have gotten the students to really think about different perspectives on the issue?
-Teacher commenting on a videotape of his instruction
hose comments come from our T monthly seminars, called Authen- tic Pedagogy in the Social Studies
PATRICIA G. AVERY; an associate professor of curriculum and instruction at the Univer- sity of Minnesota, Minneapolis, designed and facilitated most of the seminars. NONIE PETERSON KOUNESKI and TOM ODEN- DAHL, secondary social studies teachers at Roosevelt Senior High School in Minneapo- lis, participated in the APSS Seminars. Readers interested in learning more about the content, format, and structure of the APSS project can find additional i n f o m - tion at .
(APSS). Our conversations were some- times intense, occasionally riveting, and always spirited. Most important, they rekindled our interest in the teach- ing and learning of social studies.
The APSS project was designed to assist teachers in their work with the Minnesota High Standards. Like many states, Minnesota has developed a set of standards indicating what students should know and be able to do upon graduation from high school. The Min- nesota standards, on the Web at , require students to complete complex perfor- mance tasks, such as debating a public issue, analyzing primary historical docu- ments, or surveying community attitudes toward a current event. Like teachers across the country, Minnesota teachers have often felt unprepared to integrate the standards into their curricula. Even the most well-designed workshops have left teachers wanting more.
The APSS project, funded by the Minnesota Department of Children, Families, and Learning, gave teachers extended opportunities to work with the standards and with each other. The series of seminars was based on the same general philosophical orientation as the Minnesota High Standards: a
focus on constructivist teaching and learning; authentic, performance-based assessment; and high-quality intellectu- al achievement. The seminars took par- ticipants beyond Minnesotas High Standards, however, and provided an integrated framework for thinking about pedagogy-one that incorporates instruction, assessment, and student performance,
Roosevelt Senior High School in Minneapolis was one of the high schools involved in the project. Roo- sevelt High is probably not unlike many inner-city schools in the United States; one might hear as many as twenty-five different languages spoken among the schools 1,667 students. The school faces many challenges-a high rate of absenteeism, a large number of students living in poverty, a high per- centage of students moving into and out of the school at any given time, and an increasing number of students whose first language is not English. In 1994, the school was designated the districts Somali ESL school, and it is now home to over 800 adolescents from Somalia.
The social studies department at Roosevelt is probably similar to many social studies departments in inner-city
MAY/JUNE2001 W THE SOCIAL STUDIES
schools. The schools population is approximately 70 percent students of color, and the faculty members are pre- dominantly European American. The fourteen-member social studies depart- ment includes a first-year teacher as well as one teacher contemplating retirement at the end of the year; the average number of years of teaching experience is ten. The faculty members generally get along well. Before the seminars, the teachers gladly shared resources with one another, but there was never time to talk about how one could make instructional materials meaningful to young people or to work together to generate new materials. Moreover, because the social studies classrooms were located throughout the building, weeks could pass before some of the social studies faculty members might see one another.
Once a month during the 1998-99 academic year, twelve of the fourteen social studies teachers from Roosevelt High met with four colleagues from their feeder school, Folwell Middle School, in the basement of a nearby YMCA building to talk about issues related to teaching and learning social studies. The seminars were based on two assumptions: Instruction and assessment are two sides of the same coin, meaning that changes in one require changes in the other; and what happens in the classroom between state-required performance assess- ments is just as important as the assess- ments themselves. In other words, if we insert the Minnesota standards-based Performance tasks into the curriculum and do not make any attempt to change our pedagogy or curriculum, then the tasks would have little impact on stu- dent achievement.
The Agenda for the APSS Seminars
Our seminars were based largely on the concept of authentic intellectual achievement that was developed by the Center on Organization and Restructur- ing of Schools (CORS) under the direc- tion of Fred M. Newmann. Newmann and his colleagues (1995, 1996) devel- oped a broad conceptual framework for
thinking about authentic student achievement based on the following three criteria:
1. Are students encouraged to con- struct knowledge that fosters higher- order thinking?
2. Do they engage in inquiry and communication that use concepts and ideas from the scholarly disciplines?
3. Are connections made to issues and concerns that have value beyond the classroom?
The criteria for authenticity may be reflected in three areas: assessment tasks, instruction, and student perfor- mance. Within a given area, there are different but parallel standards or indi- cators of authenticity (see table 1). By viewing the matrix by rows, the teachers focus their attention on the theoretical foundations of the model. For example, an important criterion for authentic achievement is the construction of
knowledge. Organizing information, considering alternatives, engaging in higher-order thinking, and analyzing material are indicators of students con- structing their own knowledge. To assess the degree to which an assess- ment task promotes the construction of knowledge, we must focus on whether successful completion of the task requires students to organize informa- tion and consider alternatives. To assess the degree to which instruction encour- ages the construction of knowledge, we need to ask whether the class as a whole is engaging in higher-level thinking. Although viewing the matrix by columns (task, instruction, perfor- mance) is probably more familiar and useful to teachers, viewing the matrix by rows makes the connections across tasks, instruction, and performance explicit.
Table 2 contains samples of specific questions that one might ask in assess-
TABLE 1-Vision for Authentic Achievement, Pedagogy, and Authentic Student Performance
Authentic Authentic Authentic Assessment Authentic Student Achievement Tasks Instruction Performance
Construction of Organization of knowledge information
Consideration of alternatives
Disciplined inquiry Content
Elaborated written communication
Value beyond Problem schools
Higher-order Analysis thinking
Deep knowledge Disciplinary
Substantive Elaborated written conversation communication
Connections to the world beyond the classroom
Soume: From Fred M. Newmann, Walter G. Secada, and Gary G. Wehlage, A Guide to Authentic Instruction and Assessment: Vision. Siandards and Scoring (Madison, Wisc.: Wisconsin Center for Educational Research, 1995): p. 64. Reprinted with permission. T h e cell corresponding to authentic student performance is empty because an authentic task does not necessarily require students to show or state how the task has some meaning beyond the school. For example, students may be required to write a letter to a public official about an issue of con- cern to them. The task has value beyond the classroom, but to ask students to state this as part of the task would seem contrived. It is quite reasonable to expect almost all authentic social studies tasks to require students to use major disciplinary concepts and processes.
98 MAY/JUNE2001 THE SOCIAL STLTDIES
TABLE -ample Questions for Comidering the Authenticity of Tasks, Instruction, and Performancea
Authentic Authentic Assessment Authentic Student
Tasks Instruction Performance
Students To what extent construction does the task of knowledge require students
to organize, synthesize, interpret, explain, or eval- uate complex information?
Disciplined inquiry To what extent does the task require students to show an understanding and/or use of ideas, theories, or perspectives considered cen- tral to an acade- mic or profes- sional discipline?
Value beyond To what extent schoola does the task
require students to address a question, issue, or problem sim- ilar to one they have encoun- tered, or are likely to encounter, in life beyond the classroom?
To what extent are students engaged in higher-order thinking?
To what extent are students devel- oping deep knowledge of a significant topic or concept?
To what extent is the topic or issue connected to the world beyond the classroomn, and to what extent is it apparent students recog- nize this con- nection?
To what extent are students demon- strating higher- order thinking?
To what extent does the student work demon- strate an under- standing of ideas, concepts, theories, and principles from the social sci- ences and civic life?
The questions are taken directly from Fred M. Newmann, Walter G. Secada, and Gary G. Wehlage, A Guide to Authentic Instruction and Assessment: Wsion, Standards and Scoring (Madi- son, Wisc.: Wisconsin Center for Educational Research, 1995): p. 64. Reprinted with permission.
ing pedagogy and student performance. CORS developed similar questions to assess each standard (e.g., organization of information), as well as scoring cri- teria. CORS developed the framework for authentic achievement for research purposes, but we saw it as a potential tool for professional development.
After extensive reading on CORSs work specifically and on standards, per- formance assessment, and rubrics more
generally, we began developing assess- ment tasks for use in our classrooms. We shared assessment tasks, received peer feedback that focused on the authenticity of the tasks (e.g., the extent to which the task required students to show an understanding or use the ideas, theories, or perspectives considered central to an academic or professional discipline), revised our work, and often shared the tasks again in a later semi-
nar. It was not unusual to spend an hour discussing one task and considering how it might be improved.
We then started examining our instructional practices. We videotaped our teaching and viewed the tapes in the seminars. Our discussion of the teach- ing videos focused on the criteria for authentic instruction (e.g., the degree to which students were engaging in high- er-order thinking). Finally, we looked at the students work and rated the degree to which the students performances demonstrated authentic intellectual achievement (e.g., the degree to which the work reflected an understanding of major ideas in social sciences and civic life). We used the standards for authen- tic pedagogy and student achievement not as a checklist to be completed but rather as a springboard for discussing the essence of a task, a lesson, or a piece of student work. What emerged from the seminars was a common Ian- guage for talking about our pedagogy and about our students work.
A Common Language
The nature of our conversations with colleagues gradually changed over the course of the year. Kouneski, the sec- ond author, watched another social studies teacher conduct a class discus- sion on U.S. involvement in the Middle East. After class, the teacher expressed frustration with the quality of the dis- cussion-her tenth graders simply werent getting it. Before the semi- nars, Kouneski and her colleague might have concluded their conversa- tion with an acknowledgment that some days are just better than others. Instead, the two looked at the standards for authentic instruction. They noted that the discussion had not been script- ed by the teacher and that the students had engaged in substantive conversa- tion with one another. Further, the stu- dents had made connections between their own lives and the events in the Middle East. What the discussion lacked, however, was depth. Because the parameters of the discussion were fairly wide, the students never really grappled with a specific issue. With
THE SOCIAL STUDIES MAY/JUNE2001 99
that insight, the teachers frustration diminished, and she approached her planning with renewed energy. She narrowed the focus of the discussion for subsequent classes. The two teach- ers examination of the standards for authentic instruction and shared un- derstanding of the standards helped them to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the lesson.
Renewed Sense of Collegiality
A veteran teacher said that the most important part of the seminars for him was a renewed sense of collegiality. He explained,
I do this work because it is important, because I love it, and because I respect the others who toil with me. It is not always easy to conjure up those sensi- bilities. I spend much of my time fum- bling with bureaucratic imperatives or locked in a classroom with sixty eyes riveted to the clock. In the course of a term, it is rare to spend more than a few stolen moments talking in depth about how we do our work and what our results are. The seminars provided hours each month to compare and reflect on our practices, experiences, and results. It was reassuring to discover that indi- viduals I admire and respect encoun- tered the same sorts of problems. It was a blessing that they would share solu- tions and offer suggestions that strengthened my practice. It was a relief to learn that I was neither insane nor incompetent.
A teacher with five years of teach- ing experience said she believes the best defense against teacher burnout is a willingness to try new approaches to teaching but that trying new approach- es without the support of colleagues is difficult. She said,
When we are in burn-out mode our instinct is to do as little as possible and get home as soon as possible. After all, if we have more time for ourselves, maybe we will not feel so frazzled. What I learned last year was that if I spent a little time reflecting and inter- acting with other teachers, I would get far more done in the time I had left in my day, and the quality of my lesson plans and assignments would be much better. The result would be a more posi- tive experience with my students, and I would once again be inspired to work at
re-creating my curriculum. Moreover, I found I had more energy for my family and myself at the end of the day.
Our seminar discussions were sel- dom easy. Sometimes we had to face the fact that our crystal-clear directions for a task were not at all clear to our colleagues. If the directions are not clear to other social studies teachers, how must they appear to our students? We had to acknowledge the possibility that a task our students found interest- ing really had very little intellectual rigor or that one of our lessons had completely missed an obvious connec- tion to current events. We also had to overcome a number of administrative stumbling blocks throughout the semi- nars. Finding twelve substitute teach- ers for one department on a given day was not a simple task; occasionally, a teacher was called back to his or her classroom during a session because the expected substitute teacher had not arrived.
To the query about whether the schools would engage in a similar set of seminars in the future, with either the social studies department or other departments, the answer was most definitely. According to Roosevelt Senior High School principal Fred Meyers, In all my thirty years in edu- cation, the A P S S seminars were the most beneficial staff development pro- gram I have seen. The APSS Seminars created more excitement and dialogue among teachers than any other pro- gram I have experienced.
In interviews conducted at the con- clusion of the seminars, teachers echoed similar sentiments. A midcareer teacher said, My teaching has changed drastically. Now, Im writing authentic tasks. This is how Ive always wanted to teach but didnt know how. NOW I continually have the authentic peda- gogy standards in mind when plan- ning. Another teacher noted changes in his students responses to instruction when he commented, Ive really implemented the real-world connec- tion, and kids seemed to respond; they
felt that it was real, useful information and something they might actually implement or reflect on in the future. A veteran teacher said, Im more aware of conversation, dialogue, and trying to ask students more questions to make them think, giving them assignments that are more authentic or meaningful. Readers can find the complete evaluation report at .
Why did that series of seminars re- energize us when so many professional staff development efforts had failed to do so? We believe the reason is that the seminars exemplified many of the char- acteristics research has shown to be associated with high quality profession- al development: collaboration among colleagues; adequate time for inquiry, reflection, and mentoring; and a focus on improving student learning (Nationd Foundation for the Improvement of mu- cation 1996; Louis, Marks, and Kruse 1996). First, almost all the social studies teachers at Roosevelt Senior High School participated in the seminars. Teachers had the support of colleagues from their content area during and between the seminars. Second, unlike one- or two-day workshops during the school year or in the summer, the semi- nars were conducted over an extended period of time, giving teachers ample opportunities to reflect on their practice. Third, the school-university connection provided an excellent blend of theory and practice and kept the focus on peda- gogy instead of on bureaucratic issues. Finally, the core concepts of the semi- nars-authentic pedagogy and authentic achievement-go to the very heart of meaningful teaching and learning. Becoming an authentic teacher is not a goal to attain but rather a framework that one endeavors to integrate into ones methods to achieve high-quality teach- ing and learning. Moreover, it is an evolving framework, one that we believe will grow and deepen with our profes- sional development.
We acknowledge Fred M. Newmanns role as an outside consultant for the project. We thank him for conducting two of the
100 MAY/JUNE 2001 THE SOCIAL STUDIES
nine seminars. Responsibility for the con- tent of this article, however, rests solely with the authors.
Herman, J. L. 1997. Large-scale assessment in support of school reform: Lessons in the search for alternative measures. CSE Technical Report 446. Los Angeles: National Center for Research on Evalua-
tion, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST), University of California.
Louis, K. S., H. M. Marks, and S. Kruse. 1996. Teachers professional community in restructuring schools. American Edu- cational Research Journal 33(4):
National Foundation for the Improvement of Education (NFIE). 1996. Teachers take charge of their learning: Transforming professional development for student suc-
cess. Washington, D.C.: NFIE. Newmann, F. M., and Associates. 1996.
Authentic achievement: Restructuring schools for intellectual qualiv. San Fran- cisco: Jossey-Bass.
Newmann, F. M., W. G. Secada, and G. G. Wehlage. 1995. A guide to authentic instruction and assessment: Vision, stan- dards and scoring. Madison, Wisc.: Wis- consin Center for Education Research.
Curriculum Resources for Teachers from Choices for the 21st Century Education Project
By using curriculum guides from Choices, teachers can engage stu- dents in grades 9 to 12 in discussions about such social studies topics as trade, the environment, peacekeeping, immigration, and foreign aid. Materials from Choices are updated regularly and are helpful to teach- ers and students endeavoring to meet national and state standards in social studies. Units address pertinent topics-global challenges, areas of the world in transition, and historical turning points in American and world history.
For more information about these resources, teachers can write to Choices Education Project, Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University, Box 1948, Providence, RI 02912 or go to their Web site cwww.choices.edu>.
THE SOCIAL STUDIES MAY/JUNE 2001 101