BADWATER POST- BASIN- RANGE FURNACE CREEK NAVADU HELLS ... ? owlshead hells gate base of titus canyon

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  • EXPLANATION

    LACUSTRINE

    L1 Playa claystone/siltstone

    L2 Pebbly playa claystone/siltstone

    L3 Freshwater limestone

    L4 Tuffaceous marl

    L5 Sandy freshwater limestone

    BORDERLINE LACUSTRINEFLUVIAL

    FL1 Clayey sandstone

    FL2 Siltstone

    FLUVIAL

    F1 Boulder conglomerate

    F2 Cobble conglomerate

    F3 Conglomeratic sandstone

    F4 Sandstone, often pebbly

    ALLUVIAL

    A1 Desert alluvial conglomerate

    A2 Matrix-rich, clay-rich alluvial or debris-flow conglomerate

    VOLCANIC

    V1 Tuff, ashfall or reworked

    V2 Ash-flow tuff, variably welded

    V3 Felsic lava

    V4 Intermediate to mafic lava

    MASS WASTINGGRAVITY DEPOSITS

    MW1 Rock-avalanche breccia

    MW2 Gravity slide blocks

    MW3 Sedimentary breccia

    GROUNDWATER DISCHARGE DEPOSITS

    GD Travertine and calcareous siltstone

    2

    1

    1

    I

    F

    IBA

    SE O

    F BAD

    WAT

    ER

    BASE OF OWLSHEAD

    rhyolite ofDaylight Pass

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    700

    800

    900

    1,000

    1,100

    1,200

    1,300

    1,400

    1,500

    1,600

    1,700

    1,800

    1,900

    2,000

    2,100

    2,200

    2,300

    2,400

    2,500

    2,600

    2,700

    2,800

    2,900

    METERS

    3

    B

    4

    NORTHERN COTTONWOOD MOUNTAINS(Snow and Lux, 1999)

    *22.9 Ma

    *23.8 Ma

    *15.1 Ma

    *15.9 Ma

    *3.2 Ma*3.7 Ma

    Zw Mt

    NAV

    ADU

    F

    ORM

    ATIO

    NPA

    NUG

    A FO

    RMAT

    ION

    UBEH

    EBE

    F

    ORM

    ATIO

    N

    A

    BASE OF BADWATER

    BASE OF FURNACE CREEK

    BASE OF NAVADU

    BASE OF HELLS GATE

    BAS

    E OF T

    ITUS

    CAN

    YON

    2

    1

    SOUTHERN COTTONWOOD MOUNTAINS(Snow and Lux, 1999)

    B

    *3.2 Ma

    *12.1 Ma

    3

    4

    Pd

    NAV

    ADU

    FOR

    MAT

    ION

    PA

    NUG

    AFO

    RMAT

    ION

    UBE

    HEBE

    FORM

    ATIO

    N

    *19.6 Ma*20.4 Ma

    BASE OF NAVADU

    BASE OF FURNACE CREEK

    BASE OF HE

    LLS GATE

    BASE

    OF T

    ITUS

    CANY

    ON

    BASE

    OF

    BADW

    ATER

    L

    3

    B *11.38 Ma

    *3.35 Ma

    *3.7 Ma

    *4.0 Ma

    *4.3 Ma

    *4.37 Ma

    *5.7 Ma

    *7.4 Ma

    provenance change

    *7.8 Ma

    Zwl

    NOV

    A

    FO

    RMAT

    ION

    L

    C

    BASE OF NAVADU

    BASE OF OWLSHEAD

    MIL

    ITAR

    Y

    C

    ANYO

    N

    FORM

    ATIO

    N

    FAULTED OUT

    SOUTHERN OWLSHEADMOUNTAINS(this study)

    *11.6 Ma

    *14.1 Ma

    D

    BASE

    OF F

    URNA

    CE C

    REEK

    Kg

    BASE

    OF O

    WLS

    HEAD

    FUN

    ERAL

    FO

    RMAT

    ION

    POST-BASIN RANGE

    FURN

    ACE

    CRE

    EK

    F

    ORM

    ATIO

    N

    NORTHWESTERN FURNACECREEK BASIN

    (McAllister, 1970; this study)

    *3.5 - 3.1 Ma

    *4.7 Ma?

    ARTI

    ST

    DRI

    VE

    FOR

    MAT

    ION

    E

    LOW

    ER

    MEM

    BER

    BADWATER

    BASE OF FURNACE CREEK

    BASE FAULTED OUT

    CENTRAL FURNACE CREEKBASIN AT BILLIE MINE

    (McAllister, 1970, 1971; Wright and others, 1999)

    4

    2&3

    B

    b

    FUN

    ERAL

    FORM

    ATIO

    NFU

    RNAC

    E CR

    EEK

    FORM

    ATIO

    NRO

    CKS

    OF

    BI

    LLIE

    M

    INE

    F

    BASE OF NAVADU BASE OF NAVADU

    VIRGIN CANYON(Wright & Troxel, 1984)

    3

    2

    base not exposed

    ktb 3.2 Ma

    ~4.5 Ma

    PART

    ANDE

    SITE

    OF

    ASHF

    ORD

    MIL

    LM

    ISCO

    RREL

    ATED

    A

    S

    FUN

    ERAL

    F

    ORM

    ATIO

    NCH

    AOS

    AM

    ARGO

    SAOF

    G

    BASE

    OF

    BADW

    ATER

    BASE

    OF

    FURN

    ACE

    CRE

    EK

    BASE

    OF

    FURN

    ACE

    CRE

    EK

    BASE OF NAVADU

    SHADOW VALLEY BASIN(Friedmann, 1999)

    F

    L

    L

    2

    B

    *7 Ma

    *10.8 Ma

    *11.4 Ma

    *11.8 Ma

    *12.0-12.5 Ma

    *12.9 Ma

    Zs

    MEM

    BER

    IVM

    EMBE

    R III

    MEM

    BER

    IIM

    EMBE

    R I (

    INCL

    UDES

    PR

    E-BA

    SIN

    AL)

    SOUTHERN GRAPEVINE MOUNTAINS,(Reynolds, 1969; Fridrich and Berry,

    unpub. mapping)

    H

    POST-

    BASIN

    -RANG

    E

    CIMABASALT

    BASE OF FURNACE CREEK

    BASE OF BADWATER

    BASE OF OWLSHEAD

    BASE OF HELLS GATE

    OWLS

    HEAD

    HELL

    S GA

    TE

    3

    4

    2

    *6.35 Ma*6.35 Ma

    ktb 7.8 Ma

    ktb 9.9 Ma

    ktb 10.4 Ma

    ktb 10.5 Ma

    ktb 11.3 Ma

    ktb 11.45 Ma

    ktb 11.6 Ma

    ktb 13.35 Ma

    1

    B

    ktb 13.5 Ma

    ktb 14.0 Ma

    ktb14.6 Ma

    ktb 15.9 Ma

    b

    RHYO

    LITE

    OF

    RAIN

    BOW

    MOU

    NTA

    INTR

    ACHY

    TE O

    FDO

    NOV

    AN M

    OUN

    TAIN

    AMM

    ONIA

    TAN

    KSTU

    FFRA

    INIE

    R M

    ESA

    TUFF

    TIVA

    CAN

    YON

    TU

    FFBU

    LLFR

    OG

    TUFF

    TRAM

    TU

    FFRH

    YOLI

    TE O

    F PI

    CTUR

    E RO

    CKRH

    YOLI

    TE O

    F DA

    YLIG

    HT P

    ASS

    GREE

    N C

    ONGL

    OMER

    ATE

    TITU

    S CA

    NYO

    N F

    ORM

    ATIO

    NBA

    SALT

    RHYO

    LITE

    OF

    SARC

    OBAT

    US F

    LAT

    BASA

    LT

    SPEARHEADTUFF

    rhyolite ofSarcobatus

    Flat

    BASE

    OF F

    URNA

    CE C

    REEK

    BASE

    OF B

    ADW

    ATER

    BASE OF NAVADU

    BASE

    OF

    HELL

    S GA

    TE

    BASE

    OF

    TITU

    S CA

    NYO

    N

    Zwl

    NORTHERN FUNERAL MOUNTAINS(Fridrich and Berry, unpub. mapping)

    *7.5 Ma

    ktb 7.5 Ma

    REPRESENTATIVE CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMNS FROM TWELVE LOCALES IN THE DEATH VALLEY REGION

    ByChristopher J. Fridrich and Ren A. Thompson

    2011

    ktb6.2 Ma

    Twelve representative Cenozoic sections from different parts of the Death Valley region, with a lithologic key, an index map showing locations of sections, and Argon ages, where known. The majority of sections are measured, whereas the others are approximated from map data or constrained by GPS readings. The sections are mainly compiled from the sources cited. Modifi-cations from, and additions to the original data are based on new field work in this study. Depositional environments indicated are interpretive. All sections are hung on the 12.5 to 11.5 Ma regional unconformity (base of the Navadu assemblage). This horizon, along with the bases of the other tectonostratigraphic assemblages show correlations between sections. Argon ages following asterisks were determined from samples taken from the sections themselves, whereas ktb (known to be) indicates ages of widespread, easily recognizable volcanic units that are well dated elsewhere. In the furthest right section alone (Nye County well 2DB), RV signifies determined Argon ages of tuffs found in equivalent stratigraphic locations in Rock Valley, several kilometers east of this well (data from James C. Yount, retired USGS). Unconformities are basal (B), numbered oldest to youngest by the tectonic reorganization in which they formed, or are local (L).

    SIERRA NEVADA

    NORTHERNBASINAND

    RANGE

    Avawatz

    RangeAvawatz

    Range

    Amargosa DesertE

    White M

    ountains

    Inyo Mountains

    ARGUS RANGE

    SLATE RANGE

    MOJAVECottonw

    ood

    Mtns

    Owens

    Valley

    Panamint Valley

    NEVADATESTSITE

    DEATH

    Pahrump Basin

    BareMountainClark M

    ountains

    NEVADA

    CALIFORNIA

    NEVADA

    CALIFORNIA

    Spring Mountains

    CDVR

    GrapevineFuneral Mountains

    BOUNDARY OFDEATH VALLEY

    REGION

    KR

    SVB

    Indian WellsValley

    Eureka Valley

    SALINE

    RANGESaline

    Valley

    LVVSZ

    NORTHERNBASINAND

    RANGE

    Avawatz

    Range

    116117118

    37

    36

    Garlock

    fault

    0

    0 50 KILOMETERS

    50 MILES

    NORTHERNCOTTONWOOD

    MOUNTAINS A

    SOUTHERNCOTTONWOODMOUNTAINS

    B

    NOVABASIN

    C

    SOUTHERNGRAPEVINEMOUNTAINS

    I NORTHERNFUNERAL

    MOUNTAINS

    J

    NYE COUNTYDRILLHOLE

    2DB

    L

    NORTHWESTERNFURNACE CREEKBASIN

    BAT MOUNTAIN,SOUTHWESTERNFUNERALMOUNTAINS

    K

    CENTRALFURNACECREEK BASINAT BILLIE MINE

    F

    SOUTHERNOWLSHEADMOUNTAINS

    SHADOWVALLEYBASIN

    H

    VIRGINCANYON

    GBlack M

    ountains

    Nopah Range

    RSR

    VALLEY

    D

    20

    20

    30

    30

    40

    40

    10

    10

    NEVADA

    CALIF

    MAP AREA

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    30

    40

    0

    3

    6

    1112

    1516

    19

    27

    Age (Ma) Volcanism

    Very low rate basaltic;except low-rate true

    bimodal in Owens Valley

    Desert alluvium >lacustrine (all playa clay)>> fluvial/much gypsum

    Moderate-rate true-bimodalbasalt > to >> felsic;

    no intermediates

    Desert alluvium > fluvial >lacustrine: (playa clay >>

    freshwater limestone)

    Fluvial _ lacustrine:(limestone > claystone)

    minor gypsum

    Gypsum, but rare;mammal fossils common(limestone > claystone)

    Very high rate quasi-bimodal: felsics > basalt

    > andesite and latite% basalt increases up

    Desert alluvium = fluvial >lacustrine: (claystone >

    limestone) gypsum common,rare fossil plants, mostly palms

    Moderaterate andesite-rhyolite association:

    Fluvial = lacustrine:(claystone _limestone) >>

    non-desert alluvium, moderategypsum, fossil metasequoias

    nondeposition

    No local volcanism butabundant distal tuffs

    Fewer and more distalvolcaniclastics + rare tuffs

    Very rare tuffs, trivialvolcaniclastics

    Extremely rare or no tuffsor volcaniclastics

    Basal percussion-marked boulderconglomerate on ultra-weathered

    moderate-relief basal unconformity

    ~1 m.y. volcanic hiatus Abundant basal breccias

    Lithology

    FURNACE CREEK

    19-16 Ma Lacuna

    Cenozoic Stratigraphy of Death Valley Region

    TITUSCANYON

    NAVADU

    BADWATER

    OWLS-HEAD

    HELLSGATE

    W E(Owens Valley) (Pahrump Basin)

    Isolated paleocanyon fill

    ~

    ~

    >

    >

    Stage 4:

    Stage 3:

    Stage 2:

    Stage 1:

    Age (Ma)

    POSTBASINRANGE

    PREBASINRANGETCFS

    SYNBASINRANGE

    POST-BASIN-RANGE

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIORU.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    PROFESSIONAL PAPER 1783Plate 1

    Suggested citation:Fridrich, C.J., and Thompson, R.A., 2011, Cenozoic tectonic reorganizations of the Death Valley region, southeast California and southwest Nevada: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1783, 36 p., 1 plate.

    For more information concerning this publication, contact:Center Director, USGS Geology and Environmental Change Science CenterBox 25046, Mail Stop 980Denver, CO 80225(303) 236-5344

    Or visit the Geology and Environmental Change Science Center Web site at:http://esp.cr.usgs.gov/

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    This report is available at:http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1783

    Base modified from U.S. Geological Survey 1:100,000-scale map

    PANAMINTRANGE

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