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- CALCULATION OF UPSETTING FORCE IN FLASH BUTT WELDING ? calculation of upsetting force in flash butt

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CALCULATION OF UPSETTING FORCEIN FLASH BUTT WELDINGOF CLOSED-SHAPE PRODUCTSP.N. CHVERTKO, A.V. MOLTASOV and S.M. SAMOTRYASOVE.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute, NASU11 Bozhenko Str., 03680, Kiev, Ukraine. E-mail: office@paton.kiev.uaIn structure elements of flying vehicles the ring-type parts of high-alloy steel and alloys are widely applied.To manufacture such structure elements different methods of fusion welding are applied including flashbutt welding (FBW). Technology of FBW of such parts requires high upsetting speeds 50mm/s with aspecific force of not less than 120200 MPa. In FBW of parts of a closed shape it is important to determinethe value of necessary upsetting force. At unlimited or insufficient upsetting force the necessary conditionsfor joint formation in a solid phase will not be provided, and during overheating the part shortening willbe rather large. Both conditions will lead to violation of shape of ring-type parts, in particular, in perimeter.In the process of welding the elastic forces appear in product being welded, hindering the joint formation,which should be determined in the development of technology and equipment for welding. Besides, inwelding of ring-type billets of a large section, which are characterized by a significant elasticity, it isnecessary to take into account the possibility of a welded butt rupture due to elasticity of billet at insufficienttime of upsetting without passing of electric current. Calculation of the above-mentioned forces was carriedout according to the theory of thin rods under the conditions, when stress-strain state was considered tobe linear. Also the calculation of given forces using the methods of elasticity theory was carried out, andas a result the plain problem of elasticity theory was solved. The comparison of results of calculation ofeight rings with different characteristic sizes showed that maximum difference of values of upsetting force,calculated by the theory of thin rods and formulae of plane problem, was about 2 %, and the values offorces, rupturing a butt after welding, was less than 1 %. Moreover, in decrease of ratio of external radiusof the ring to its internal radius the accuracy of calculation according to the theory of thin rods is increased.7 Ref., 1 Table, 4 Figures.Keywo r d s : flash butt welding, rings, high-alloyedsteels, stress-strain state, upsetting force, theory of thinrods, plain problemIn industry, to manufacture the parts and struc-tures of a closed shape of different purpose (ele-ments of engines, different bandages, turntables,bearings, flanges, etc.), different methods ofwelding are applied (arc, electron beam, flashbutt, etc.) on which the service characteristicsof welded joint greatly depend.One of the most saving and technically simpleprocesses of manufacture of ring-type billets isFBW [1]. This method provides high stable qual-ity of welded joints, unites welding and assemblyoperations in one cycle and does not require ap-plication of auxiliary consumables (electrodes,fluxes, welding wires, shielding gases, etc.).At the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institutethe technology and equipment [2] for FBW ofring-type parts under the industrial conditionswere developed (Figure 1). The technology wasbased on the method of FBW with pulsatingflashing [3], which provides the highly-concen-trated heating, due to which the HAZ is de-creased.The calculation diagram of loading the ring,on which the upsetting force P and reactive mo-ment M from the movable clamping device of themachine, corresponding to Figure 1, are affected,is given in Figure 2.It can be assumed as the first approximationthat the sizes of the cross section of the ring areFigure 1. Ring-type billet in the clamping devices of buttwelding machine K607 P.N. CHVERTKO, A.V. MOLTASOV and S.M. SAMOTRYASOV, 201446 1/2014small as compared to its average radius, then theproblem can be solved using the thin rods theory.To determine forces P it is rationally to relateit with the value of elastic movement el fromthe initial gap up to the final position consideringthe shortening of part due to flashing and upset-ting. The value of elastic movement in a curvi-linear contour should be determined using Moreintegral:el = SM___MpdsEIz, (1)where M___ is the expression for moment from singleforce applied in the direction of force P; Mp isthe expression for the moment from active andreactive forces; Iz is the moment of section inertia;E is the elasticity modulus of the first kind.Using canonic equations of method of forces[4], the value of reactive moment M = P(a ++ b)/2 was found. Considering that the expres-sion for bending moment in ring sections has aformMp = 12 P(a + b) cos . (2)Expression for determination of moment fromaction of single force P = 1 will be written in aformM___ = 12 (a + b)(1 cos ). (3)Substituting expressions (2) and (3) into (1),the value of elastic movement was determined:el = 1EIz 2 012 P (a + b) cos 12 (a + b) (1 cos ) 12 (a + b)d == P(a + b)38EIz,from which it is possible to obtain the upsettingforceP = 8EIz(a + b)3 el. (4)We obtain the more precise solution of thisproblem by solution of plane problem of theoryof elasticity. This solution belongs to Kh.S.Golovin and is described in work [5]. Therefore,we give only expressions for stresses:r = rr + 2r22 = 2Ar 2Br3 + Dr cos , + 2r2 = 6Ar + 2Br3 + Dr cos ,r = r r = 2Ar 2Br3 + Dr sin ,(5)where A, B and D are the constants determinedby the boundary conditions. In our case they areequal:A = P2R; B = Pa2b22R; D = PR (a2 + b2). (6)MoreoverR = a2 b2 + (a2 + b2) ln ba.Unlike work [5] where during study of move-ments the functions of complex variable wereused, we used the method, which was applied in[6] for solution of problem about the action oftangent force applied at the end of a curvilinearrod.The components of deformation in the polarcoordinates has the following form:r = ur; = ur + vr; r = ur + vr vr. (7)Through the components of stress (5) the com-ponents of deformation in plain-stressed state areexpressed in the following way:r = 1E (r ); = 1E ( r); r = rG, (8)whereFigure 2. Schematic of ring loading in FBW1/2014 47G = E2(1 + ).Having compared the expressions for r from(7) and (8) considering (5), we obtained afterintegrationu = cos E Ar2(1 3) + Br2 (1 + ) + D(1 ) ln r + f(),(9)where f() is the function depending only on theargument , which will be determined below. Bysubstitution of obtained expression (9) into ex-pression for from (7) considering (8) we shallobtain after integrationv = sin E Ar2(5 + ) + Br2 (1 + ) + D(1 )(1 ln r) f()d + F(r),(10)where F(r) is the function depending only on theargument r, which also will be determined below.Substituting obtained expression (10) togetherwith expression (9) into expression for r from(7) considering (8) we shall obtain4D sin E = r dFdr + f()d F(r) + df()d ,which should comply with functions f() andF(r). These functions were determined by theauthors in the following form:f() = 2DE sin + K sin + L cos ; F(r) = Hr, (11)where K, L, H are the arbitrary constants deter-mined from the conditions of clamping.Considering (11) the expressions for compo-nents of movement have a formu = 2DE sin + cos E Ar2(1 3) + Br2 (1 + ) ++ D(1 ) ln r] + K sin + L cos ;v = 2DE cos + sin E A r2(5 + ) + Br2 (1 + ) ++ D[(1 )(1 ln r) 2]] + K cos L sin + Hr.(12)Tangential movement of a free end can be ob-tained by substituting value = 0 into expressionfor v, thenv( = 0) = K + Hr. (13)Constants K, H are determined from the con-ditions on stationary fixed end = 2, where v == 0, v/r = 0. Substituting that into expressionfor v from (12) the unknown constants were de-termined:K = 4DE; H = 0. (14)Thus, using formulae (6) we will find at = 0v = el = 4P(a2 + b2)E a2 b2 + (a2 + b2) ln ba. (15)From formula (15) we shall determine the up-setting force:P = Eelt4(a2 + b2) a2 b2 + (a2 + b2) ln ba. (16)The character evidences that direction ofmovement v does not coincide with the directionof growth . It should be noted that thickness twas introduced to formula (16) as for the solutionof plane problem we would obtain the force pera unit of thickness. Rejects and defects in weldingare mainly detected after operation of calibrationor in the process of subsequent mechanical treat-ment. Those rings can be considered defective,in which during removal of upsetting force thecracks are formed in a butt or fracture along thewelded butt is occurred.During determination of force tending to rup-ture the butt joint after welding, it is necessaryto consider that during removal of the upsettingforce the reactive moment stops acting as far asclamping device creating this reaction is open.Thus, when a weldement is trying to obtain theprevious geometric shape, the stressed state ispredetermined only by the effect of the force P,directed to the opposite direction to the upsettingforce (Figure 3).To solve this problem by the theory of thinrods it is sufficient to substitute into expression(1) instead of (2)Mp + 12 P(a + b)(1 cos ). (17)Then we shall obtain48 1/2014el = 1EIz 1 012 P(a + b)(1 cos ) 12 (a + b)(1 cos ) 12 (a + b)d == 3P(a + b)38EIz,from where it is possible to obtain the force,tending to rupture the butt joint after welding:P = 8EIz3(a + b)3 el. (18)As is seen from expression (18), in the framesof theory of thin rods the force P, tending torupture the butt joint after welding, is always 3times less than the upsetting force determined byformula (4).It should be noted that formula (18) coincideswith formula, obtained in work [7], in anotherway. To solve this problem using methods of the-ory of elasticity it is necessary to subtract stresses,arising under the action of moment, from expres-sions (5) (Figure 4): = 8M(a + b)(b2 a2)E (b2 a2)2 4a2b2 ln ba2 at = 2. (19)The solution of this problem also belongs toKh.S. Golovin and is available in literature [5, 6].The value of elastic deformation el consistsof movement, given by formula (15), taken withan opposite sign, and movements given by for-mula (19). Taking into account that M = P(a ++ b)/2 and multiplying by thickness t, we shallobtain expression for the force acting on the buttjoint after weldingP = Eelt4N, (20)whereFigure 3. Schematic of ring loading after welding Figure 4. Calculation scheme of ring under bending bymoment in curvature planeResults of calculation of upsetting forces and forces rupturing butt joint after weldinga, mm b, mm t, mm el, mm Pw, kN (4) Pw, kN (16) Pw, % Pr, kN (18) Pr, kN (20) Pr, %160 210 10 13 13.62 13.48 1.08 4.54 4.52 0.52180 230 12 14 12.94 12.83 0.88 4.31 4.29 0.43255 347 14 20 42.44 41.86 1.37 14.15 14.05 0.67243 323 16 19 36.45 36.03 1.18 12.15 12.08 0.57241 351 16 22 95.89 94 2.01 31.96 31.65 0.98175 215 22 16 16.13 16.03 0.63 5.38 5.36 0.31181 216 25 16 11.64 11.58 0.46 3.88 3.87 0.26356 421 25 21 13.05 13 0.42 4.35 4.34 0.231/2014 49N = (a2 + b2)a2 b2 + (a2 + b2) ln ba ++ (a2 + b2)(b2 a2)(b2 a2)2 4a2b2 ln ba2.Results of calculations for eight typical ringsof steel 12Kh18N10T (E = 200,000 MPa), whichare used in the structure elements of flying ve-hicles manufactured at the SE A.M. MakarovYuzhny Machine Building Plant, are given inthe Table.In the Table according to results of calculationof upsetting force, made using the theory of thinrods (4) and the method of theory of elasticity(16), maximum deviation Pw is about 2 %. Simi-larly using formulae (18) and (20) the forces,tending to rupture the butt joint after welding,were calculated, maximum deviation Pr herewas less than 1 %. It evidences that in this casethe theory of thin rods gives very accurate results.Besides, it can be noted that the error is decreasedat decrease of b/a ratio (in fact, if b is tendingto a, we shall obtain a thin rod and the error willtend to zero).Conclusions1. Using two analytical methods of calculationthe expressions for determination of upsettingforce necessary in FBW of ring-type billets andthe force tending to rupture the butt joint afterwelding were obtained.2. The results of calculations by formulae aregiven, obtained on the basis of different calcula-tion methods, for eight typical rings. The maxi-mum deviation of value of upsetting force wasabout 2 % and that for rupture was less than 1 %.3. The technology and equipment were devel-oped for industrial manufacture of rings of heat-resistant alloys and steels of types 12Kh18N10T,EI711 and EI712 with the diameter of middlesurface from 370 to 777 mm and 5001760 mm2cross section area.1. Kuchuk-Yatsenko, S.I. (1992) FBW. Kiev: NaukovaDumka.2. Kuchuk-Yatsenko, S.I., Chvertko, P.N., Semyonov,L.A. et al. (2013) FBW of products of high-strengthalloys based on aluminium. The Paton Welding J., 7,26.3. Kuchuk-Yatsenko, S.I., Didkovsky, V.A., Bogorsky,M.V. et al. Method of resistance butt welding. Pat.46820 Ukraine. Publ. 17.06.2002.4. Pisarenko, G.S., Yakovlev, A.P., Matveev, V.V.(1975) Handbook on strength of materials. Kiev: Na-ukova Dumka.5. Lurie, A.I. (1970) Theory of elasticity. Moscow:Nauka.6. Timoshenko, S.P., Goodier, J.N. (1975) Theory ofelasticity. Moscow: Nauka.7. Kochergin, K.A. (1952) Selection of technology ofresistance welding. Leningrad: Sudpromgiz.Received 25.08.201350 1/2014