1. CAUSE & EFFECT PARAGRAPH From Paragraph to Essay UNIT 1 D-03
2. If you want to mention the cause first:: Cause Effect Too much alcohol causes drunkenness. Too much alcohol leads to drunkenness. Too much alcohol gives rise to drunkenness. Too much alcohol results in drunkenness. Too much alcohol brings about drunkenness. 2
3. Cause Effect Dringking too much coffee causes sleeplessness. Dringking too much coffee Leads to lack of attention Dringking too much coffee gives rise to excitement Dringking too much coffee Results in Addiction.
4. Cause Effect Not bringing your book to class causes the teacher to be angry. Not bringing your book to class leads to Not bringing your book to class leads the teacher to be angry. Not bringing your book to class causes You to lose your attention in the lecture Not bringing your book to class causes The inability to focus on the lecture Not bringing your book to class results in Students with free time Not bringing your book to class leads to an angry teacher. Increased unattendance
5. If you want to mention the effect first:: Effect Cause Drunkenness is due to too much alcohol. Drunkenness is caused by too much alcohol. Drunkenness results from too much alcohol. Drunkenness is the result of too much alcohol. Drunkenness is the effect of too much alcohol. 5
6. Effect Cause Failure in exams results from not studying. Failure in exams may result from carelessness. Failure in exams might be the result of headache on that day Failure in exams could be the effect of excitement
7. Match the causes/effects with the effects/causes respectively: Malaria is caused by mosquitos. Mental stress is the result of overcrowding. give rise to road accidents. Soil erosion is due to heavy rain and strong winds. Lack of rain brings about drought. Juvenile crime results from Deafness is caused by Icy conditions broken homes. loud noise 7
8. Damage to the liver is caused by excessive drinking of alcohol. A rise in temperature leads to the expansion of metals. High atmospheric pressure results in an increase in the boiling point of water. A disturbance in the ionosphere brings about poor shortwave radio reception. Paralysis is an effect of damage to the spinal cord.
9. Cause Paragraph Outline I. Topic Sentence: makes clear that your paragraph will discuss causes of something. II. First cause: first topic sentence A. Detail B. Detail III. Second Cause A. Detail B. Detail IV. Third Cause A. Detail B. Detail V. Summary / Concluding Sentence
10. T O p Traffic accidents occur because of several reasons. i There are several reasons why traffic accidents happen, but c three of them are the most significant causes of traffic S accidents. , but three of them stand out. One of the main reasons of traffic accidents is careless drivers. Some drivers ignore the traffic rules such as traffic lights and other warning signals. Moreover, they resist wearing seat belts. In addition, some drivers drink alcohol while or before driving. Another cause that results in traffic accidents is weather conditions. Drivers tend to lose the control of the car on icy, wet, or slippery roads and this gives rise to traffic accidents. Too many cars also lead to traffic accidents. When there is traffic, some drivers tend to become nervous, and they become more error-prone. As a result of their mistakes, traffic accidents happen. To sum up, careless drivers, weather conditions, and too many cars cause traffic accidents. Drivers should take all these into consideration if they do not want to have an accident. What are the causes of road accident?
11. Write a paragraph on one of the following topics. 2) Explain the causes of water scarcity. Why has water become that scarce? Explain. Climate changes Unplanned and excessive consumption by the industry Inadequate water policies People wasting water 3) Explain the causes of cheating in exams. Why do students cheat? Explain. Parental pressure Studying requires time and effort, but cheating does not. Necessity for high grades to enter a good university Peer influence To avoid embarassment in case of a low grade 4. What are the factors that lead young people to start smoking? Why do young people smoke? Explain. To appear older and more grown up Peer influence Curiosity Environmental factors (parents/other people smoking) As an act of rebellion (against their parents or teachers, etc.)
12. Effect Paragraph Outline I. Topic Sentence: makes clear that your paragraph will discuss effects of something. II. First effect A. Detail B. Detail III. Second effect A. Detail B. Detail IV. Third effect A. Detail B. Detail V. Summary / Concluding Sentence
13. Topic Sentence: There are various reasons why students have difficulties in listening classes. Supporing S1: Speaker`s fast English is the prime reason why students have difficulties in listening classes. Speakers who speak English fast is the main reason for students` difficulty in listening classes. When the speaker is speaking fast, it is difficult to understand him/her. Also, it is hard/challenging to take notes. Supporting S2: The second cause of difficulty which students experience in listening is their inadequate vocabulary. IV. Third Cause A. Detail B. Detail