Ch4 Personality and Values

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personality and values


*Chapter 4Personality and Values*Learning ObjectivesDefine personality, describe how it is measured, and explain the factors that determine an individuals personality.Describe the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality framework and assess its strengths and weaknesses.Identify the key traits in the Big Five personality model.Demonstrate how the Big Five traits predict behavior at work.Identify other personality traits relevant to OB.Define values, demonstrate their importance, and contrast terminal and instrumental values.Compare generational differences in values, and identify the dominant values in todays workforce.Identify Hofstedes five value dimensions of national culture.*PersonalityWhat is Personality?The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others, the measurable traits a person exhibitsThe dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment. Gordon Allport*PersonalityMeasuring PersonalityPersonality TestsHelpful in hiring decisionsSelf Report SurveysMost common methodObserver Rating SurveysProvide an independent assessment of personality often better predictors*PersonalityPersonality DeterminantsHeredityFactors determined at conception: physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level, and bio-rhythmsPersonality TraitsEnduring characteristics that describe an individuals behaviorHeredity Approach argues that genes are the source of personalityTwin studies: raised apart but very similar personalitiesParents dont add much to personality developmentThere is some personality change over long time periodsThe more consistent the characteristic and the more frequently it occurs in diverse situations, the more important the trait*PersonalityThe Myers Briggs Indicator (MBTI)A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types using 100 questionsExtroverted (E) vs. Introverted (I)Sensing (S) vs. Intuitive (N)Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F)Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P)Most widely-used instrument in the worldEach of the sixteen possible combinations has a name*PersonalityThe Big Five Personality ModelThe quality of being comfortable with relationships (Sociable, gregarious, and assertive)A personality assessment model that taps five basic dimensionsHigher performance Enhanced leadership Higher job & life satisfaction*PersonalityThe Big Five Personality ModelThe number of goals on which a person focuses (Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized)Higher performance Enhanced leadership Greater longevityThe ability to get along with others (Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting)Higher performance Lower levels of deviant behavior *PersonalityThe Big Five Personality ModelThe capacity to entertain new ideas and to change as a result of new information (Curious, imaginative, artistic, and sensitive)Training performance Enhanced leadership More adaptable to changeLess moodiness and insecurity (Calm, self-confident, secure under stress (positive), versus nervous, depressed, and insecure under stress (negative)High job & life satisfaction Lower stress level*PersonalityOther Personality Traits Relevant to OBCore Self EvaluationMachiavellianismNarcissismSelf MonitoringRisk TakingTypes A PersonalityThe degree to which people like or dislike themselvesA pragmatic, emotionally distant power-player who believes that ends justify the meansAn arrogant, entitled, self-important person who needs excessive admirationThe ability to adjust behavior to meet external, situational factors.The willingness to take chances.Aggressively involved in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more in less timeProactive PersonalityIdentifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres to completion*higher job performancewin more oftenLess effective in their jobsmore likely to become leaders.make faster decisions with less informationHigh performanceCreates positive change in the environment *ValuesWhat is Values?Basic convictions on how to conduct yourself or how to live your life that is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence Attributes of ValuesContent AttributeIntensity AttributeThat the mode of conduct or end-state is importancePersons beliefs about his or her capabilities to perform a task*ValuesWhat is Value System?A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individuals value in terms of their intensityTends to be relatively constant and consistent*ValuesWhat is the Importance of Values?Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviorsInfluence our perception of the world around usRepresent interpretations of right and wrongImply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others*ValuesTerminal Versus Instrumental Values Rokeach Value SurveyTerminal ValuesInstrumental ValuesDesirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetimePreferable modes of behavior or means of achieving ones terminal values*ValuesGenerational ValuesCohortEntered WorkforceApproximate Current AgeDominant Work ValuesVeterans1950-196465+Hard working, conservative, conforming; loyalty to the organizationBoomers1965-198540-60sSuccess, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority; loyalty to careerXers1985-200020-40sWork/life balance, team-oriented, dislike of rules; loyalty to relationshipsNexters2000-PresentUnder 30Confident, financial success, self-reliant but team-oriented; loyalty to both self and relationships*Linking an Individuals Personality and Values to the WorkplacePersonality - Job Fit TheoryA theory that identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnoverRealisticInvestigativeArtisticSocialEnterprisingConventionalJohn Hollands Personality-Job Fit TheoryVocational Preference Inventory (VPI)There appear to be intrinsic differences in personality between people.There are different types of jobs.People in jobs congruent with their personality should be more satisfied and have lower turnover.*Linking an Individuals Personality and Values to the WorkplacePerson Organization FitThe extent that employees personality must fit with the organizational culture.People are attracted to organizations that match their values.Those who match are most likely to be selected.Mismatches will result in turnover.Can use the Big Five personality types to match to the organizational culture.*Global ImplicationsPersonalityValuesDo frameworks like Big Five transfer across cultures?Yes, but the frequency of type in the culture may varyBetter in individualistic than collectivist culturesValues differ across culturesHofstedes Framework for assessing culture five value dimensions: Power distance - Individualism vs. Collectivism - Masculinity vs. Femininity - Uncertainty Avoidance - Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation*Global ImplicationsHofstedes Framework for Assessing CulturesPower DistanceThe extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequallyRelatively equal power between those with status / wealth and those without status / wealthLow DistanceExtremely unequal power distribution between those with status / wealth and those without status / wealthHigh Distance*Global ImplicationsHofstedes Framework for Assessing CulturesThe degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groupsIndividualismA tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect themCollectivismThe extent to which the society values work roles of achievement, power, and control, and where assertiveness and materialism are also valuedMasculinityThe extent to which there is little differentiation between roles for men and womenFemininity*Global ImplicationsHofstedes Framework for Assessing CulturesUncertainty AvoidanceThe extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid themSociety does not like ambiguous situations and tries to avoid themHigh Uncertainty AvoidanceSociety does not mind ambiguous situations and embraces themLow Uncertainty Avoidance*Global ImplicationsHofstedes Framework for Assessing CulturesA national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistenceLong-term OrientationA national culture attribute that emphasizes the present and the here-and-now Short-term Orientation*Global ImplicationsGLOBE Framework for Assessing CulturesGlobal Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) research program (Nine dimensions of national culture)How much society rewards people for being altruistic, generous, and kindHumane OrientationHow much society encourages and rewards performance improvement and excellencePerformance Orientation**


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