Chapter 1 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions.

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Chapter 1 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer QuestionsDescriptionPsychologists describe behavior using case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observationDescriptionCase Studyobservation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principalsIs language uniquely human?DescriptionSurveytechnique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of peopleusually by questioning a representative, random sample of peopleFalse Consensus Effecttendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviorsDescriptionPopulationall the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a studyRandom Samplea sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusionDescriptionDescriptionIf marbles of two colors are mixed well in the large jar, the fastest way to know their ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller one and count themDescriptionNaturalistic Observationobserving and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situationCorrelationCorrelation Coefficienta statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the otherCorrelation coefficientIndicates directionof relationship(positive or negative)Indicates strengthof relationship(0.00 to 1.00)r = +.37CorrelationScatterplota graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variablesthe slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationshipthe amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlationlittle scatter indicates high correlationalso called a scattergram or scatter diagramCorrelationScatterplots, showing patterns of correlationsCorrelationCorrelationScatterplot of Height and Temperament55 60 65 70 75 80 85 CorrelationThree Possible Cause-Effect Relationships(1)Low self-esteemDepression(2)DepressionLow self-esteemLow self-esteemDepression(3)Distressing eventsor biologicalpredispositioncould causecould causecould causeororandIllusory CorrelationIllusory Correlationthe perception of a relationship where none existsTwo Random SequencesYour chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598,960.


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