- Chapter 19, Section 1 and Chapter 20, Section 1. Chapter 19, Section 1.
Chapter 19, Section 1 and Chapter 20, Section 1. Chapter 19, Section 1.
Industrial RevolutionIndustrial RevolutionChapter 19, Section 1 and Chapter 20, Section 1First Industrial RevolutionLate 1700s Early 1800sChapter 19, Section 1Industrial Revolution in BritainIndustrial Revolution began in Britain in 1780sWhy did it start in Britain?Improved agricultural practicesDramatic increase in food supplyPopulation grew, creating a large labor forceMany British were very wealthyEntrepreneurs people interested in funding new business to make a profitLarge supply of natural resourcesColonial empire provided several markets for goodsInventions and InventorsCotton productionJames Watt improves the steam enginePlays large part in Britains Industrial RevolutionSteam power used to spin and weave cottonIncreases the need for coalCoal and iron industriesCoal production increasesHenry Cort develops puddlingCoal is used to burn away impurities in iron ore, creating high quality ironIron was used to create new machines and new modes of transportationInventions and InventorsRailroads played key role in the success of the Industrial Revolution1804 First steam-powered train runs in BritainBuilding railroads creates new jobsLess expensive transportation = lower-priced goodsMore sales = more machinery built = more money!Factory is another key elementNew labor systemDesign work shiftsFined for being late and released for misconductChild laborers were often beatenSpread of IndustrializationBy mid-1800s, Britain is worlds richest industrial nationIndustrialization spreads throughout world over many decadesSpreads first throughout EuropeIndustrial Revolution also occurs in the United States in the 1800sRobert Fulton invents the steamboat, making transportation easierMost important development in U.S. was the railroadSocial Impact on EuropeGrowth of population and citiesMore people were better fedPeople move from country to cities for workRapid growth of cities leads to poor living conditionsTwo new social classes emergeIndustrial middle classIndustrial working classSocial Impact on EuropeIndustrial middle classMade up of people who built factories, bought the machines, and figured out where the markets were locatedWere ambitious and, often, greedyIndustrial working classWorkers in the factoriesWorked long hours (12-16 hours/day) for 6 days a week with only 30 minute breaksNo minimum wageSocial Impact on EuropeIndustrial Revolution gave rise to the idea of socialismSystem in which the government owns and controls some means of production, such as factories and utilitiesCame mostly from intellectuals who believed in the equality of all peopleReplace competition with cooperationSecond Industrial Revolution:Late 1800s Early 1900sChapter 20, Section 1New Products EmergeSteel replaces ironCan build lighter, faster, and smaller machines, engines, railways, ships, and weaponsElectricity as a new form of energyEasily converted to heat, light, and motion through use of wiresGives birth to a series of new inventionsThomas Edison (USA) and Joseph Swan (Britain) invent the light bulbAlexander Graham Bell telephoneGugliemo Marconi sent first radio waves across AtlanticNew Products EmergeInternal combustion engineGives rise to ocean liners, airplanes, carsOliver and Wilbur Wright made the first flight in 1903 at Kitty Hawk, North CarolinaFirst passenger service plane in 1919New PatternsWorkers wages increase and prices are lower after 1870First department stores emerge, selling a range of consumer goodsEurope is dividedIndustrial countries Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, northern Italy, NetherlandsAgricultural countries southern Italy, Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portugal, RussiaOrganizing the Working ClassKarl Marx and The Communist ManifestoAppalled by horrible conditions in factoriesSolution was to create a new social system known as communismBelieved all of world history was a series of class struggles between the oppressors and oppressedSaid there would eventually be a revolution that produced a classless societyWorking class leaders form political parties based on Marxs ideasGerman Social Democratic Party becomes largestOrganizing the Working ClassTrade unions were formedOrganizations of laborers from the same trade working for better working conditions, wages, etc.Won the right to strike in Britain in 1870Work stoppage called by members of a union to pressure an employer into meeting their demandsMade considerable progress in bettering working and living conditions of working class by 1914Comparing the RevolutionsFirst Industrial RevolutionGave rise to textiles, railroads, iron, and coalSecond Industrial RevolutionGave rise to steel, chemicals, electricity, and petroleum