Chapter 19 Section 2

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1. Section 2The Progressive President 2. The First Progressive PresidentSeptember 6, 1901President William McKinley assassinated by unemployed anarchist @ the worlds fair in Buffalo, NYVice President Theodore Roosevelt became President42 years oldYoungest President to take officeSupporter of Progressive goals 3. Teddy RooseveltCame from wealthy NY familySuffered from asthma as childBuilt strength by lifting weights, running, & boxing@23 he was elected to NY state legislatureServed on Civil Service CommissionHeaded NYC police departmentAssistant secretary of the navy1898Led U.S. troops in daring exploits against SpainReturned home a heroElected governor of New York2 years later was elected VP w/ McKinley 4. TR & Big BusinessTR won reputation as trustbuster (a person working to destroy monopolies & trusts)Was not against big business, saw difference between good & bad trustsGood trusts: were efficient & fair & should be left aloneBad trusts: took advantage of workers & cheated the public by eliminating competition.Govt must control or break them up1902Govt brought lawsuit against Northern Securities Company (was formed to control competition among railroads)TR said NSC used unfair business practices1904Supreme Court ruling: NSC violated Sherman Antitrust ActOrder: trust to be broken up1st time Sherman Antitrust Act used to break up trusts, not unionsMore suits followedAgainst: Standard Oil & American Tobacco CompanyWere later broke up because they attempted to limit free trade 5. A Boost for Organized LaborTR also clashed w/ mine owners1902PA coal miners strikeWanted: better pay & short workdayOwners: refused to negotiate w/ miners unionw/ winter approaching schools & hospitals ran out of coalTR threatened to send troops to run minesMine owners negotiated w/ miners union & reached agreementTR 1st President to side w/ strikers 6. The Square Deal1904TR ran for PresidentPromised a Square DealEveryone from farmers and consumers to workers and owners should have the same opportunity to succeedHelped him win election 7. Conserving Natural ResourcesTR took action to protect wilderness areasLumber companies were cutting down entire forests & miners were removing iron & coal, while leaving gaping holes in the earth to keep up w/ industrial growthTR loved the wilderness & pressed for conservationNot against using resources, but believed they had to be used wisely, w/ an eye toward the future1905U.S. Forest Service was formedThousands of acres of land set aside for national parks 8. Protecting ConsumersSinclairs novel The Jungle shocked TRHe made public a report exposing unhealthy meatpacking plant conditions1906Congress passed a law allowing closer inspection of meatpacking housesMuckrakersExposed drug companies for making false claims about medicines & adding harmful chemicals to canned foodCongress passed Pure Food & Drug Act(required food & drug makers to list all ingredients on packages 9. Taft & Wilson1908TR did not run for reelectionSupported William Howard TaftTrouble For TaftTaft: quite & cautious Was wary of powerSupported Progressive causesBroke up more trusts, favored graduated income tax, approved safety rules for mines, created federal office to control child labor, & signed laws giving govt workers 8 hour workday 10. 1909Lost Progressive supportSigned a bill to raise tariffsProgressives argued this raised prices for consumersModified conservation policiesProgressives accused him of blocking conservaton 11. Election of 1912TR broke away from Taft & ran against him for Republican nominationTR was loved by people, but Taft controlled party leadershipTaft nominated by Republican PartyTR & supporters formed new partyProgressive Party, later known as the Bull Moose PartyDemocrats chose Woodrow WilsonProgressive candidatePresident of Princeton University & governor of New JerseyBrilliant scholar & cautious reformerKnown as begin rigid & unwilling to compromiseTR & Taft gained more votes than Wilson, but spilt Republican vote allowing Wilson to win the election of 1912 12. Wilson & the New FreedomWanted to restore free competitionProgram called New FreedomPersuaded Congress to create Federal Trade CommissionPower to investigate companies & order them to stop using unfair practices to destroy competitors1914Clayton Antitrust Act signedBanned some business practices that limited competitionStopped antitrust laws from being used against unionsFederal Reserve ActRegulated bankingSet up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to raise or lower interest rates & control the money supply

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