Mesopotamia Tigris and Euphrates Rivers- unpredictably 3000 b.c.e. -constructing irrigation canals Sumerians then Semitic Villages and cities linked through trade- often warred over resources Large labor forces Political institutions Sargon Hammurabi Religious institutions anthropomorphic gods The Epic of Gilgamesh Social classes --Gender, wealth, power, position. Advancements Cuneiform, irrigation, transportation technologies bronze metallurgy, brickmaking, engineering, and pottery full-time soldiers, horse-drawn chariot, the bow and arrow, and siege machinery, numbers and made advances in mathematics and astronomy.
Egypt Regular flooding, fertile land, but dangerous cataracts Lacked resources- tended to trade Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms Divine Kingship -pharaohs Mummification -pyramids- Valley of Kings Politically centered- bureaucracy for ruling- causes tension Polytheistic religions Huge temples Afterlife 3 social classes little to no slavery Women were subjugated 2 writing systems Knowledge of chemistry and anatomy, mathematics, astronomy, calendar making, irrigation, engineering and architecture, and transportation technology.
The Indus Valley Civilization India/Pakistan Harappa and Mohenjo-daro Un-deciphered language
Early China, ca. 2000221 b.c.e. Geographically diverse Millet in the North, Rice in the South Agriculture needed a great deal of human labor
Shang Period, ca. 17501027 b.c.e. Pigs, chickens, and millet were domesticated, silk textiles developed, and bronze metallurgy Kings ruled near Yellow river and indirectly controlled farther lands Kings played an important religious role Worshiped the spirits of male ancestors, practiced divination and sacrifice Later technology included horse-drawn chariot, draft animals, and extensive civil engineering projects and the Chinese system of writing
The Zhou period, 1027221 b.c.e The Mandate of Heaven 2 periods 1.Western Zhou + 2.the Eastern Zhou periods (Warring States Period Seperation of political and priestly power occurred Kingship was defined in moral terms The Eastern Zhou period political leaders lost power- Feudalism Warring States Period (480221 b.c.e.). Technology include horse riding, steel and Iron Women were subordinated and land owners gained social status Elders were respected Yin and Yan
3 Philosophies developed Legalism People are bad and they need strick rules and harsh punishment to be kept in check Daoism Human are good but society is evil. Less rules and organization the better. Go with the flow and follow nature Confucianism People are capable of good or evil and need to be educated. Society has layers (heiarchy) and those below should obey will those above should rule fairly and justly
The Americas The Mesoamerican Olmecs, 1200-400 b.c.e. preclassic civilization Major centers near the coast of Mexico Large earthen mounds and Large Head Shaped Carving Limited technology Probably played a role in later advancements in writing and astronomy South American Civilization: Chavn, 900250 b.c.e. Military strength and religious system were used to control its territory Needed a great deal of labor to build cities and agriculture in the high altitude of the Andes mountains Clan based system of labor Ayllu