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    Chapter 3: Weather and Extreme Weather Answers

    Section A: Weather 1.Thetypeofweatherofanyplacedependsonarangeoffactors.Themostimportantoftheseislatitude.(a) Whatislatitude?(1mark)

    ThedistancenorthorsouthoftheEquator

    (b) DrawanannotateddiagramtoshowwhytemperaturesarehottestattheEquatorandcoldestattheNorthandSouthPolesYoumustusethefollowingwordsonyourdiagram:axis,tilt,angle,distance.(4marks:suggest1eachforannotationsrelatingtothe4words/someleewaydependingondetail.Fullmarksifannotationsfullyexplaintemperaturedifferences,similartooriginaldiagraminthestudentbook(seebelow))

    (c) TheseasandoceansaroundEuropehaveabiginfluenceontheweather.Placesnearthecoastaregenerallywarmerandwetterthanareasfurtherinland.Explainwhy.Forall4marks,studentsneedtoexplainthedifferencesindetaile.g.:

    Waterwarmsupandcoolsdownmoreslowlythanland Placesclosetotheseawarmupmoreslowly,soarecoolerthaninlandduringtheday Atnight,waterlosestheheatithasgainedmoreslowlythanlanddoes,soareasalongthe

    coastareusuallywarmeratnightthanplacesinland

    Coastalareasarewetterasprevailingwindsbringmoisture,whichfallsalongthecoast,especiallyifithastoriseupoverhigherground

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    2.(a) Whatdoalltypesofprecipitationhaveincommon?(1mark)

    Theyallinvolvedepositionofmoisture/water(invariousforms)fromclouds

    (b) Whattwomainprocessesareneededtocreateprecipitation?(2x1mark)

    Evaporationandcondensation

    (c) Explainwhateachofthesemeans:(4x1mark)

    (i) Prevailingwindthemainorpredominatedirectionfromwhichthewindblows

    (ii) Windwardsidethesideofe.g.ahillormountainwhichfacesthedirectionfromwhichthewindiscoming

    (iii) Leewardsidethefarsideofe.g.ahillormountain,facingawayfromthedirectionfromwhichthewindiscoming

    (iv) Rainshadowarelativelydryareaonthefarsideofahillormountain(usuallytheleewardside)whererainfallislower

    (d) Addannotatedlabelstothediagrambelowtoexplainhowreliefrainfallisformed.Includeallfourtermslistedinpart(a).(1markeachforcorrectuseandplacingofthe4termsfrom(c)providedoverallexplanationisclear/complete=totalof4marks)

    3.(a) ThemajorityoftheweatherexperiencedintheUK,Netherlandsandothercountriesonthe

    westernedgeofEuropeisbroughtfromthewestbytheprevailingwinds.Describetheweatherbroughtbythisairmassinsummerandwinterandexplainwhy.(4marks=2fordescriptionand2forexplanation)

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    Description:Insummeritbringswarmwetweather.Inwinteritbringscool,wetweather.

    Explanation:TheairmassismovingacrosstheAtlanticOcean,socollectsandcarriesmoisture.Thewatersarewarminsummer,butnottoocoldinwinter(NorthAtlanticDrift)sotemperaturesarenotverycold,eveninwinter

    (b) Describethelinkbetweenwinds,lowpressureandhighpressure.(1mark)

    Airalwaysmovesfromhighpressureareastolowpressureareassowindsalwaysblowfromhightolowpressure.

    (c) Whatis:(2x1mark)

    (i) anisobarisalinejoininguppointsofequalpressure

    (ii) amillibaristheunitusedtomeasurepressure

    (d) Completethetablenexttotheweathermapshowingadepression(cyclone).Crossouttheincorrectanswers.(10xmarkeach.)

    Pressure:

    Lowest/highestinthecentre Lowest/highestontheedge

    Isobars:

    Closetogether/farapart

    Winds:

    Oftenstrong/light Blowoutwards/inwards Blowclockwise/anticlockwise

    Warm front weather:

    Cold/warm heavyshowers/steadyrain

    Cold front weather:

    Steadyrain/shortheavyshowers

    Type of rainfall:

    Convectional/frontal4.(a) Namethesevenmainweatherelementsforwhichregularmeasurementsaremadeand

    recorded.(1markfor57correct,2forall6)

    Temperature,airpressure,precipitation,cloudcover,humidity,sunshine,windspeedandwinddirection

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    (b) Explainthreereasonswhyaccurateweatherforecastingisimportant.(3x1mark) Rescueserviceshavetopreparetorespondtosevereweatherevents Shippingandaircraftmaynotbeabletooperateinbadweather,soneedtohaveaccurate

    forecaststoplotsaferoutes

    Roadsneedtobegrittedifsnowisforecast Otherindustriese.g.retailersadjusttheirstocklevelstosuittheweather Waterrestrictionsmaybeneedediflongperiodsofdryweatherareforecast Ifforecastsareinaccurateitcancostlivesandmoney

    (c) Whyaresatelliteimagessoimportantformeteorologists?Includeanexampleofanamedweathersystemoreventtosupportyouranswer.(3+1or2+2marksdependingondetail.Max3ifnonamedexample.)

    Sampleanswer:Monitoringandthereforetryingtopredictthestrengthandpathofe.g.hurricanescansavelives.Evacuationplanscanbeputinplaceandpropertyprotectedifmeteorologistscanpredictwhereandwhenahurricanemayhit.HurricaneKatrinain2005wastrackedviasatelliteand80%ofNewOrleansevacuatedaheadofthefloodsandhighwindsitcaused.

    (d) Whatisthenameofyournationalmeteorologyservice?Describeitsmainareasofwork.(1(name)+3marksfor3typesofwork.)

    IntheNetherlandsitistheKNMI.Itworkswithinagovernmentdepartmentto:

    Collectandanalyseweatherdata Providesweatherforecasts,warningsandinformation Researchesintoweatherandclimate SharesdataandresearchwithothermeteorologicalorganisationsinEuropeandtheworld,

    includingtheIPCC(Total=45marks)

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    Section B: Extreme Weather 1.(a) Hurricanes,typhoonsandcyclonesareallnamesforstormswhichreach119kph.Describe

    whereintheworldeachoccurs.(3x1marks)

    (i) hurricanes:mainlybetweentheEquatorandtheTropicofCancertothenorthintheSouthAtlantic/CaribbeaneastoftheAmericasandintheeastPacific.

    (ii) typhoons:BetweenthetropicsalongthewestPacificOceancoastandacrosssoutheastAsia.

    (iii) cyclones:BetweenthetropicsintheIndianOceanaroundIndia,Bangladesh,theMiddleEastandeastAfricancoasts.

    (b) Tickthestatementsabouttropicalstormswhicharecorrect.(3x1mark)

    Areareasofhighpressure Needoceantemperaturesofatleast30Ctoform Onlyformduringafewmonthsoftheyear Haveacalm,centralareacalledthevortex Rotatesinwardsasitrisesupwards Canreachspeedsupto250kph

    (c) Describetwotypesofdamageorproblemstropicalstormscancause.(2x2marks)

    E.g.

    (i) Fromhighwinds:canbringdown/damagetrees,buildings,powerandcommunicationlines.Damagetopowerlinescancausefires.Deaths,injuriesandhomelessnesscanresult.

    (ii) Fromflooding:highwindswhichcreatestormsurgesandtorrentialrainbothbringflooding,eitherfromthecoastorinland.Stormsurgescandamageanddestroyseadefencesaswellasbuildingsandotherinfrastructure.Floodsmaytriggerlandslidesandmudslideswhichcanbedeadly.

    2.(a)

    Either:(6marks)

    (i) continuethestoryfromthispersonspointofview,untilthehurricanedieddown.

    OR

    (ii) describewhathappenedtothepeoplelivinginthisareaoncethehurricanehadgone.

    Studentchoice/openanswer.6marks=shouldbeadetaileddescriptionabouttheeffectsofthehurricane.

    (b) Tornadoesarealsocalledtwisters.Explainwhythisisagoodwordtodescribeatornado.(1mark)

    Tornadoesarethinfunnelshapedstormcloudswhichspinortwistatspeedsofover400kph

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    (c) Describetwowaysinwhichtornadoesaredifferenttohurricanes.(2x1mark)

    Muchsmaller Verydifficulttopredict

    (d) Whyisitalmostimpossibletopredicttornadoesandtopreventthemcausingdamage?(2marks)

    Theydevelopfromthunderstormsveryquickly,sothereisnotimetoevacuate.Theyareimmenselypowerful,sopropertycannotbeprotected.

    3.(a) Describethetrack(route)takenbythestormwhichbecamehurricaneKatrinabetween2431st

    August.(3marks)Mustdescribetheentiretrackforfullmarks.

    (b)

    (i) Whatwasthelowestpressurerecorded?(1mark)

    902mbs

    (ii) Whereandwhenwasthis?(1mark)

    500kmsouthofNewOrleanson28thAugust2005

    (c) Betweenwhichdateswasitclassedasahurricane?(1mark)

    2630thAugust.

    (d) WhywasthedamagedonetoNewOrleanssobad?Includethesewordsinyouranswer:delta,levees,stormsurge,winds.(5marks=4forusingeachwordappropriatelyintheanswer.E.g.:)

    NewOrleansislocatedontheMississippidelta.Itisaflat,lowlyingareamostlyatsealevel Thecityisprotectedfromfloodingbylargeleveesartificialembankmentsalongtheriverand

    itsdistributaries

    Thestormsurgecreatedbyhurricaneforcewindsseverelydamagedmorethan50levees,causingwidespreadflooding

    Asaresultover80%ofthecitywasunderfloodwater

    4.(a)

    (i) WhatdoesElNinomean?(1mark)

    Christchildorboychild

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    (ii) Whywasitgiventhisname?(1mark)

    IthappenedaroundChristmastime

    (iii) Whatisthefulltermusedtodescribethisevent?(1mark)

    ElNinoSouthernOscillation(ENSO)

    (b) StudentdiagramofchangesinElNinoyears.Shouldbesimilartothis(below).(4marks=awardmainlyforeachcorrectlabel/partofdiagram.)

    (c) Whatextremeweatherdoesthiscausein:(1+1mark.Oneweathertypeforeach)

    (i) Australiadrought/duststorms.

    (ii) SouthAmericaflooding/landslides/mudslides/storms

    (d) WhydoscientiststhinkthatElNinoeventsmaybelinkedtoclimatechange?(2marks)

    5.(a) GivetworeasonswhycoastalfloodinghasbeenaconstantproblemintheNetherlands.

    (1+1mark.)

    Muchofthelandisatorbelowsealevel,especiallyinthewest,resultingincoastalflooding SeveralmajorriversflowintotheNorthSeaviathedeltainthesouthwest,soinlandflooding

    fromtheseisalsoamajorthreat

    (b) Describethesequenceofeventsfrom31stJanuaryto1stFebruary1953whichcausedover1800deathsintheNetherlands.Includethefollowingwordsinyouranswer:storm,NorthSea,springtide,strongwindsanddykes.(Musthavethefullsequenceandallthewordsforthefull4marks.)

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    E.g.

    AfiercestormwhichhadbegunoverIcelandmoveddowntheNorthSeafromthenorthwest Thestormcoincidedwithoneofahighspringtide,creatingwavesupto5mhigherthannormal Asthesurgemovedsouth,itwasfunnelledintoamuchnarrowerspace WhenitreachedthecoastoftheNetherlands,thestrongwindsdrovethewateroverthedykes

    andseadefences

    Manydykes(90)simplybrokeupunderthepoundingasthestormragedfor20hours Waterfloodedlargeareasinthesouthofthecountry

    (c) Whywasitdifficulttowarnpeoplethatfloodingwaslikelytohappen?(2marks)

    Theworstofthestormandfloodinghappenedovernight Therewerenoweatherwarningsthishappenedmanyyearsbeforenewswasbroadcast

    roundtheclock.Fewpeopleoutsidethefloodedregionwereawareofwhatwashappening

    (d) Whathappenedasaresultofthefloods:(2+2marks)

    (i) intheshortterm:damagedhousingwasrepairedorrebuilt;farmswererebuiltandrestocked;roadsandotheressentialinfrastructurewererepaired

    (ii) inthelongterm:seadefencesneededanoverhaulthefloodsledtotheDeltaPlanwhichshortenedthecoastlineandbuiltanumberofstormbarriers

    (Total=55marks)SectionA=45marksSectionB=55marksTotal=100marks