# Chapter 3: Weather and Extreme Weather Earth... · Weather and Extreme Weather Answers ... suggest…

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Chapter 3: Weather and Extreme Weather Answers

Section A: Weather 1.Thetypeofweatherofanyplacedependsonarangeoffactors.Themostimportantoftheseislatitude.(a) Whatislatitude?(1mark)

ThedistancenorthorsouthoftheEquator

(b) DrawanannotateddiagramtoshowwhytemperaturesarehottestattheEquatorandcoldestattheNorthandSouthPolesYoumustusethefollowingwordsonyourdiagram:axis,tilt,angle,distance.(4marks:suggest1eachforannotationsrelatingtothe4words/someleewaydependingondetail.Fullmarksifannotationsfullyexplaintemperaturedifferences,similartooriginaldiagraminthestudentbook(seebelow))

(c) TheseasandoceansaroundEuropehaveabiginfluenceontheweather.Placesnearthecoastaregenerallywarmerandwetterthanareasfurtherinland.Explainwhy.Forall4marks,studentsneedtoexplainthedifferencesindetaile.g.:

Waterwarmsupandcoolsdownmoreslowlythanland Placesclosetotheseawarmupmoreslowly,soarecoolerthaninlandduringtheday Atnight,waterlosestheheatithasgainedmoreslowlythanlanddoes,soareasalongthe

coastareusuallywarmeratnightthanplacesinland

Coastalareasarewetterasprevailingwindsbringmoisture,whichfallsalongthecoast,especiallyifithastoriseupoverhigherground

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2.(a) Whatdoalltypesofprecipitationhaveincommon?(1mark)

Theyallinvolvedepositionofmoisture/water(invariousforms)fromclouds

(b) Whattwomainprocessesareneededtocreateprecipitation?(2x1mark)

Evaporationandcondensation

(c) Explainwhateachofthesemeans:(4x1mark)

(i) Prevailingwindthemainorpredominatedirectionfromwhichthewindblows

(ii) Windwardsidethesideofe.g.ahillormountainwhichfacesthedirectionfromwhichthewindiscoming

(iii) Leewardsidethefarsideofe.g.ahillormountain,facingawayfromthedirectionfromwhichthewindiscoming

3.(a) ThemajorityoftheweatherexperiencedintheUK,Netherlandsandothercountriesonthe

westernedgeofEuropeisbroughtfromthewestbytheprevailingwinds.Describetheweatherbroughtbythisairmassinsummerandwinterandexplainwhy.(4marks=2fordescriptionand2forexplanation)

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Description:Insummeritbringswarmwetweather.Inwinteritbringscool,wetweather.

Explanation:TheairmassismovingacrosstheAtlanticOcean,socollectsandcarriesmoisture.Thewatersarewarminsummer,butnottoocoldinwinter(NorthAtlanticDrift)sotemperaturesarenotverycold,eveninwinter

Airalwaysmovesfromhighpressureareastolowpressureareassowindsalwaysblowfromhightolowpressure.

(c) Whatis:(2x1mark)

(i) anisobarisalinejoininguppointsofequalpressure

(ii) amillibaristheunitusedtomeasurepressure

Pressure:

Lowest/highestinthecentre Lowest/highestontheedge

Isobars:

Closetogether/farapart

Winds:

Oftenstrong/light Blowoutwards/inwards Blowclockwise/anticlockwise

Warm front weather:

Cold front weather:

Type of rainfall:

recorded.(1markfor57correct,2forall6)

Temperature,airpressure,precipitation,cloudcover,humidity,sunshine,windspeedandwinddirection

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forecaststoplotsaferoutes

(d) Whatisthenameofyournationalmeteorologyservice?Describeitsmainareasofwork.(1(name)+3marksfor3typesofwork.)

IntheNetherlandsitistheKNMI.Itworkswithinagovernmentdepartmentto:

Collectandanalyseweatherdata Providesweatherforecasts,warningsandinformation Researchesintoweatherandclimate SharesdataandresearchwithothermeteorologicalorganisationsinEuropeandtheworld,

includingtheIPCC(Total=45marks)

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Section B: Extreme Weather 1.(a) Hurricanes,typhoonsandcyclonesareallnamesforstormswhichreach119kph.Describe

whereintheworldeachoccurs.(3x1marks)

(i) hurricanes:mainlybetweentheEquatorandtheTropicofCancertothenorthintheSouthAtlantic/CaribbeaneastoftheAmericasandintheeastPacific.

(ii) typhoons:BetweenthetropicsalongthewestPacificOceancoastandacrosssoutheastAsia.

Areareasofhighpressure Needoceantemperaturesofatleast30Ctoform Onlyformduringafewmonthsoftheyear Haveacalm,centralareacalledthevortex Rotatesinwardsasitrisesupwards Canreachspeedsupto250kph

(c) Describetwotypesofdamageorproblemstropicalstormscancause.(2x2marks)

E.g.

(i) Fromhighwinds:canbringdown/damagetrees,buildings,powerandcommunicationlines.Damagetopowerlinescancausefires.Deaths,injuriesandhomelessnesscanresult.

2.(a)

Either:(6marks)

(i) continuethestoryfromthispersonspointofview,untilthehurricanedieddown.

OR

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Muchsmaller Verydifficulttopredict

Theydevelopfromthunderstormsveryquickly,sothereisnotimetoevacuate.Theyareimmenselypowerful,sopropertycannotbeprotected.

3.(a) Describethetrack(route)takenbythestormwhichbecamehurricaneKatrinabetween2431st

August.(3marks)Mustdescribetheentiretrackforfullmarks.

(b)

(i) Whatwasthelowestpressurerecorded?(1mark)

902mbs

(ii) Whereandwhenwasthis?(1mark)

500kmsouthofNewOrleanson28thAugust2005

(c) Betweenwhichdateswasitclassedasahurricane?(1mark)

2630thAugust.

NewOrleansislocatedontheMississippidelta.Itisaflat,lowlyingareamostlyatsealevel Thecityisprotectedfromfloodingbylargeleveesartificialembankmentsalongtheriverand

itsdistributaries

Asaresultover80%ofthecitywasunderfloodwater

4.(a)

(i) WhatdoesElNinomean?(1mark)

Christchildorboychild

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(ii) Whywasitgiventhisname?(1mark)

IthappenedaroundChristmastime

(iii) Whatisthefulltermusedtodescribethisevent?(1mark)

ElNinoSouthernOscillation(ENSO)

(b) StudentdiagramofchangesinElNinoyears.Shouldbesimilartothis(below).(4marks=awardmainlyforeachcorrectlabel/partofdiagram.)

(c) Whatextremeweatherdoesthiscausein:(1+1mark.Oneweathertypeforeach)

(ii) SouthAmericaflooding/landslides/mudslides/storms

5.(a) GivetworeasonswhycoastalfloodinghasbeenaconstantproblemintheNetherlands.

(1+1mark.)

Muchofthelandisatorbelowsealevel,especiallyinthewest,resultingincoastalflooding SeveralmajorriversflowintotheNorthSeaviathedeltainthesouthwest,soinlandflooding

fromtheseisalsoamajorthreat

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E.g.

Manydykes(90)simplybrokeupunderthepoundingasthestormragedfor20hours Waterfloodedlargeareasinthesouthofthecountry

(c) Whywasitdifficulttowarnpeoplethatfloodingwaslikelytohappen?(2marks)