Chess Variants Collection

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Chess variants PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See http://code.pediapress.com/ for more information. PDF generated at: Tue, 08 Nov 2011 08:44:35 UTC Contents Articles Introduction Chess variant 1 1 16 16 17 29 31 31 46 48 48 53 54 56 59 63 70 77 81 87 88 94 94 96 99 100 101 102 104 105 Different starting position Displacement chess Chess960 Transcendental chess Different forces Chess handicap Dunsany's chess Different board Minichess Los Alamos chess Grid chess Cylinder chess Circular chess Alice chess Hexagonal chess Three-dimensional chess Cubic chess Flying chess Dragonchess Unusual rules Antichess Atomic chess Three checks chess Extinction chess Crazyhouse Knight relay chess Andernach chess Checkless chess Circe chess Legan chess Madrasi chess Monochromatic chess Patrol chess PlunderChess 106 108 110 111 113 114 115 115 118 120 121 123 126 126 127 128 129 130 133 133 141 144 146 148 150 151 153 153 164 165 166 167 168 169 175 Incomplete information and elements of chance Kriegspiel Dark chess Penultima Dice chess Knightmare Chess Multimove variants Marseillais chess Progressive chess Avalanche chess Monster chess Kung-fu chess Multiplayer variants Bughouse chess Three-handed chess Four-handed chess Forchess Djambi Bosworth Enochian chess Unusual pieces Fairy chess piece Hippogonal Grasshopper Grasshopper chess Berolina chess Maharajah and the Sepoys Omega Chess Stealth Chess Pocket mutation chess Baroque chess Chess with different armies Duell Gess 182 184 192 197 198 200 200 201 202 206 208 209 210 211 214 214 222 224 227 227 242 243 253 257 258 261 267 269 271 272 273 278 278 298 299 Variants with bishop+knight and rook+knight compounds Seirawan chess Janus chess Capablanca chess Capablanca random chess Gothic Chess Embassy Chess Modern chess Grand chess Games inspired by chess Arimaa Icehouse pieces Martian chess Historical variants History of chess Cox-Forbes theory Liubo Chaturanga Sessa Chaturaji Shatranj Abu Bakr bin Yahya al-Suli Tamerlane chess Hiashatar Senterej Lewis chessmen Xiangqi and variants Xiangqi Encyclopedia of Chinese Chess Openings Banqi Giog 303 306 306 320 324 330 333 335 341 344 346 348 350 357 364 370 377 382 389 399 401 407 408 409 418 434 441 441 453 478 507 521 551 571 609 621 624 Shogi and variants Shogi Shogi strategy and tactics History of shogi Meijin Ryu-oh Computer shogi Shogi variant Micro shogi Minishogi Kyoto shogi Judkins shogi Whale shogi Tori shogi Yari shogi Heian shogi Sho shogi Cannon shogi Hasami shogi Hand shogi Annan shogi Unashogi Wa shogi Chu shogi Heian dai shogi Akuro Dai shogi Tenjiku shogi Dai dai shogi Maka dai dai shogi Ko shogi Tai shogi Taikyoku shogi Sannin shogi Yonin shogi Edo-era shogi sources Other national variants Janggi Makruk Sittuyin 625 625 630 633 636 636 638 Chess variants software ChessV SMIRF References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 640 646 Article Licenses License 654 1 Introduction Chess variant A chess variant is a game related to, derived from or inspired by chess.[1] The difference from chess might include one or more of the following: • different board (larger or smaller, non-square board shape overall or different intra-board cell shapes such as triangles or hexagons) • addition, substitution or removal of pieces in standard chess (non-standard pieces are known as fairy pieces) • different rules for capture, move order, game objective, etc. Regional chess games, some of which are older than Western chess, such as Chaturanga, Shatranj, Xiangqi and Shogi, are typically called chess variants in the Western world. They have some similarities to chess and share a common game ancestor. The number of possible chess variants is Gliński's hexagonal chess – one of many chess variants virtually unlimited. Confining the number to published variants, D.B. Pritchard, author of The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants, estimates there are well over 2000.[2] [3] In the context of chess problems, chess variants are called fantasy chess, heterodox chess or fairy chess. Some chess variants are used only in problem composition and not in actual play. Chess-derived games These chess variants are derived from chess by changing the board, pieces or rules. Chess with different starting positions In these variants, the starting position is different, but otherwise the board, pieces and rules are the same. In most of such variants the pawns are placed on their usual place, but position of other pieces is either randomly determined or selected by the players. The motivation for these chess variants is to nullify established opening knowledge. The downside of these variants is that the initial position has usually less harmony and balance than standard chess position.[4] Chess variant 2 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Chess960 – one of the 960 possible starting positions a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Upside-down chess starting position (White sits at bottom) • Chess960 (or Fischer Random Chess): The placement of the pieces on the first rank is randomized, and the pieces on the eighth rank mirror it. • Displacement chess: Some pieces in the initial position are exchanged but the rules remain exactly the same. Some examples of this may be that the king and queen are flipped, or the knight on the b-file is traded with the bishop on the f-file. • Pre-Chess: Proposed by Pal Benko in 1978.[5] The game starts with white and black pawns set as usual, but the initial position of other pieces is selected by the players in the following way: First, White places one of his pieces on his first rank, and then Black does the same. Players continue to alternate in this manner until all pieces have been placed. (The only restriction being, bishops must be placed on opposite-color squares.) Then the game proceeds in the usual way. Castling is permitted only if the king and a rook were placed on their usual squares. • Transcendental chess: Similar to Chess960, but the opening white and black positions do not mirror each other. • Upside-down chess: The black and white pieces are switched so that all the pawns are one step away from getting promoted.[6] The game can start, for example: 1. Nc6 Nf3 2. b8Q g1Q etc. Chess variant 3 Chess with different forces Some chess variants use different number of pieces for White and Black. All pieces in these games are standard chess pieces, there are no fairy chess pieces. • Dunsany's chess (or Horde chess): One side has standard chess pieces, and the other side has 32 pawns. • Handicap chess (or Chess with odds): Variations to equal chances of players with different strength. • Pawns game: In the starting position White does not have a queen, but has eight additional pawns (see diagram below). The game was played by such old masters as Labourdonnais, Deschappelles and Kieseritsky.[7] • Peasant's revolt: By R.L. Frey (1947). White has a king and eight pawns (the peasants) against king, pawn and four knights by Black (the nobles).[8] • Weak!: White has usual pieces, Black has one king, seven knights and sixteen pawns. This game was played at Columbia University chess club in the 1960s.[9] a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Pawns game a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Peasant's revolt Chess variant 4 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Weak! Chess with different boards E D C B A Raumschach starting position (inverted knights represent unicorns) In these chess variants the same pieces and rules as in chess are used, but the board is different. It can be smaller or larger, non-square overall or based upon triangle or hexagon spaces (instead of square spaces). The movement of pieces in some variants is modified to account for the unusual property of the playing board. • Active Chess: Played on a 9×8 board, an extra queen is placed with an extra pawn in front. Invented by G. Kuzmichov in 1989, his students play-tested the game, deciding the best opening array was to place the second queen on either the eighth or ninth file.[10] • Alice Chess: Played with two boards. A piece moved on one board passes "through the looking glass" onto the other board. • Circular chess: Played on a circular board consisting of four rings, each of sixteen squares. Chess variant • Cubic Chess: A 3D variant similar to Raumschach but played on a 6×6×6 board. Each player has six pieces and 12 pawns. • Cylinder chess: Played on a cylinder board with a- and h-files "connected". Thus a player can use them as if the a-file were next to the h-file (and vice versa). • Chess Attack: Played on a six row, five columns board, Chess Attack follows standard chess rules, and can be regarded as an endgame variant. • Doublewide chess: Two or four regular chess boards are connected (for a 16×8 or 16×16 play surface) and each player plays with two complete sets of chess pieces. Because each player has two kings, the first king can be captured without ending the game.[11] • Flying chess: This is played on a board of 8×8×2, giving a total of 128 cells. Only certain pieces can move to and from the additional level. • Gravity chess: Rules are the same as in regular chess, except that all pieces are gravitationally "attracted" to the h-file (or a-file, depending on variants). This means that whenever there is free space between a piece and the h-file, the piece moves as far as it can to the h-file until the free space runs out. • Grid chess: The board is overlaid with a grid of lines. For a move to be legal, it must cross at least one of these lines. • Hexagonal chess: A family of chess variants played on a hexgrid with three colours and three bishops. • Infinite chess: Has a board shaped like the infinity symbol. It is connected at the center, and all pieces of the traditional chess are used.[12] • Lord Loss chess: Played on five different boards with two players. One person moves a piece on any board and his/her opponent can choose to move on a different or the same board. The game is featured in the book Lord Loss by Darren Shan. • Los Alamos chess (or Anti-Clerical chess): Played on a 6×6 board without bishops. This was the first chess-like game played by a computer program. • Millennium chess: Similar to Doublewide chess. Two boards are connected side by side; however, in this variant the middle files are merged, making a 15×8 board. • Millennium 3D Chess: An easy-to-learn 3D variant played on a 8×8×3 board. • Minichess: A family of chess variants played with regular chess pieces and standard rules, but on a smaller board. • Polgar Superstar Chess: Hexagonal chess variant played on a special, star-shaped board.[13] It was invented by László Polgár in 2002.[14] • Raumschach: Called "the classic 3D game" (Pritchard); played on a 5×5×5 board, including a new piece (unicorn) to move through cube vertices. • Singularity chess: Played on a board distorted in the center. Due to the distortion, some pieces can make U-turns, attack the same square multiple ways, and bishops can possibly change square colors (e.g., starting on a black square and ending on a white square).[15] • Tri-D Chess (or Star Trek chess): The 3D version of chess depicted in the television series Star Trek; rulesets created by fans. 5 Chess with unusual rules • Absorption Chess: A capturing piece gains the movement abilities of the piece it is capturing. Therefore if a rook captured a bishop, the rook would then be able to move like a queen as it can move like the rook and now the bishop. This rule does not apply to kings and pawns. • Absorption Chess II (or Seizer's Chess): Similar to the original Absorption Chess. A capturing piece gains the movement abilities of the piece it is capturing. This rule does apply to kings and pawns. • Accelerated Chess: Each player makes two non-capturing moves or one capturing move in each turn. • Andernach chess: A piece making a capture changes colour. Chess variant • Antichess (or Giveaway chess, Take Me chess, Loser's chess, Suicide chess, Must Kill, Reverse Chess): Capturing moves are mandatory and the object is to lose all pieces. There is no check – the king is captured like an ordinary piece. • Arimaa: A piece may push or pull opponents weaker piece. • Atomic chess: Any capture on a square results in an "atomic explosion" which kills (i.e. removes from the game) all pieces in any of the eight surrounding squares, except for pawns. • Benedict chess: Pieces are not allowed to be "captured". If a piece when moved could capture an opposing piece in its next move, that opposing piece changes sides.[16] • Checkers chess: Normal rules of chess are followed. However, pieces can only move forwards until they have reached the far rank.[17] • Checkless chess: Players are forbidden from giving check except to checkmate. • Chicken Chess: A combination of Benedict Chess and Suicide Chess. As in Suicide, the object is to lose all of your pieces and captures are mandatory. As in Benedict, if you threaten a piece it changes to your color. • Circe chess: Captured pieces are reborn on their starting squares. • Crazyhouse: Captured pieces change the colour and can be dropped on any unoccupied location. There are two variations of this variant, known as Loop chess and Chessgi. • Einstein chess: Pieces transform into more or less powerful pieces when they move.[18] • Extinction chess: A player must capture all of any one type of pieces his/her opponent controls to win (for example, all the knights an opponent has, or all their pawns, etc.) • Genesis Chess: The game begins with a blank board and opponents take turns placing down or moving pieces.[19] • Guard chess (or Icelandic chess): Allows captures only when a piece is completely unprotected by friendly pieces. Checkmate occurs when the piece forcing the mate is protected and therefore cannot be captured.[20] • Hierarchical chess: Pieces must be moved in the following order: pawn, knight, bishop, rook, queen, king. A player who has the corresponding piece but cannot move it loses the game.[21] • Jedi Knight chess: Knights may move three spaces diagonally or horizontally or both, depending on the rules accepted.[22] • Kamikaze chess: When capturing, the capturing piece is removed from the board also. So, a king cannot defend itself by capturing an attacker. A capture is not allowed if it would expose the king to discovered check.[23] • Knight relay chess: Pieces defended by a friendly knight can move as a knight. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 Knightmate starting position • Knightmate (or Mate The Knight): A a game invented by Bruce Zimov in 1972. The goal of the game is to checkmate the opponents's knight (which is placed on e-file). The kings on b- and g-files can be captured as other Chess variant pieces. Pawns can additionally promote to kings but not to knights.[24] Legan chess: Played as if the board would be rotated 45°, initial position and pawn movements are adjusted accordingly. Madrasi chess: A piece which is attacked by the same type of piece of the opposite colour is paralysed. Monochromatic chess: All pieces must stay on the same colour square as they initially begin. Patrol chess: Captures and checks are only possible if the capturing or checking piece is guarded by a friendly piece. PlunderChess: The capturing piece is allowed to temporarily take the moving abilities of the piece taken. Reincarnation Chess: A captured piece can turn into a zombie, then reincarnate back into the game as a normal piece if captured again. Refusal chess (or Outlaw chess, Rejection chess): When a player makes a move the opponent can refuse to accept it, forcing the first player to change to another move, which must be accepted. The only exception is when only one legal move is possible.[25] Replacement chess: Captured pieces are not removed from the board but moved by the capturer anywhere else on the board.[26] Rifle chess (or Shooting chess, Sniper chess): When one piece captures another, it remains unmoved in its original square, instead of occupying the square of the piece it has captured.[27] 7 • • • • • • • • • • Stationary King: Both players' kings are not allowed to move. • Take-all: The first player to capture all opposing pieces wins. The king is allowed to move into check and pawns can be promoted to kings. • Three-check chess: A player wins if he checks the opponent three times. Chess with incomplete information or elements of chance In these chess variants, luck or randomness sometimes plays a role. Still, like in poker or backgammon, good luck and bad luck even out over the long-term with clever strategy and consideration of probabilities being decisively important. • • • • • • • ChessHeads: Played with cards that change the game rules.[28] [29] Dark chess: You see only squares of the board that are attacked by your pieces. Dice chess: The pieces a player is able to move are determined by rolling a pair of dice. Fantasy Chess: Traditional chess with a layer of wargaming added. Players fight for the square (which can be co-occupied) using dice. Can be expanded to 4 player game and piece capability can improve each game.[30] Knightmare Chess: Played with cards that change the game rules. Kriegspiel: Neither player knows where the opponent's pieces are but can deduce them with information from a referee. No Stress Chess: Marketed for teaching beginners, the piece or pieces a player is able to move are determined by drawing from a deck of cards, with each card providing the rules for how the piece may move.[31] Castling and en passant are not allowed. Play It By Trust: Devised by Yoko Ono. Both players' pieces are white, which means after a few moves, players must learn to trust each other as to whose pieces are whose. Penultima: An inductive chess variant where the players must deduce hidden rules invented by "Spectators". Schrödinger's chess: Each player's minor pieces are concealed in such a way that the opponent does not know what they are until they are revealed. When covered, pieces move in a restricted way.[32] • • • • Synchronous chess: Players try to outguess each other, moving simultaneously after privately recording intended moves and anticipated results. Incompatible moves, for instance to the same square with no anticipated capture, are replayed. Alternatively, two pieces moving to the same square are both captured, unless one is the king, in which case it captures the other. Play ends with capture of king.[33] Chess variant 8 Multimove variants In these variants one or both players can move more than once per turn. The board and the pieces in these variants are the same as in standard chess. • Avalanche chess: Each move consists of a standard chess move followed by a move of one of the opponent's pawns. • Doublemove chess:[34] Similar to Marseillais chess, but with no en passant, check or checkmate; the object is to capture the king. • Kung-Fu chess: A chess variant without turns. Any player can move any of his pieces at any given moment. • Marseillais chess (or Two-move chess): After the first turn of the game by White being a single move, each player moves twice per turn. • Monster chess (or Super King): White has the king and four pawns against the entire black army but may make two successive moves per turn. • Progressive chess (or Scottish chess): The White player moves once, the Black player moves twice, the White player moves three times, etc. • Zonal chess:[35] Board has triangular wings or "zones" on either side of the main 8×8 board. Queens, bishops and rooks that start from one of the squares in either zone may change direction and keep going on the same move. A queen, for example, could zig around an obstruction and attack a piece in the opposite zone. Note that the power to change direction only applies when a piece's move starts from a zonal area. It is possible (using the queen and rook) to cross the board from one zone to another, but any piece entering a zone cannot make use of the extended move. Multiplayer variants These variants arose out of the desire to play chess with more than just one other person. • Bosworth: A four player chess variant played on 6×6 board. It uses a special card system with the pieces for spawning. • Bughouse chess (or Double chess, Exchange chess, Siamese chess, Swap chess, Tandem chess, Matrix chess, Transfer Chess, Advanced Teamwork Chess): Two teams of two players face each other on two boards. Allies use opposite colours and give captured pieces to their partner. The two-player version of the game, played with only one board, is Crazyhouse. • Business chess: Played with two teams using normal chess playing rules but allowing up to five variations of the game. The team may discuss and play alternative moves freely. • Djambi: Can be played by four people with a 9×9 board and four sets of special pieces. The Bughouse chess, the game in progress pieces can capture or move the pieces of an adversary. Captured pieces are not removed from the board, but turned upside down. There are variants for three players or five players (Pentachiavel). Chess variant • Enochian chess: A four-player variant with magical symbolism, associated with the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. • Forchess: A four-person version using the standard board and two sets of standard pieces. • Four-handed chess (or Chess 4, 4-Way chess): Can be played by four people and uses a special board and four sets of differently coloured pieces. • Fortress chess: A four-player variant played in Russia in 18th and 19th centuries. • Mad Threeparty Chess: For three players on a 10×10 board. Each player has two enemy kings to attack, and two of his own to defend. • Three player chess: Family of chess variants specially designed for three players. 9 Single player variants Queen's Quadrille. All pieces are placed randomly. Hippodrome. All pieces are placed randomly, except the knights. Similar to card solitaires, there are a few chess variants for a single player. In difference to chess puzzles, these variants have a random starting position. Some of these variants are similar to permutation chess problems, for example the game Queen's Quadrille, which was invented by Karen Robinson in 1998.[36] All chess pieces (except pawns) are randomly placed on a 4×4 board. Then one of the queens is removed and the game is started. Pieces move as usual, however capturing is not allowed. A player can move white and black pieces in any order, without regard for color. The goal is to move the queen to one of the corners, or visit all squares on the board only once. The same idea is found in the game Hippodrome, which was invented by Andy Lewicki in 2003.[37] The initial position is obtained by placing four knights on the first row and all other pieces from a chess set (except pawns) on the remaining fields. Then one of the pieces (except knights) is removed and the game is started. The goal is to move all knights to the opposite rank. Chess with unusual pieces Most of the pieces in these chess variants are borrowed from chess. The game goal and rules are also very similar to those in chess. However, these chess variants include one or more fairy pieces which move differently than chess pieces. Chess variant 10 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Anti-king chess. The anti-king is shown as an inverted king. • Anti-King chess: Uses an anti-king. This piece is in check when not attacked. If the player has an anti-king in check and unable to move it to the position attacked by the opponent, the player loses (checkmate). The anti-king cannot capture opponent's pieces, but it can capture friendly pieces. The king does not attack the anti-king of the opponent. The anti-king does not check its own king. All other rules are the same as in standard chess, including check and checkmate to usual king. The game was invented by Peter Aronson in 2002.[38] • Baroque (or Ultima): Pieces on the first row move like queens, and pieces on the second row move like rooks. They are named after their unusual capturing methods. For example, Leaper, Immobilizer and Coordinator. • Berolina chess: Which uses the Berolina pawn instead of the normal pawn, all other things being equal. • Bomberman chess: Inspired by the Bomberman video game series. Played on an 10×8 board with special Bomb and Defuser pieces. The Bomb piece can be exploded on its turn in vertical and horizontal directions (similar to the movement of a rook), destroying any pieces in the blast range, and the Defuser piece can capture a bomb piece.[39] • ButterflyChess: Butterflies are the hybrids of the queen with a grasshopper, rook with RG, and bishop with BG – all with complete movement.[40] • Chess with different armies: Two sides use different sets of fairy pieces. There are several armies of approximately equal strength to choose from including the standard FIDE chess army. • Dragonchess: Uses three 8×12 boards atop one another, with new types of chess pieces. From the inventor of Dungeons & Dragons. • Duell: Dice are used instead of pieces. • Gess: Chess with variable pieces, played on a go-board. • Grasshopper chess: A a chess variant in which the pawns can promote to grasshopper, or in which grasshoppers are on the board in the opening position. • Maharajah and the Sepoys: Black has a complete army, White only one piece – Maharajah (queen+knight). • Omega chess: Played on a 10×10 board with four extra squares, one per corner. Also, two fairy chess pieces are used, the Champion and the Wizard. Both can jump other pieces like the knight. • Pocket mutation chess: Player can put a piece temporarily into the pocket, optionally mutating it into another piece. • Pole chess: Each player has an uncapturable piece known as a Pole. The Pole, which does not begin play on the board, may be moved to any empty space on the board as a legal move. Thus, the Pole can be used to block check, making it much harder to achieve mate. Mentioned in the novel Robot Adept by Piers Anthony. Chess variant • Shako: Played on a 10×10 board. New pieces are the Cannon from Xiangqi (Chinese Chess) and an Elephant moving as Fers+Alfil of old Shatranj (ancestors of queen and bishop), so diagonally one or two squares with jumps allowed.[41] • Stealth chess: Played in the fictional Ankh-Morpork Assassins' Guild from the Discworld series of books; played on an 8×10 board. The fairy piece is the Assassin. • 2000 A.D.: Played on a 10×10 board; featuring pieces Empress, Capricorn, Gorgon, Chimaera, Dragon, Mimotaur, Unicorn, Fury. • Wildebeest Chess: An 11×10 variant by R. Wayne Schmittberger, featuring two camels per player, and a wildebeest (combined camel+knight). Pawns move one, two, or three squares on their first move. Bishop+knight and rook+knight compounds There are a numbers of chess variants which use bishop+knight and rook+knight compound pieces. Several different names have been given to these pieces. Rook and knight compound (R+N) is named chancellor, marshall, empress etc.[42] Bishop and knight compound piece (B+N) is called archbishop, cardinal, janus, paladin, princess, Prime Minister etc.[43] To adapt two new pieces the board is usually extended to 10×8 or 10×10 with two additional pawns added. • Capablanca chess: A chess variant by the former world chess champion, José Raúl Capablanca. Played on a 10×8 board with chancellor (R+N) and archbishop (B+N). • Capablanca random chess: By Reinhard Scharnagl (2004). A generalization of all possible variants of Capablanca chess with random starting positions following a method similar to that used in Chess960. • Embassy Chess: By Kevin Hill (2005). Played on a 10×8 board with marshall (R+N) and cardinal (B+N). The starting position is taken from Grand chess. • Gothic chess: A commercial chess variant. Played on a 10×8 board with chancellor (R+N) and archbishop (B+N). • Grand chess: nvented by Christian Freeling (1984). Played on a 10×10 board with marshall (R+N) and cardinal (B+N). • Janus chess: By Werner Schöndorf (1978). Played on 10×8 board with two januses (B+N). • Modern chess: Played on a 9×9 board, with an extra pawn and a Prime Minister (bishop + knight). It was created by Puerto Rico's Gabriel Vicente Maura in 1968. • Seirawan chess: Invented by grandmaster Yasser Seirawan in 2007. Played on standard 8×8 board with elephant (R+N) and hawk (B+N). 11 Chess hybrids The pieces in these chess variants are borrowed from both chess and another game. The game goal and rules are either the same or very similar to those in chess. However, these chess variants include one or more fairy pieces which move differently than chess pieces. • Chessers [44]: By Christopher Schwartz and Sander Beckers. Played on a regular chess board but with the inclusion of checkers pieces integrated into the mechanics of an otherwise standard chess game. • Proteus: By Steve Jackson Games. Played on a regular chess board using 8+8 dice with a different chess piece on each side. Each turn a player must rotate one die and move another like the corresponding piece moves. Instead of a king, the dice have a new piece, Pyramid, which cannot move, capture or be captured. Winner is determined with a scoring system based on the value of captured pieces. Queens can be captured from both the square they're occupying and the square directly behind them. • Playing cards on a chess board [45]: The card game allows to play openly on a board with rectangular sectors when the chances to win are equal for players, just as play a chess or checkers but with application of traditional rules of playing cards. Chess variant 12 Games inspired by chess These chess variants are very different from chess and may be classified as abstract board games instead of chess variants (by restrictive, proper definition). • Arimaa: A game inspired by Garry Kasparov's defeat by chess computer Deep Blue. This game is easy for people to understand but difficult for computers to play well. • ChessWar: Complex strategy game played with chess pieces and board.[46] • Connect Score [47]: Mixes chess with Dots and Boxes. • DracoKrak Chess: Fully customizable fantasy board game with elements of Chess, miniature wargame, role-playing game. • Martian chess: Played with Icehouse pieces. • Navia Dratp: A cross between Shogi and miniature wargaming. • Shuuro: A cross between chess and miniature wargaming. Chess-related historic and regional games Some of these games have developed independently while others are ancestors or relatives of modern chess.[48] The popularity of these chess variants may be limited to their respective places of origin (as is largely the case for Shogi), or worldwide, as is the case for Xiangqi which is played by overseas Chinese everywhere. These games have their own institutions and traditions. Historic chess-related games Shatranj set, 12th century • Chaturanga: An ancient East Indian game, presumed to be the common ancestor of chess and other national chess-related games. • Chaturaji: Four-handed version of Chaturanga, played with a die. • • • • Shatranj: An ancient Persian game, derived from Chaturanga. Tamerlane chess: A significantly expanded variation of Shatranj. Short assize: Played in England and Paris in the second half of the 12th century. Courier chess: Played in Europe from 15th to 19th century. Probably was one step in evolving modern chess out of Shatranj. Regional chess-related games • • • • • • • • Banqi (or Chinese Half chess) (China) Chandraki (Tibet) Hiashatar (Mongolia) Janggi (Korea) Jungle game (or Animal chess, Children's chess, Dou Shou Qi) (China) Main Chator (Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines) Makruk (Thailand) Ouk Chatrang (Cambodia) • Rek Chess (Cambodia) • Samantsy (Madagascar) • Senterej (Ethiopia) Chess variant • • • • Shatar (Mongolia) Shogi (Japan) see also Shogi variants Sittuyin (Burma) Xiangqi (China) 13 Chess variants software Some program authors have created stand-alone applications that are capable of playing a few, many or an unlimited number of variants. • Zillions of Games: Supports an unlimited number (but not types) of chess variants. One can write one's own rule files to create and play almost all chess variants, as well as almost any abstract strategy board game. • ChessV: Supports around 50 chess variants, including such popular variants as Grand chess, Shatranj, Three Checks chess, Ultima. • SMIRF: Supports all FRC variants upon the 8×8 board and all CRC variants upon the 10×8 board. • Sunsetter [49]: Normal chess, Crazyhouse and Bughouse chess engine (opensource). • Sjeng [50]: Besides Crazyhouse and Bughouse chess, supports other chess variants. • DoubleChessBoard [51]: Supports bughouse, coin, ingols chess variants and various alternative starting positions. • Parmen site [52]: Supports Tri-D chess Standard and Tournament rulesets according to posted sample games; plus normal chess. Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Pritchard, D. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. p. vii. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. D.B. Pritchard (2000). Popular Chess Variants, p. 8. "Most published ones (but none described here), are, in truth, forgettable." D.B. Pritchard (2000). Popular Chess Variants, p. 8. Pritchard (2000), p. 18 Pritchard (2007), p. 77 Upside-down chess (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ diffsetup. dir/ upside. html) by Hans Bodlaender Unbalanced games (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ columns. dir/ vc-2001-spring. html#unbalanced) by John Beasley, Variant Chess, Volume 5, Issue 37, ISSN 0958-8248. [8] Pritchard (2007), p. 76 [9] Weak! (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ unequal. dir/ weak. html) by Hans Bodlaender. [10] Pritchard (2007), p. 114 [11] "Doublewide chess" (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ large. dir/ doublewide-chess. html). . [12] "Infinite chess" (http:/ / www. boardgamegeek. com/ game/ 32793). . [13] Variant Chess, vol 8, Issue 61 (http:/ / www. mayhematics. com/ v/ vol8/ vc61. pdf) [14] Polgar Superstar Chess Patent (http:/ / polgarstarchess. blogspot. com/ search/ label/ Patent) [15] michaeljzachary.blogspot.com (http:/ / michaeljzachary. blogspot. com/ 2009/ 08/ ever-want-to-play-chess-in-curved-space. html) [16] "Benedict chess" (http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ difftaking. dir/ benedict. html). . [17] Pritchard 2007, p. 51. [18] Einstein chess (http:/ / www. janko. at/ Retros/ Glossary/ Einstein. htm) [19] "Genesis chess" (http:/ / genesischess. com/ ). . [20] "Guard chess" (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ difftaking. dir/ guardchess. html). . [21] Pritchard (2007), p. 48. [22] Jedi Knight chess (http:/ / gotjustice. wordpress. com/ 2007/ 10/ 19/ jedi-knight-chess-variant/ ). [23] Pritchard, 2007, p. 44 [24] Knightmate (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ diffobjective. dir/ knightmate. html) by Hans Bodlaender. [25] Pritchard (2007), p.61. [26] "Replacement chess" (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ difftaking. dir/ replacement. html). . [27] "Rifle chess" (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ difftaking. dir/ rifle. html). . [28] ChessHeads (http:/ / www. chessmate. com/ ChessHeads. html) chessmate.com [29] ChessHeads (http:/ / www. boardgamegeek. com/ boardgame/ 12932) BoardGameGeek [30] Fantasy Chess (http:/ / www. shadowhex. com) [31] "No Stress Chess" (http:/ / www. boardgamegeek. com/ game/ 19918). . [32] "Schrödinger's chess" (http:/ / elvis. rowan. edu/ ~kilroy/ other/ ?chess). . Chess variant [33] Pritchard (2007), p.100 [34] "Doublemove chess" (http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ multimove. dir/ doublemove. html). . [35] By Larry Smith. (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ shape. dir/ zonal/ zonal. html) [36] Queen's Quadrille (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ solitaire. dir/ quadrille. html) [37] Hippodrome (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ solitaire. dir/ hippodrome. html) [38] Anti-King chess (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ diffobjective. dir/ anti-king-chess. html) by Peter Aronson. Two setups were suggested by the inventor initially, but only the second one (Anti-King II), which is very close to standard chess gained popularity. [39] Bomberman chess (http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ large. dir/ contest/ bomberman. html) [40] [www.cubiccheckers.com] [41] Shako (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ large. dir/ shako. html) by Hans Bodlaender. [42] The Piececlopedia: The Rook-Knight Compound (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ piececlopedia. dir/ rook-knight. html) by Fergus Duniho and David Howe. [43] The Piececlopedia: Bishop-Knight Compound (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ piececlopedia. dir/ bishop-knight. html) by Fergus Duniho and David Howe. [44] http:/ / schwartztronica. wordpress. com/ 2010/ 05/ 09/ checkmate-by-checkers/ [45] http:/ / www. cardgameopen. 64g. ru/ en. htm [46] "ChessWar" (http:/ / rpr. kapsi. fi/ games/ misc/ chesswar. html). . [47] http:/ / connectcapture. blogspot. com [48] Murray, H.J.R. (1913). A History of Chess. Benjamin Press (originally published by Oxford University Press). ISBN 0-936-317-01-9. [49] http:/ / sunsetter. sourceforge. net [50] http:/ / sjeng. org/ indexold. html [51] http:/ / bughousechess. wz. cz/ DoubleChessBoard/ index. htm [52] http:/ / www. parmen. com 14 References • Pritchard, D. B. (2007). The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. John Beasley. ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1. • Pritchard, D. B. (2000). Popular Chess Variants. Batsford Chess Books. ISBN 0-7134-8578-7. External links General • • • • • • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www.chessvariants.org) The Chess Variants wiki (http://chessvariants.wikidot.com/) British Chess Variant Society (http://www.bcvs.ukf.net/index.htm) Variety and history of Chess in ancient world (http://history.chess.free.fr/) The Chess Family - History and Useful Information (http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Chess.htm) Variant chess database (http://wildchess.org) - contains games for atomic chess, suicide chess, losers chess and "wild" variants. • Chess Variant Applets that can play each variant (http://www.pathguy.com/chess/ChessVar.htm) • Applet that can play wild chess variants with 4 levels of difficulty (http://bremboce.cisana.com/ play-chess-online-against-computer.php) Chess variant 15 Collections In addition to individual chess variants with popularity, collections (generally acknowledged to be of respectable quality) have been created by several inventors: • • • • • • Zillions Chess Variants Karl Scherer (http://karl.kiwi.gen.nz/swindex3.html) Games Gallery Fergus Duniho (http://www.duniho.com/fergus/games/) Board Game Page Peter Aronson (http://home.att.net/~pbaronson/) Chess Variants João Pedro Neto (http://www.di.fc.ul.pt/~jpn/cv/index.htm) Chess Variants (Zillions) M. Winther (http://hem.passagen.se/melki9/chessvar.htm) Chess Variants Jean-Louis Cazaux (http://history.chess.free.fr/cvindex.htm) 16 Different starting position Displacement chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Displacement chess. One of several variations. Displacement chess is a family of chess variants, in which a few pieces are transposed in the initial standard chess position. The main goal of these variants is to negate players' knowledge of standard chess openings. Variations The following variations were tried in master or grandmaster tournaments:[1] • White's king and queen are transposed. This arrangement was tried in a correspondence tournament in 1935 with the participation of Keres, a chess grandmaster. • Queen's knight is transposed with king's bishop, so that both bishops are on the queen side and both knights are on the king's side, as shown in the diagram at right. This variant is sometimes called Mongredien chess, after Augustus Mongredien the sponsor of a tournament held in London during 1868 under the auspices of the British Chess Association, in which several strong British chess players took part, including Blackburne.[2] According to Pritchard, this is one of the most popular forms of displacement chess. • The knights and bishops are transposed. • The rooks and bishops are transposed. This array was suggested by Capablanca after his match with Lasker, but did not become popular. This variant is also called Fianchetto chess.[3] • PP Random Chess: king remains on e1(e8) one of the rooks must remain on a or h file, the bishops are placed on opposite-colored squares. Proposed in computer chess playing client Chess4Net by Pavel Perminov. Displacement chess 17 References [1] Pritchard, D. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. [2] Lowenthal, J. The Transactions of the British Chess Association 1868 and 1869 . 1869 [3] Fianchetto chess (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ diffsetup. dir/ fianchetto. html) External links • D-chess.com (http://www.d-chess.com/) – D-chess (Displacement Chess) • Blackburne - Potter (http://www.chesscentral.com/game-chess/fischer-random.htm) – displacement chess game (knights and bishops are transposed) with comments by Wilhelm Steinitz. Chess960 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 One of 960 possible starting positions Chess960 (or Fischer Random Chess) is a chess variant invented and advocated by former World Chess Champion Bobby Fischer, originally announced on June 19, 1996 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It employs the same board and pieces as standard chess, but the starting position of the pieces is randomized along the players' home ranks. The random setup forces players to resort to talent and creativity rather than the possibility of obtaining an advantage through the memorization of opening moves. Randomizing the main pieces has long been known as Shuffle Chess, but Chess960 introduces new rules so that full castling options are retained in all starting positions, resulting in 960 possible (non-mirrored) positions. To maintain the character of standard chess, a player's bishops must start on opposite-color squares, and the king must start on a square between the rooks. Chess960 18 Rules Before the game, a starting position is randomly determined and set up, subject to certain requirements. After setup, the game is played in the same way as standard chess (except that castling can occur from the different possible starting positions for king and rooks). In particular, pieces and pawns have their normal moves, and the objective is to checkmate the opposing king. Starting position requirements White pawns are placed on the second rank as in standard chess. All remaining white pieces are placed randomly on the first rank, with the following restrictions: • the king must be placed somewhere between the rooks • the bishops must be placed on opposite-color squares Black's pieces are placed equal-and-opposite to White's pieces. (For example, if the white king is placed on f1, then the black king is placed on f8. Note that the king never starts on the a- or h-files, since this would leave no room for a rook.) The starting position can be generated before the game by computer program, or chosen by the players by a variety of methods using dice, coin, cards, etc. Determining a starting position a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Chess960 starting position generated by die rolls: • • • • • • • 3 (bishop on e1) 5 (skip) 1 (bishop on b1) 4 (queen on f1) 6 (skip) 2 (knight on c1) 1 (knight on a1) There are many procedures for creating a starting position. A common one is that proposed by Ingo Althoefer in 1998, which requires only one six-sided die: 1. Roll the die, and place a white bishop on the black square indicated by the die, counting from the left. Thus, 1 indicates the first black square from the left (a1 in algebraic notation), 2 indicates the second black square from Chess960 the left (c1), 3 indicates the third (e1), and 4 indicates the fourth (g1). Since there are no fifth or sixth positions, re-roll a 5 or 6 until another number shows. Roll the die, and place a white bishop on the white square indicated (1 indicates b1, 2 indicates d1, and so on). Re-roll a 5 or 6. Roll the die, and place the queen on the first empty position indicated (always skipping filled positions). Thus, a 1 places the queen on the first (leftmost) empty position, while a 6 places the queen on the sixth (rightmost) empty position. Roll the die, and place a knight on the empty position indicated. Re-roll a 6. Roll the die, and place a knight on the empty position indicated. Re-roll a 5 or 6. 19 2. 3. 4. 5. This leaves three empty squares. Place the king on the middle empty square, and the rooks on the remaining two squares. Place all white and black pawns on their usual squares, and place Black's pieces to exactly mirror White's (so, Black should have on a8 exactly the same type of piece White has on a1, except that bishops would be on opposite-color squares). This procedure generates any of the 960 possible initial positions with equal chance. This particular procedure uses an average of 6.7 die rolls. Note that one of these initial positions (rolled by 2-3-3-2-3 or 2-3-3-4-2) is the standard chess position, at which point a standard chess game ensues. It is also possible to use this procedure to understand why there are exactly 960 possible initial positions. Each bishop can take one of four positions, the queen one of six, and the two knights can assume five or four possible positions, respectively. This leaves three open squares which the king and rooks must occupy according to setup stipulations, without choice. This means there are 4×4×6×5×4 = 1920 possible starting positions if the two knights were different in some way. However, the two knights are indistinguishable during play (if swapped, there would be no difference). So the number of distinguishable possible positions is half of 1920, or 1920/2 = 960. (Half of the 960 are left-right mirror images of the other half, however Chess960 castling rules preserve left-right asymmetry in play.) Rules for castling a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 An initial position of kings and rooks Chess960 20 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Black has castled h-side (0-0) and White has castled a-side (0-0-0) Chess960 allows each player to castle once per game, moving both the king and a rook in a single move. However, a few reinterpretations of standard chess rules are needed for castling, because the standard rules presume initial locations of the rook and king that often do not apply in Chess960 games. After castling, the rook and king's final positions are exactly the same as they would be in standard chess. Thus, after a-side castling (also called sometimes c-castling), the king is on the c-file (c1 for White and c8 for Black) and the a-side rook is on the d-file (d1 for White and d8 for Black). This move is notated as 0-0-0 and is known as queenside castling in orthodox chess. After h-side castling (also called sometimes g-castling), the king is on the g-file and the h-side rook is on the f-file. This move is notated as 0-0 and is known as kingside castling in orthodox chess. It is recommended that a player state "I am about to castle" before castling, to eliminate potential misunderstanding. However, castling may only occur under the following conditions. The first two are identical to the standard chess castling rules. The third is an extension of the standard chess rule, which requires only that the squares between the king and castling rook must be vacant. 1. Unmoved: The king and the castling rook must not have moved before in the game, including castling. 2. Unattacked: No square between the king's initial and final squares (including the initial and final squares) may be under attack by any opposing piece. 3. Unimpeded: All the squares between the king's initial and final squares (including the final square), and all of the squares between the rook's initial and final squares (including the final square), must be vacant except for the king and castling rook. An equivalent way of stating this is that the smallest back rank interval containing the king, the castling rook, and their destination squares contains no pieces other than the king and castling rook. If the initial position happens to be the standard chess initial position, these castling rules have exactly the same effect as the standard chess castling rules. In some starting positions, some squares can stay filled during castling that would have to be vacant in standard chess. For example, after a-side castling (0-0-0), it's possible to have a, b, and/or e still filled, and after h-side castling (0-0), it's possible to have e and/or h filled. In some starting positions, the king or rook (but not both) do not move during castling. Chess960 21 How to castle When castling on a physical board with a human player, it is recommended that the king be moved outside the playing surface next to his final position, the rook then be moved from its starting to ending position, and then the king be placed on his final square. This is always unambiguous, and is a simple rule to follow. Eric van Reem suggests other ways to castle: • If only the rook needs to move (jumping over the king), only the rook needs to be moved. • If only the king needs to move (jumping over the castling rook), only the king needs to be moved. • One can pick up both the king and rook (in either order), then place them on their final squares (this is called "transpositioni" castling). • One can move the king to its final square and move the rook to its final square as two separate moves in either order (this is called "double-move" castling). Obviously, if the rook is on the square the king will occupy, the player needs to move the rook first, and if the king is on the square the rook will occupy, the player needs to move the king first. In the meantime there has been an adjustment setting of the WNCA that when performing a castling move it is irrelevant in which sequence involved pieces were touched. All pieces involved in a move may be touched arbitrarily. When castling those pieces are the king and rook, and in capturing moves they are the capturing and the captured piece. Especially with players new to Chess960 it might make sense also to announce a castling to avoid misunderstandings. When a chess clock will be used, pressing the button could be taken as a sign that a castling move has been completed. When castling using a computer interface, programs should have separate a-side (0-0-0) and h-side (0-0) castling actions (e.g., as a button or menu item). Ideally, programs should also be able to detect a king or rook move that cannot be anything other than a castling move and consider that a castling move. Recommended gestures are: the king is moving to his at least two steps distant castling target square or else upon the involved rook, to avoid by this a possible confusion with normal king's moves. When using an electronic board, to castle one should remove the king, remove the castling rook, place the castling rook on its new position, and then place the king on its new position. This will create an unambiguous move for electronic boards, which often only have sensors that can detect the presence or absence of an object on each square (and cannot tell what object is on the square). Ideally, electronic boards should detect a king or rook move that can only be a castling move as well, but users should not count on this. Gameplay a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Chess960 In this start position, the a- and b-pawns are unguarded and subject to immediate attack if either side's f- or g-pawns are moved. The study of openings in Chess960 is in its infancy, but fundamental opening principles still apply, including: protect the king, control the central squares (directly or indirectly), and develop rapidly starting with the less valuable pieces. Some starting positions have unprotected pawns that may need to be dealt with quickly. It has been argued that two games should be played from each starting position, with players alternating as White and Black, since some initial positions may offer White a bigger advantage than in standard chess. For example, in some Chess960 starting positions White can attack an unprotected black pawn after the first move, whereas in standard chess it takes two turns for White to attack and there are no unprotected pawns. (See first-move advantage in chess.) 22 Recording games and positions Since the initial position is usually not the orthodox chess initial position, recorded games must also record the initial position. Games recorded using the Portable Game Notation (PGN) can record the initial position using Forsyth–Edwards Notation (FEN), as the value of the "FEN" tag. Castling is marked as O-O or O-O-O as in standard chess (except PGN requires letter O not number 0). Note that not all chess programs can handle castling correctly in Chess960 games (except if the initial position is the standard chess initial position). To correctly record a Chess960 game in PGN, an additional "Variant" tag must be used to identify the rules; the rule named "Fischerandom" is accepted by many chess programs as identifying Chess960, though "Chess960" should be accepted as well. Be careful to use "Variant" and not "Variation", which has a different meaning. This means that in a PGN-recorded game, one of the PGN tags (after the initial seven tags) would look like this: [Variant "Fischerandom"]. FEN is capable of expressing all possible starting positions of Chess960. However, unmodified FEN cannot express all possible positions of a Chess960 game. In a game, a rook may move into the back row on the same side of the king as the other rook, or pawn(s) may be underpromoted into rook(s) and moved into the back row. If a rook is unmoved and can still castle, yet there is more than one rook on that side, FEN notation as traditionally interpreted is ambiguous. This is because FEN records that castling is possible on that side, but not which rook is still allowed to castle. A modification of FEN, X-FEN, has been devised by Reinhard Scharnagl to remove this ambiguity. In X-FEN, the castling markings "KQkq" have their expected meanings: "Q" and "q" mean a-side castling is still legal (for White and Black respectively), and "K" and "k" mean h-side castling is still legal (for White and Black respectively). However, if there is more than one rook on the baseline on the same side of the king, and the rook that can castle is not the outermost rook on that side, then the file letter (uppercase for White) of the rook that can castle is used instead of "K", "k", "Q", or "q"; in X-FEN notation, castling potentials belong to the outermost rooks by default. The maximum length of the castling value is still four characters. X-FEN is upwardly compatible with FEN, that is, a program supporting X-FEN will automatically use the normal FEN codes for a traditional chess starting position without requiring any special programming. As a benefit all 18 pseudo FRC positions (positions with traditional placements of rooks and king) still remain uniquely encoded. The solution implemented by chess engines like Shredder and Fritz is to use the letters of the columns on which the rooks began the game. This scheme is sometimes called Shredder-FEN. For the traditional setup, Shredder-FEN would use HAha instead of KQkq. Chess960 23 History Fischer Random Chess is a variant of Shuffle chess defined by former World Champion Bobby Fischer and introduced formally to the chess public on June 19, 1996, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Shuffle Chess had been played for quite some time before this, as early as 1842.[1] Fischer's goal was to eliminate what he considered the complete dominance of openings preparation in chess today, and to replace it with creativity and talent. His belief about Russians fixing all international games also provided motivation. In a situation where the starting position was random it would be impossible to fix every move of the game. Since the opening book for each possible opening position would be too difficult to devote to memory (960 "book opening" systems), each player must create every move originally. From the first move, both players have to come up with original strategies and cannot use well-known thinking patterns. Fischer believed that eliminating memorized book moves would level the playing field. The first Fischer Random Chess tournament was held in Yugoslavia in the spring of 1996, and was won by Grandmaster Péter Lékó. In 2001, Lékó became the first Fischer Random Chess world champion, defeating GM Michael Adams in an eight game match played as part of the Mainz Chess Classic. There were no qualifying matches (also true of the first orthodox world chess champion titleholders), but both players were in the top five in the January 2001 world rankings for orthodox chess. Lékó was chosen because of the many novelties he has introduced to known chess theories, as well as his previous tournament win; in addition, Lékó has supposedly played Fischer Random Chess games with Fischer himself. Adams was chosen because he was the world number one in blitz (rapid) chess and is regarded as an extremely strong player in unfamiliar positions. The match was won by a narrow margin, 4½ to 3½.[2] In 2002 at Mainz, an open tournament was held which attracted 131 players. Peter Svidler won the event. Other interesting events happened in 2002. The website ChessVariants.org selected Fischer Random chess as its "Recognized Variant of the Month" for April 2002. Yugoslavian Grandmaster Svetozar Gligorić published in 2002 the book Shall We Play Fischerandom Chess?, popularizing this variant further. At the 2003 Mainz Chess Classic, Svidler beat Lékó in an eight game match for the World Championship title by a score of 4.5 - 3.5. The Chess960 open tournament attracted 179 players, including 50 GMs. It was won by Levon Aronian, the 2002 World Junior Champion. Svidler is the official first World New Chess Association (WNCA) world champion inaugurated on August 14, 2003 with Jens Beutel, Mayor of Mainz as the President and Hans-Walter Schmitt, Chess Classic organiser as Secretary.[3] [4] The WNCA maintains an own dedicated Chess960 rating list.[5] Aronian played Svidler for the title at the 2004 Mainz Chess Classic, losing 4.5–3.5. At the same tournament in 2004, Aronian played two Chess960 games against the Dutch computer chess program The Baron, developed by Richard Pijl. Both games ended in a draw. It was the first ever man against machine match in Chess960. Zoltán Almási won the Chess960 open tournament in 2004. In 2005, The Baron played two Chess960 games against Chess960 World Champion Peter Svidler; Svidler won 1.5–0.5. The chess program Shredder, developed by Stefan Meyer-Kahlen from Düsseldorf, Germany, played two games against Zoltán Almási from Hungary; Shredder won 2–0. Almási and Svidler played an eight-game match at the 2005 Mainz Chess Classic. Once again, Svidler defended his title, winning 5–3. Levon Aronian won the Chess960 open tournament in 2005. During the Chess Classic 2005 in Mainz, initiated by Mark Vogelgesang and Eric van Reem, the first-ever Chess960 computer chess world championship was played.[6] Nineteen programs, including the powerful Shredder, played in this tournament. As a result of this tournament, Spike became the first Chess960 computer world champion. The 2006 Mainz Chess Classic saw Svidler defending his championship in a rematch against Levon Aronian. This time, Aronian won the match 5–3 to become the third ever Fischer Random Chess World Champion. Étienne Bacrot won the Chess960 open tournament, earning him a title match against Aronian in 2007. In 2006 Shredder won the Chess960 computer championship, making it Chess960 computer matches were held, in the women, junior and senior became the first Chess960 Women World Champion Chess960 World Champion was Vlastimil Hort, and Harikrishna. world champion. Three new Chess960 world championship categories. In the women category, Alexandra Kosteniuk by beating Elisabeth Paehtz 5.5 to 2.5. The 2006 Senior the 2006 Junior Chess960 World Champion was Pentala 24 In 2007 Mainz Chess Classic Aronian successfully defended his title of Chess960 World Champion over Viswanathan Anand, while Victor Bologan won the Chess960 open tournament. Rybka won the 2007 computer championship. In 2010 the US Chess Federation sponsored its first Chess960 tournament, at the Jerry Hanken Memorial US Open tournament in Irvine, California. This one-day event, directed by Damian Nash, saw a first place tie between GM Larry Kaufmann and FM Mark Duckworth.[7] Summary table Year World Chess960 Championship Mainz Open World Chess960 Women's Championship Alexandra Kosteniuk (5.5–2.5 vs Elisabeth Pähtz) Spike Shredder Computer Championship 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Péter Lékó (4.5–3.5 vs Michael Adams) Peter Svidler (4.5–3.5 vs Péter Lékó) Peter Svidler (4.5–3.5 vs Levon Aronian) Peter Svidler (5–3 vs Zoltán Almási) Levon Aronian (5–3 vs Peter Svidler) Peter Svidler Levon Aronian Zoltán Almási Levon Aronian Étienne Bacrot 2007 Levon Aronian (2–2, 1.5–0.5 vs Viswanathan Victor Bologan Anand) - Rybka 2008 Hikaru Nakamura Alexandra Kosteniuk (2.5–1.5 vs Kateryna Lahno) - Rybka 2009 Hikaru Nakamura (3.5–0.5 vs Levon Aronian) Alexander Grischuk Rybka Chess960 25 Naming This chess variant has held a number of different names. It was initially known as "Fischerandom Chess" after Fischer formalized his variation of Shuffle Chess. Later name forms included "Fischer Random Chess", "FR Chess", and "FRC". Hans-Walter Schmitt, chairman of the Frankfurt Chess Tigers e.V. and an advocate of this variant, started a brainstorming process for selecting a new name, which had to meet requirements of leading grandmasters; specifically, the new name and its parts: 1. should not contain part of the name of any Grandmaster 2. should not include negatively biased or "spongy" elements (such as "random" or "freestyle") 3. should be universally understood The effort culminated in the name choice Chess960 – derived from the number of different possible starting positions. Hans-Walter Schmitt, Frankfurt 2011 R. Scharnagl, another proponent of the variant, advocated the term "FullChess" instead. But today he uses FullChess to refer to variants which consistently embed traditional chess (e.g. Chess960, and some new variants based on the extended 10×8 piece set in Capablanca chess). He currently recommends the name Chess960 in preference to Fischer Random Chess for the variant. Bobby Fischer never publicly stated his feeling about the name 'Chess960'. Similar chess variants Non-random setups The initial setup need not necessarily be random. The players or a tournament setting may decide on a specific position in advance, for example. Tournament Directors prefer that all boards in a single round play the same random position, as to maintain order and abbreviate the setup time for each round. Edward Northam suggests the following approach for allowing players to jointly create a position without randomizing tools: First, the back ranks are cleared of pieces, and the white bishops, knights, and queen are gathered together. Starting with Black, the players, in turn, place one of these pieces on White's back rank, where it must stay. The only restriction is that the bishops must go on opposite colored squares. There will be a vacant square of the required color for the second bishop, no matter where the previous pieces have been placed. Some variety could be introduced into this process by allowing each player to exercise a one time option of moving a piece already on the board instead of putting a new piece on the board. After all five pieces have been put on the board, the king must be placed on the middle of the three vacant back rank squares that remain. Rooks go on the other two. This approach to the opening setup has much in common with Pre-Chess, the variant in which White and Black, alternately and independently, fill in their respective back ranks. Pre-Chess could be played with the additional requirement of ending up with a legal Chess960 opening position. A chess clock could even be used during this phase as well as during normal play. Without some limitation on which pieces go on the board first, it is possible to reach impasse positions, which cannot be completed to legal Chess960 starting positions. Example: Q.RB.N.N If the players want to work with all eight pieces, they must have a prior agreement about how to correct illegal opening positions that may arise. If the bishops end up on same color squares, a simple action, such as moving the a-side bishop one square toward the h-file, might Chess960 be agreeable, since there is no question of preserving randomness. Once the bishops are on opposite colored squares, if the king is not between the rooks, it should trade places with the nearest rook. 26 Chess480 Castling in Chess480 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Chess480 castling rule. In Chess960 the king ends up on either g1 (h-side castling) or c1 (a-side castling). In Chess480, the king ends up on h1 (h-side castling) or d1 (a-side castling), while the rook ends up on g1 or e1, respectively. John Kipling Lewis's "Castling in Chess960: An appeal for simplicity"[8] proposes the same rules for the initial position as Chess960, but proposes an alternative set of castling rules. In this variation, the preconditions for castling are the same, but when castling "the king is transferred from its original square two squares towards (or over) the rook, then that rook is transferred to the square the king has just crossed (if it is not already there). If the king and rook are adjacent in a corner and the king cannot move two spaces over the rook, then the king and rook exchange squares." Note that these rules are different from the Chess960 rules, since the final position after castling will usually not be the same as the final position of a castling move in traditional chess. Lewis argues that this alternative better conforms to how the castling move was historically developed. Lewis has named this chess variation "Chess480"; this variation follows the rules of Chess960 with the exception of the castling rules which Lewis has named "Orthodoxed Castling". Note also that although the game can start with any of 960 starting positions, half of these are actually mirror positions that theoretically don't change the games' tactics. Naturally, the right to castle is lost: • if the king has already moved, or • with a rook that has already moved. And castling is prevented temporarily: • if the square on which the king stands, or the square which it must cross, or the square which it is to occupy, is attacked by one or more of the opponent's pieces. • if there is any piece between the king and the rook with which castling is to be effected, or on the final square the king is going to occupy. Note: There are other claims to the nomenclature 'Chess480'. Reinhard Scharnagl defines it as the white queen is always to the left of the white king. Another way of defining Chess480 is that the white king must always be located Chess960 on a dark square. The definition could also be that the white king must always be on a light square. The point is that half the positions are mirror image reversals of the other half. It is really up to the individual to decide how to filter the 480 positions. David O'Shaughnessy argues in "Castling in Chess480: An appeal for sanity"[9] that the Chess480 rules are often not useful from a gameplay perspective. In about 66% of starting positions, players have the options of castling deeper into the wing the king started on, or castling into the center of the board (when the king starts on the b-, c-, f-, or g-files). To quote from the wiki Chess page "Castling is an important goal in the early part of a game, because it serves two valuable purposes: it moves the king into a safer position away from the center of the board, and it moves the rook to a more active position in the center of the board". An example of poor castling options is a position where the kings start on g1 and g8 respectively. There will be no possibility of "opposite-side castling" where each player's pawns are free to be used as attacking weapons (as in many Sicilian variations), as the kings scope for movement is very restricted (it can only move to the h- or e-file). These "problem positions" play well with Chess960 castling rules. 27 Other related chess variants There are other chess variants with rules similar to Chess960. These include: • Chess256 (or Random pawns chess): Only the pawns are randomized, on the 2nd and 3rd rank. Black's position mirrors White's. • Corner chess: Like Chess960, the placement of the pieces on the 1st and 8th row are randomized, but with the king in the right hand corner. Black's starting position is obtained by rotating White's position 180 degrees around the board's center. • Double Fischer Random Chess: Similar to Chess960, but the opening White and Black positions do not mirror each other. • Transcendental chess: Like above, but there is no castling and concept of auction (offering extra moves for the right of picking the side) is added. • Moab Random Chess: A variant of shuffle chess, using the same initial positions as Transcendental Chess and Double Fischer Random, except that the set-up phase is part of the game. Players take turns placing back-rank pieces on their side or their opponent's. Complex castling rules are replaced with the simple "evacuation" of the king to any empty first-rank square. • Shuffle chess: The parent variant of Chess960. No additional rules on the back rank shuffles, castling only possible when king and rook are on their traditional starting squares. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www. xs4all. nl/ ~timkr/ chess2/ diary_7. htm Tim Krabbe's Diary 123 Peter Leko Biography (http:/ / www. bobby-fischer. net/ Peter-Leko-Biography. htm) http:/ / www. tssonnet. com/ tss2636/ stories/ 20030906005106900. htm http:/ / www. chessbase. com/ newsdetail. asp?newsid=1130 http:/ / ratings. schach-chroniken. net/ ips/ wnca/ topranking. html http:/ / www. chesstigers. de/ ccm5_index. php?lang=1 http:/ / www. alchess. com/ chess/ 10/ usopen/ ?page=STANDINGS& xsection=fischer Lewis, John K. "Castling in Chess960: An appeal for simplicity" (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ diffsetup. dir/ castling_960. html), 2005-09-18. [9] O'Shaughnessy, David. "Castling in Chess480: An appeal for sanity" (http:/ / chess960. net/ castling-in-chess480. html), 2008-11-22. Chess960 28 External links Descriptions and commentary • The Birth of Fischer Random Chess (http://www.chessvariants.com/diffsetup.dir/fischerh.html) • Chess960.net (http://www.chess960.net/) - Chess960 information: What, where, why and how. • Audio clip of Bobby Fischer (http://www.bobby-fischer.net/bobby_fischer_sound_12.htm) describing his Fischer Random Chess • Fischer Random Chess Description (http://www.chessvariants.org/diffsetup.dir/fischer.html) at ChessVariants.org • "Leko, the first ever kingpin of Fischer Random Chess" (http://web.archive.org/web/20080314230420/http:// www.geocities.com/MIGHTORS1/Leko/Fischerandom6.html) • Shall We Play Fischerandom Chess? (http://www.chessville.com/reviews/reviews_Fischerandom.htm) book by Svetozar Gligorić • Play Stronger Chess by Examining Chess960 (http://www.castlelong.com/book/pscbyec960/welcome.shtml) - book by Gene Milener • Reinhard Scharnagl's (English/German) book Fischer-Random-Schach (FRC/Chess960) ISBN 3-8334-1322-0 (German server) • CCRL (http://www.computerchess.org.uk/ccrl/404FRC/) Computer Chess Engines FRC Ratings List Chess960, servers tools and software • Lichess (http://lichess.org/) - Play Chess960 with a friend or an AI. No registration, no download, no flash. Integrated chat and analyse mode. Opensource website. To castle, drag and drop the king on the destination square unless there is ambiguity with a normal one-square king-move, in which case drop the king on to the rook you want to castle with. • Chess Hotel (http://www.chesshotel.com/play-random-chess.php) - Play Chess960 free in real-time, no registration required, browser-based. • www.mychess.de - Internet Chess Server (http://www.mychess.de/) - Play Chess960 free in correspondence time, registration required, browser based or with mobile device. • Free Internet Chess Server (http://www.freechess.org/) - Play Chess960 free, not browser based, with software download interface. • The Email/Correspondence Chess Club (http://frcec.chess960.info/) for Chess960 • Arena interface (http://www.playwitharena.com/) play against an engine or against other people over the Internet • Fischer random chess generator (http://www.chessgames.com/perl/fischerandom) - online tool to create a random Chess960 position. • Free web based PGN Player (http://www.playchess960.com/chess960player/pgn.html) capable of reviewing Chess and Chess960 games. (Broken? Nov 21-10) • Free web-based player (http://www.chessfordollars.com) capable of large-scale Chess960 tournaments (scaled for 50,000 players per tournament). • Scid Vs PC (http://scidvspc.sf.net) free chess program with the ability to play Chess960 against a computer opponent. • iTunes (http://itunes.apple.com/app/chess960-calculator/id337551742?mt=8) Chess960 Calculator • brettspielnetz.de (http://www.brettspielnetz.de/java/chess960/index.php) Chess960 against Java Applet • ChessManiac.com (http://www.chessmaniac.com) - Play Chess960 with players from all over the world. • Meingames.de (http://www.meingames.de) - Play Chess960 against other people over the Internet. • Chess.com (http://www.chess.com?ref_id=650541) - Play free online chess, including tournamnets, Chess960, blitz, live chess, and many more. Transcendental chess 29 Transcendental chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Transcendental chess. One of the possible starting positions. Transcendental chess is a chess variant invented in 1978 by Maxwell Lawrence.[1] It inspired Chess960 (Fischer Random Chess) which is similar but has fewer starting positions. In transcendental chess the beginning positions of the pieces on the back row are randomly determined, with the one restriction that the bishops be on opposite-colored squares. There are 8,294,400 such positions in total. In Chess960 there are 960 possible starting positions, but that is because the king must be located between the rooks and both sides must have the same starting position. In transcendental chess there is no such rule so the position of one side can be any of 42 x 6! / 22 = 2880. There is no castling. On the first turn a player, instead of making a move, can transpose any of two pieces on the back row. In Chess960 the back rows are mirror images, but in transcendental chess the setup of black and white is different 2879 out of every 2880 times (there being a 1-in-2880 chance that both sides will draw the same setup). This can create inequalities in the position. One way to equalize these inequalities is to play a couplet: the players play two games, one each as white and as black. To win the couplet, a player must win at least one game and draw the other. The other way to equalize the opening positions is auction transcendental chess, in which each player bids to give his or her opponent extra opening moves in order to play the side of the board he or she wants. In orthodox chess, innovations in opening play are increasingly hard to come by, with most good players having processed an extensive catalogue of opening moves—novelties tend to occur later in the game. Transcendental chess offers opening complexity and novelty immediately because every game starts in a dense and unfamiliar position. Variations • D-chess: Similar to Transcendental Chess, but only one game is needed to be played against each opponent as the unequal starting positions are equalized with the weaker side having the option to transpose two pieces and then gets to move first.[2] • Moab Random Chess: A variant of shuffle chess similar to Transcendental Chess, invented by philosopher and game theorist Eulalio Paul Cane in Moab, Utah, in 1997. Moab Random Chess uses the same initial positions as Transcendental Chess, except that the set-up phase is part of the game. Players take turns placing pieces on their back rank or their opponent's back rank until a Transcendental Chess starting position is reached. Because the piece set-up phase is part of the overall game strategy, the "auction" concept of Transcendental Chess is not necessary. Strategic skill, not fate, is responsible for any inequalities in the initial position. In addition, Moab Transcendental chess Random has an "evacuation" rule similar that is a simplified form of castling: The king can move to any unoccupied first-rank square just once in the game, so long as it has not moved and is not in check. The concept of "evacuation" keeps the feeling of castling from Classical Chess because the king can suddenly relocate to another region of the board. Yet, like Transcendental Chess, the "evacuation" concept avoids the complex and awkward piece placement rules of castling in Fischer Random Chess (Chess960). 30 References [1] Pritchard, D. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. [2] D-Chess (http:/ / www. d-chess. com) 31 Different forces Chess handicap a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 White to move; Black has given odds of Pawn and move. A handicap (or "odds") in chess is a way to enable a weaker player to have a chance of winning against a stronger one. There are many kinds of such handicaps, such as material odds, extra moves (i.e. the weaker player can play the first x number of moves at the beginning of the game), extra time on the chess clock, and special conditions (such as requiring the odds-giver to deliver checkmate with a specified chess piece or pawn). Various permutations of these, such as "Pawn and two moves", are also possible. Handicaps were quite popular in the 18th and 19th centuries, when chess was often played for money stakes, in order to induce weaker players to play for wagers. Today, except for time odds, handicaps are rarely seen. However, the very strong chess engine Rybka has recently played a series of odds matches against strong human players. Purpose and types of handicaps The purpose of a handicap, or odds, is to compensate for the difference in skill between two chess players.[1] [2] [3] There are many kinds of handicaps: material odds; extra moves; time odds; special restrictions (such as pion coiffé); weighting of results (such as "draw odds" - counting a draw as a loss for the odds-giver); differential stakes; and physical restrictions, such as blindfold chess.[1] [4] Many different permutations of handicaps (for example, a material handicap plus time odds) are also possible,[5] [6] as are countervailing handicaps (for example, a player gives up a piece, but receives one of the opponent's pieces or pawns and/or extra moves, in return).[7] [8] [9] Harry Golombek gives the following list of material odds (in increasing handicap level):[10] Note that the odds-giver plays White unless otherwise indicated, and "pawn odds" normally refers to the f-pawn (i.e. the pawn initially located on the f2-square for White, and on the f7-square for Black).[11] [12] • Odds of the move: Weaker player plays White. • Two moves: Weaker player plays White and starts the game by making two moves. • Pawn and move: Weaker player plays White; a black pawn (typically that on f7) is removed from the board. Chess handicap • Pawn and two moves: Weaker player plays the first two moves, and Black's pawn on f7 is removed from the board. • Knight odds: One of the stronger player's knights is removed, usually the queen's knight on b1. • Rook odds: One of the stronger player's rooks is removed, usually the queen's rook on a1. • Rook and pawn: Stronger player's queen rook and f-pawn are removed. • Two minor pieces: The odds-giver chooses which two of White's knights and/or bishops to remove. • Rook and knight: White's queen rook and queen knight are removed. • Queen odds: The stronger player's queen is removed. • Two rooks: Both of White's rooks are removed. • Strong king: The king can move up to two squares in any direction. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 32 White mates in two moves no matter what Black plays Larry Kaufman writes that under the chess tradition of the 18th and 19th centuries, the handicap below knight odds was: • Pawn and three moves: White plays the first three moves, and Black plays without the f7 pawn.[13] In odds games with extra moves (Pawn and two moves, Pawn and three moves), the odds-receiver cannot move beyond the fourth rank with those moves.[14] [15] Otherwise, White could win immediately with 1.e3 2.Bd3 3.Qh5+ g6 4.Qxg6+ hxg6 5.Bxg6#.[13] [14] Even with the "no moves beyond the fourth rank" proviso, Black cannot give White an unlimited number of moves. Doing so would allow White to set up the position at right, when White's dual threats of 1.Qxf7# and 1.Ned6+ cxd6 2.Nxd6# are immediately decisive.[16] I.A. Horowitz adds to the above list the following:[15] • Draw odds: The smallest of these handicaps; the stronger player plays White, and draws are counted as wins for Black. • Queen for a Rook: A handicap between Knight odds and Rook odds; the odds-giver's queen, and the odds-receiver's queen rook, are removed. • Queen for a Knight: A handicap slightly greater than Rook odds; the odds-giver's queen, and the odds-receiver's queen knight, are removed. Chess handicap 33 Other forms of handicap Time handicaps are most often practiced in blitz games. The stronger player may be given one or two minutes to play the whole game, while the weaker player receives five minutes or more. Money odds are another way of compensating for a difference in strength; the stronger player puts up some multiple (three, five, ten, etc.) of the amount of money put up by the weaker player.[17] [18] In the 16th-19th centuries sometimes the pion coiffé (or capped pawn) handicap was used, usually for players of much different playing strengths. The stronger player must checkmate with a particular pawn, which is usually marked at the start of play. The pawn cannot be promoted. Giving checkmate with any other pawn or piece loses the game. Pietro Carrera proved that in the endgame king, queen and pawn versus king (pion coiffé), a win can be forced unless the pawn lies on a central file. Carrera considered pion coiffé to be about equivalent to giving odds of a queen.[19] Similarly, games have occasionally been played with a ringed piece, where a ring or band is placed around a particular piece, and the player giving odds must checkmate with that piece.[20] [21] [22] (See illustrative games.) This form of odds, and pion coiffé, are very difficult for the odds-giver, who cannot allow the odds-receiver to sacrifice for the capped or ringed piece or pawn.[23] [24] For instance, in pion coiffé, after 1.e4 d5 2.exd5 Qxd5, Black already threatens to sacrifice the queen for the capped pawn if it is the a, d, or g-pawn, to play 3...Qe5+ followed by such a sacrifice if it is the b or h-pawn, or to play 3...Qe4+ followed by a sacrifice if it is the c-pawn. Staunton relied on a 1617 work by Carrera in discussing pion coiffé, the ringed piece, money odds, draw odds, and the following other "eccentric and peculiar Odds":[25] • Checkmate on a particular square: This may mean either that the odds-receiver's king must be mated while on the specified square, or that the odds-giver's piece must administer mate from that square. Carrera considered the first of these roughly equivalent to knight odds, the second a bit less.[26] Assiac observed of the first, "This sounds like a formidable proposition, but it really isn't. All the better player has to do is reduce the game to a favorable ending. Thereafter, having promoted a pawn or two, he will find the rest easy."[27] • Checkmate with a pawn: The mating pawn may be any pawn, not a specified pawn, as in pion coiffé. Carrera considered this form of odds equivalent to giving odds of two pawns.[28] • Giving all the pieces for two moves each time: The odds-giver begins the game with only the king and pawns, while the odds-receiver has a full complement of pieces and pawns. In exchange for this, the odds-giver plays two moves on each turn, while the odds-receiver can only play one. Carrera wrote that while some considered this an even game, he thought that it favored the pieces, although the side with the pieces must play cautiously. The player with the pieces should try to eliminate the pawns, for instance by giving up two pawns for one, or a minor piece for two pawns.[29] • Giving the king the knight's move: The odds-receiver's king, in addition to being able to move in the usual manner, is able to move like a knight. Carrera considered this form of odds improper because it allows the odds-receiver to use his king to checkmate the enemy king from a knight's move away (for example, with the odds-receiver's king at g6 and the odds-giver's king at h8, the latter is in check and, if no legal response is possible, is checkmated).[30] Carrera considered this form of odds equivalent to giving rook and pawn odds. Because of the king's unusual power, the odds-giver requires more material than usual in order to checkmate a bare king (for example, queen and another piece, or two rooks).[30] • Giving the queen the knight's move: Similarly to the above, the odds-receiver's queen (rather than king) has the additional ability to move like a knight. This makes the queen very powerful, since she has the ability to administer mate without the assistance of any other pieces (for instance, an enhanced queen on h6 mates a king on h8, since Kg8 would still leave the king in check). Carrera considered this roughly equivalent to knight odds, although it varied depending on the players' strengths.[30] • Odds of the castled king The odds-receiver begins the game with the positions of his king and one of his rooks interchanged (e.g., king on h8 or a8, and the displaced rook on the king's square). The first way (king on h8, rook Chess handicap on e8) is used unless otherwise specified before the game. Carrera thought this form of odds equivalent to the player with normally placed pieces giving a little less than two pawns, or a little less than a knight if the a8-rook and king are the ones interchanged. Staunton noted that Carrera's description and examples of these odds "are not adapted to our mode of castling" since the king and rook do not end up on the same squares they would normally occupy after castling.[31] Staunton also mentioned the following unusual forms of odds not discussed by Carrera: • Odds of the losing game: The odds-giver undertakes to force the odds-receiver to checkmate him.[32] (See Paris-Marseilles, correspondence 1878, given below.) • Additional pawns: The odds-giver permits the odds-receiver to begin the game with a specified number of extra pawns (for example, eight extra pawns).[33] Unless specially agreed, the side with the extra pawns moves first.[34] • Odds of queen rook in exchange for the opponent's queen knight, or pawn and move, or pawn and two moves.[35] • Odds of queen knight in exchange for pawn and move, or in exchange for the first two moves.[36] 34 History According to Harry Golombek, "Odds-giving reached its heyday in the eighteenth century and the early nineteenth century."[10] Indeed, it was so prevalent in the 18th century that Philidor (1726–95) played the vast majority of his games at odds.[10] About fifteen percent of the known games of Paul Morphy (1837–84) are games in which he gave odds.[37] Howard Staunton in The Chess-Player's Handbook (1847) advised inexperienced players to accept odds offered by superior players and, upon improving to the point that they can themselves give odds to some players, to avoid playing such players on even terms, warning that doing so is apt to induce "an indolent, neglectful habit of play".[38] In 1849, Staunton published The Chess-Player's Companion, a 510-page work "chiefly directed to the exposition of openings where one party gives odds".[39] Just over 300 pages were devoted to odds games: Book I (pages 1 to 185) contained games played at various odds, and most of Book V (specifically pages 380-496) discussed various types of odds, including exotic and unusual ones.[40] The late-19th century chess opening treatise Chess Openings Ancient and Modern, by Edward Freeborough and Charles Ranken, included fourteen pages of analysis of best play in games played at odds of Pawn and move, Pawn and two moves, and either knight.[41] Macon Shibut writes that in the mid-19th century "chess was a gambling game ... . Individual matches for stakes were the focus of organized play. Matches between leading players attracted a wide following so masters often succeeded in finding sponsors to back their personal wagers."[42] However, the available sums were generally relatively meager, and travel was arduous, so the amount of money obtained in this way was not sufficient to enable professional chess players to support themselves financially."[42] Moreover, the first major chess tournament was not organized until 1851,[43] and chess tournaments remained a rarity for several decades after that.[44] With tournaments not a reliable means of making a living, odds-giving became a way for masters to entice amateurs into playing for wagers, since the odds gave the amateur a fighting chance.[1] [42] [45] The odds system even became the earliest rating system: amateurs were graded according to what handicap they needed to compete against a master, and were referred to as a "Rook player" or "Pawn and Move player" as we would today speak of players by their Elo ratings, e.g. "1200 player" and "1800 player".[46] The playing of games at odds gradually grew rarer as the nineteenth century proceeded.[10] Today, odds games, except for those at time odds, have all but disappeared.[47] Shibut posits that games played at material odds became unpopular for (1) technological, (2) political, and (3) philosophical reasons. Taking these in turn, first, the introduction of chess clocks gave rise to a new way to give odds, one that has today supplanted material odds as the preferred mode of odds-giving. Second, the Soviet Union supported chess masters and sponsored chess education, but expected chess masters "to be cultural icons, not hustlers". Third, chess began to be treated in a scientific, logical way, "with an assumption of idealized 'best play' [coming] to underpin all analysis". From this perspective, a game Chess handicap beginning from a "lost" position becomes less interesting, even distasteful.[4] Writings by Wilhelm Steinitz (1836–1900), the first World Champion, and James Mason (1849–1905) are consistent with the last point.[48] [49] In an interview with Ralph Ginzburg published in the January 1962 issue of Harper's Magazine, future World Champion Bobby Fischer was quoted as saying that he could successfully give knight odds to any woman in the world:[50] [51] [52] They're all weak, all women. They're stupid compared to men. They shouldn't play chess, you know. They're like beginners. They lose every single game against a man. There isn't a woman player in the world I can't give knight-odds to and still beat. Fischer later claimed that Ginzburg had distorted what he had said.[53] There is no doubt that Fischer would have failed at such an endeavor.[54] World Champion Emanuel Lasker had failed at such an endeavor in 1894, losing a match at knight odds to Jackson Showalter's wife; he scored two wins and five losses.[55] In 2001, London businessman Terence Chapman, a master-level player, played a match against former world champion Garry Kasparov with Kasparov giving odds of two pawns in each game (the pawns to be removed being different each time); Kasparov won the match by two games to one, with one draw.[56] The very strong chess engine Rybka has recently played a series of odds matches against strong human players. On March 6–8, 2007, Rybka gave Grandmaster (GM) Jaan Ehlvest pawn odds (removing a different pawn each time), with Rybka having White in every game. Rybka won 5.5-2.5.[57] On January 8, 2008, Rybka gave GM Joel Benjamin draw odds, with Benjamin having White in all games. Rybka won six games and drew two, thus winning the match 6-2.[58] On March 7, 2008, Rybka gave pawn and move (removing a different pawn each time) to GM Roman Dzindzichashvili, drawing the match 4-4.[59] On June 8, 2008, Rybka gave knight odds to FIDE Master John Meyer, losing 4-0.[60] [61] On July 6, 2008, Rybka gave Meyer odds of pawn and three moves, winning 3-1.[62] [63] 35 Rating equivalent Grandmaster Larry Kaufman wrote the following about the Elo rating equivalence of giving knight odds:[64] [T]he Elo equivalent of a given handicap degrades as you go down the scale. A knight seems to be worth around a thousand points when the "weak" player is around IM level, but it drops as you go down. For example, I'm about 2400 and I've played tons of knight odds games with students, and I would put the break-even point (for untimed but reasonably quick games) with me at around 1800, so maybe a 600 value at this level. An 1800 can probably give knight odds to a 1400, a 1400 to an 1100, an 1100 to a 900, etc. This is pretty obviously the way it must work, because the weaker the players are, the more likely the weaker one is to blunder a piece or more. When you get down to the level of the average 8 year old player, knight odds is just a slight edge, maybe 50 points or so. Kaufman has written that Kasparov could give pawn and move odds to a low grandmaster (2500 FIDE rating) and be slightly favored, and would have even chances at knight odds against a player with a FIDE rating of 2115.[65] Illustrative games Chess handicap 36 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Eckart-Tarrasch, position after 13. ... Rxd4 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Eckart-Tarrasch, position after 16.Nc3 Pawn and move This game was won by Siegbert Tarrasch, whom Assiac described as "one of the greatest experts of 'Pawn and move' theory".[27] [66] K. Eckart-Tarrasch, Nuremberg Chess Club Championship 1887-88 (remove Black's f-pawn) 1.e4 Nc6 2.f4 e5 3.Nf3 exf4 4.Bc4 Bc5 Planning the following unsound but tricky sacrifice. 5.d4 Nxd4?! 6.Nxd4 Qh4+ 7.Kf1 d5 Sacrificing another pawn for rapid development. 8.exd5 Bg4 9.Bb5+? Evidently overlooking Black's next move. Correct was 9.Qd3, with a satisfactory defense. c6! 10.dxc6 0-0-0! 11.cxb7+ Kxb7 12.Bc6+ Kb6 13.Qd3 Rxd4 Black has regained the sacrificed piece and, contrary to appearances, his king is quite safe. 14.Qb5+ Kc7 15.Qb7+ Kd6 16.Nc3 Allowing a pretty finish, but 16.Bf3 Rd1+! 17.Ke2 (17.Bxd1 Qf2#) Bxf3+ 18.Qxf3 Rxh1 also wins for Black. Qf2+! 17.Kxf2 Rd1+ (discovered check) 18.Be3 Bxe3# 0-1 Notes based on those by Fred Reinfeld.[67] Chess handicap 37 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Zukertort-Epureanu, position after Black's 19th move a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Zukertort-Epureanu, final position; Black, ahead a queen, bishop, and knight, is defenseless. Knight odds Johannes Zukertort-Epureanu, Berlin 1872 (remove White's queen knight) 1.f4 e6 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.b3 d5 4.Bb2 c5 5.e3 Nc6 6.a3 a6 7.Bd3 Bd6 8.Qe2 0-0 9.g4 Nxg4? Imprudently allowing White to attack Black's king along the g-file. 10.Qg2 Nf6 11.h4 h6 12.h5 Kh8 13.0-0-0 Ne8 14.Rdg1 Rg8 15.Bh7!! f6 (15...Kxh7 16.Qg6+!! fxg6 17.hxg6+ Kh8 18.Rxh6#) 16.Bxg8 Kxg8 17.Qg6 Kh8 18.Ng5! hxg5 19.fxg5 Ne7 20.gxf6!! Nxg6 21.hxg6+ Kg8 22.Rh8+! Kxh8 23.f7 1-0 There is no defense against mate. If 23...Qh4 (stopping the threatened 24.Rh1+), 24.fxe8(Q)+ Bf8 25.Qxf8#. Francis J. Wellmuth calls this "the finest odds-game ever played". Irving Chernev and Fred Reinfeld call the conclusion "the finest finish in this type of contest." Notes by Chernev and Reinfeld, Wellmuth, and Napier.[68] [69] [70] [71] Chess handicap 38 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Kashdan-Horneman, position after Black's 13th move a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Kashdan-Horneman, position after 16.Ng7# Rook odds Isaac Kashdan-Buster Horneman, Manhattan Chess Club 1930 (remove White's queen rook) 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.e5 c5 4.Qg4 cxd4 5.Nf3 Nh6 6.Qh3 Be7 7.Bd3 b6 8.Qg3 Nf5 9.Bxf5 exf5 10.Qxg7 Rf8 11.Nxd4 Ba6? 12.Nxf5 Nd7 13.Bg5 f6? 14.e6! fxg5 15.Qg6+!! hxg6 16.Ng7# 1-0[15] [72] [73] a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Chess handicap Morphy-Maurian, position after White's 9th move a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 39 Morphy-Maurian, final position It would be a mistake to suppose that the odds-giver always wins. Even the strongest players sometimes meet with disaster: Paul Morphy-Charles Maurian, Springhill 1855 (remove White’s queen rook) 1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Bc4 Qh4+ 4.Kf1 b5 5.Bd5 Nc6 6.Nf3 Qh5 7.d4 Nf6 8.Bb3 Ba6 9.Qe2 Nxd4! 10.Nxd4 b4! 11.Qxa6?? Qd1+ 12.Kf2 Ng4# 0-1[74] [75] a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Apscheneek-Amateur, position after Black's 21st move a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Chess handicap 40 a b c d e f g h Apscheneek-Amateur, position after 25.Nh6# Queen odds Apscheneek-Amateur, Riga 1934 (remove White's queen) 1.b3 e5 2.Bb2 d6 3.Nc3 Be7 4.0-0-0 Nf6 5.f3 0-0 6.e3 c6 7.g4 h6 8.Nge2 Be6 9.Ng3 Nbd7 10.h4 Nh7 11.g5 hxg5 12.hxg5 Bxg5 13.Bd3 Bh6 14.Rdg1 d5 15.Nf5 Bxf5 16.Bxf5 Qf6 17.Bxd7 d4 18.exd4 exd4 19.Ne2 Qe7 20.Nxd4 Qxd7 21.Rxh6 Rad8 22.Rxg7+! Kxg7 23.Nf5+ (double check) Kg8 24.Rg6+! fxg6 25.Nh6#[76] a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Lange-von Schierstedt, position after White's 14th move a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Lange-von Schierstedt, final position: the ringed knight mates Ringed piece Max Lange- Jenny von Schierstedt, Halle 1856 (White's queen knight is the ringed piece with which he must checkmate) 1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.f4 exf4 4.Nf3 g5 5.Bc4 g4 6.0-0 gxf3 7.d4 fxg2 8.Bxf7+ Kxf7 9.Qh5+ Kg7 10.Rxf4 Nh6 11.Be3 d6 12.Ne2 Qe7 13.Kxg2 Be6 14.Raf1 Bf7? Black could have won with 14...Qg5+!!, when 15.Qxg5 would checkmate Black, but violate the stipulation that the queen knight must checkmate.[77] 15.Qxh6+!! Kxh6 16.Rg4+ Kh5 17.Ng3+ Kxg4 18.Rf5 h6 19.h3+ Kh4 20.Rh5+ Bxh5 21.Nf5#[20] [21] [22] Chess handicap 41 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Staunton-Taverner, position after White's 3rd move; White guards the capped pawn against frontal attack a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Staunton-Taverner, final position; the capped pawn gives mate Pion coiffé Howard Staunton-Taverner?, date unknown (White's pawn on g2 is the capped pawn, with which he must give checkmate)[78] 1.Nc3 e5 2.Ne4 d5 3.Ng3 Covering the pawn to make it less assailable by Black's pieces. f5 4.e3 Bd6 5.c4 h5 6.Nxh5 Qg5 7.Ng3 f4 8.exf4 Not 8.Nf3??, when 8...Bh3! would win the g-pawn and the game. exf4 9.d4 Qg6 10.Bd3 Qh6 Now Black threatens 11...Qh3! and wins. 11.Qh5+ Qxh5 12.Nxh5 Rxh5 13.Bg6+ Ke7 14.Bxh5 Nf6 15.Bf3 g5 16.c5 g4 17.cxd6+ cxd6 18.Bxg4 Bxg4 19.Bxf4 Nh5 20.Bg3 Nc6 21.h3 21.f3? Be6 22.Ne2 Rg8 23.Kf2 Bh3! 24.gxh3 Nxg3 followed by 25...Rh8 would win the capped pawn. Be6 22.Ne2 Rg8 23.Rc1 Bf5 24.Rc3 Be4 25.Re3 Nb4 26.Kd2 Nxa2 27.Ra1 Nb4 28.Rxa7 Nc6 29.Rxb7+ Ke6 30.Rh7 Rg5 31.Rxe4+ dxe4 32.Rxh5 Rxh5 33.Nf4+ Ke7 34.Nxh5 Nxd4 35.Ke3 Nc2+ 36.Kxe4 Ne1 Attacking the "game pawn". 37.Bh4+ Kd7 38.g4 Kc6 39.f4 Nc2 40.f5 d5+ 41.Kf4 d4 42.Bf2 d3 43.Be3 Nd4 44.Ke4 d2 45.Bxd2 Nb3 46.Be3 Kd6 47.Nf6 Kc6 48.h4 Na5 49.h5 Nc4 50.Bf4 Nxb2 51.h6 Na4 52.h7 Nc5+ 53.Ke3 Kb5 54.Ne4 Na6 55.h8(Q) Ka5 56.Qc3+ Kb5 57.Qb3+ Ka5 58.Nc3 Nc5 59.Bc7+ Ka6 60.Qb5+ Ka7 61.Qxc5+ Ka6 Deliberately allowing checkmate. 62.Qa5+ Kb7 63.Ke4 Kc8 64.Qa7 Kd7 65.Qb7 Ke7 66.Qc8 Kf6 67.Bd8+ Kg7 68.Qe6 Kf8 69.Qe7+ Kg8 70.Nd5 Kh8 71.g5 Kg8 72.g6 Kh8 73.Ke5 Kg8 74.Nf6+ Kh8 75.g7# Notes by Staunton, who wrote that he and his opponent played many games at these odds, of which this was "perhaps the weakest, but ... also the shortest".[79] [80] Chess handicap 42 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Paris-Marseilles, position after 67.Kbl a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Paris-Marseilles, final position; Black, having forced White to give checkmate, wins Odds of queen in return for requiring Black to force White to checkmate Paris-Marseilles, correspondence 1878 (Remove White's queen; in response for receiving the queen, Black undertakes to force White to checkmate Black) 1.d4 d5 2.Nc3 c6 3.Nf3 g6 4.e4 e6 5.e5 Bb4 6.Bd2 Bxc3 7.Bxc3 b5 8.h4 h5 9.0-0-0 a6 10.Ng5 f5 11.g3 Nh6 12.Bd3 Nf7 13.Bxf5? gxf5 14.Nxf7 Kxf7 15.Bd2 Nd7 16.Rhe1 c5 17.dxc5 Nxc5 18.Bg5 Qg8 19.Re3 Bb7 20.Rc3 Rc8 21.Be3 Nd7 22.Bd4 Rxc3 23.bxc3 a5 24.Kd2 a4 25.Rb1 Ba6 26.Rg1 Qg4 27.Rb1 Rc8 28.Rb4 Rc4 29.Rxc4 dxc4 30.a3 f4 31.Kc1 fxg3 32.fxg3 Qxg3 33.Kb2 Qxh4 34.Kc1 Qe1+ 35.Kb2 Qd1 36.Ba7 Nxe5 37.Bc5 h4 38.Bd4 Nc6 39.Be3 e5 40.Bf2 h3 41.Bg3 e4 42.Bf4 Ke6 43.Bg3 e3 44.Bf4 e2 45.Bg3 Kd7 46.Bh2 e1(Q) 47.Bf4 Qee2 48.Bg3 Qdxc2+ 49.Ka1 Qf1+ 50.Be1 Qd2 Now White is reduced to shuffling the king back and forth while Black sets up self-mate. 51.Kb1 h2 52.Ka1 h1(Q) 53.Kb1 Qf8 54.Ka1 Qxa3+ 55.Kb1 Qad6 56.Ka1 Qf6 57.Kb1 Kc7 58.Ka1 b4 59.Kb1 b3 60.Ka1 Kb6 61.Kb1 Ka5 62.Ka1 Ne7! 63.Kb1 Nc8 64.Ka1 Bb5 65.Kb1 Qa6! 66.Ka1 Nb6 67.Kb1 Qh7+ 68.Ka1 Qxc3+! 69.Bxc3# The only legal move. 0-1 Black, having forced White to checkmate, wins.[81] [82] Chess handicap 43 References [1] David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld, The Oxford Companion to Chess, Oxford University Press, 2nd ed. 1992, p. 166 ("handicap" entry). ISBN 0-19-866164-9. [2] Pritchard, D. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. [3] Assiac, The Pleasures of Chess, Dover Publications, 1960, p. 147. [4] Macon Shibut, Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory, Dover Publications, 2004, p. 124. ISBN 978-0486435749. [5] For example, in 1747 Philidor won a match against Philipp Stamma in which Philidor gave move odds and draw odds in every game. H. J. R. Murray, A History of Chess, Oxford University Press, 1913, p. 862. ISBN 0-19-827403-3. By another account, Philidor gave draw odds and 5:4 money odds. David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld, The Oxford Companion to Chess (2nd ed. 1992), Oxford University Press, p. 303. ISBN 0-19-866164-9. According to a third account, he gave all of these: move odds, draw odds, and 5-4 money odds. Harry Golombek, Golombek's Encyclopedia of Chess, Crown Publishers, pp. 304-05. ISBN 0-517-53146-1. [6] In 1914, future World Champion Alexander Alekhine played the famous composer Sergei Prokofiev blindfold and at knight odds. Prokofiev won handily in 31 moves. Andrew Soltis, Chess to Enjoy, Stein and Day, 1978, pp. 92-93. ISBN 0-8128-6059-4. [7] Staunton gives the score of games where Kieseritzky gave odds of his queen rook in exchange for the opponent's queen knight, and Philidor gave odds of his queen rook in return for pawn and move. He also mentions odds of queen rook in exchange for pawn and two moves. Staunton, The Chess Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, pp. 409-12. Staunton also cites games where Philidor gave odds of queen knight in exchange for pawn and move, and in exchange for the first two moves. Id., pp. 435-40. [8] Irving Chernev cites a game Andreaschek-Dr. R.M., Olmütz 1901, where White gave queen odds in return for the right to make the first six moves: 1.e4 2.d4 3.Nc3 4.f4 5.Nf3 6.Bc4 d6 7.h3 Nd7 8.Bxf7+ Kxf7 9.Ng5+ Kf6? 10.Nd5+ Kg6 11.f5+ Kh6 12.Nf7+ Kh5 13.g4+ (13.Bg5! Ngf6 14.Nf4#) Kh4 14.Kf2 e5 15.Ne3 any 16.Ng2#. Irving Chernev, The Chess-Player's Companion, Simon and Schuster, 1973, p. 215. [9] A bizarre example of countervailing odds was Paris-Marseilles, correspondence 1878. Marseilles received queen odds, in return for which it undertook to force Paris to checkmate it. (See game at the end of this article.) [10] Harry Golombek, Golombek’s Encyclopedia of Chess, Crown Publishers, 1977, p. 218. [11] Howard Staunton, The Chess Player's Handbook, Henry G. Bohn, 1847, p. 36. [12] James Mason, The Principles of Chess in Theory and Practice, David McKay, Fourth Edition, c. 1910, pp. 317-18. [13] 2008-06-30 comment by Kaufman (http:/ / rybkaforum. net/ cgi-bin/ rybkaforum/ topic_show. pl?tid=4658) [14] Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, p. 440. [15] I.A. Horowitz, All About Chess, Collier Books, 1971, pp. 56-57. [16] Andy Soltis, Chess to Enjoy, Stein and Day, 1978, pp. 104-05. ISBN 0-8128-6059-4. [17] Staunton discusses 2-1 money odds, for example betting two pounds on each game to the opponent's one. Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, pp. 388-89. [18] In 1963 Bobby Fischer, playing five-minute chess, gave 10-1 money odds to Stewart Reuben and 20-1 money odds to National Master Asa Hoffman. John Donaldson and Eric Tangborn, The Unknown Bobby Fischer, International Chess Enterprises, 1999, p. 71. ISBN 1-879479-85-0. [19] Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, pp. 384. [20] Irving Chernev, Wonders and Curiosities of Chess, Dover Publications, 1974, p. 31. ISBN 0-486-23007-4. [21] Edward Winter, Kings, Commoners and Knaves, Russell Enterprises, 1999, pp. 114-15. ISBN 1-888690-04-6. [22] Chess Notes No. 3502 (http:/ / www. chesshistory. com/ winter/ winter03. html#3500. _Capablanca_origins) [23] Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, p. 383 (quoting Carrera). [24] "[O]bviously, the odds-receiver can go to any limit of material sacrifice in order to get rid of that one 'fatal' piece. Conversely, this means that the odds-giver must guard that particular piece no less jealously than his King--a condition liable to cramp the style and tax the ingenuity of the best player." Assiac, The Pleasures of Chess, Dover Publications, 1960, p. 153. [25] Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Companion, 1849, Henry G. Bohn, pp. 380-81. [26] Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, pp. 381. [27] Assiac, The Pleasures of Chess, Dover Publications, 1960, p. 150. [28] Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, pp. 387. [29] Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, pp. 389. [30] Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, pp. 390. [31] Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, pp. 391. [32] Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, pp. 395. [33] Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Companion, 1849, pp. 395-400. [34] Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, p. 398. [35] Staunton, The Chess Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, pp. 409-12. [36] Howard Staunton, The Chess Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, pp. 435-40. [37] Macon Shibut, Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory, Dover Publications, 2004, p. 121. ISBN 978-0486435749. [38] Staunton began his "MAXIMS AND ADVICE FOR AN INEXPERIENCED PLAYER" as follows: Chess handicap There is nothing that will improve you so much as playing with good players ; never refuse, therefore, when any one offers you odds, to accept them : you cannot expect a proficient to feel much interest in playing with you upon even terms, and as you are sure to derive both amusement and instruction from him, it is but fair that he should name the conditions. It will soon happen that you yourself will be able to give odds to many amateurs whom you meet ; when this is the case, avoid, if possible, playing them even, or you are likely to acquire an indolent, neglectful habit of play, which it will be very difficult to throw off. When you cannot induce such players to accept odds, propose to play for a small stake ; and they will soon be glad to take all the advantages you can offer. Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Handbook, Henry G. Bohn, 1847, pp. 46-47. [39] Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, p. v. [40] Books II and III were devoted to games not at odds, classified by opening, Book IV analyzed the games of Staunton's 1843 match against Saint Amant. The last chapter of Book V was devoted to chess problems. [41] E. Freeborough and Rev. C.E. Ranken, Chess Openings Ancient and Modern, Third Edition, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co., London, 1896, pp. 271-84. The authors, after discussing general principles applicable to odds games, devoted pages 274-76 to analyzing games played at Pawn and move, pages 277-79 to Pawn and two moves games, pages 281-82 to games played at queen knight odds, and page 283 to the unusual odds of king knight. [42] Macon Shibut, Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory, Dover Publications, 2004, p. 122. ISBN 978-0486435749. [43] "Indeed, it was not until the International Tournament of 1851, held at the Crystal Palace of the London Exhibition, that tournament play entered the chess scene." Robert Byrne "Chess" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9907E1DD1338F937A25752C0A961958260), The New York Times, January 14, 1997. Accessed July 21, 2008. [44] Reuben Fine writes that for Adolf Anderssen (1818-79), winner of the 1851 tournament, "There were few tournaments (none at all from 1851 to 1857)". Reuben Fine, The World's Great Chess Games, Dover, 1983, p. 16. ISBN 0-486-24512-8. Similarly, for Wilhelm Steinitz (1836-1900), the first World Champion, "active tournaments were few and far between ... Steinitz could hardly find one every three or four years". Id. at 31. It was only during Emanuel Lasker's 1894-1921 reign as World Champion that "the institution of the chess tournament was really developed", with "half a dozen international tournaments a year and innumerable local ones". Id. at 49. [45] "It was the pernicious practice at the time [of Philidor] for the best players to give odds to weaker ones, no doubt as an inducement for them to play for wagers." Harry Golombek, Chess: A History, G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1976, p. 120. [46] Macon Shibut, Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory, Dover Publications, 2004, pp. 122-23. ISBN 978-0486435749. [47] Shibut addresses the question "why has odds chess all but disappeared today?" Macon Shibut, Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory, Dover Publications, 2004, pp. 122. ISBN 978-0486435749. He notes that, "Today, the game's gambling heritage is best preserved in the arena of blitz chess and, not coincidentally, we can still find oddsgiving in blitz. However, time odds have replaced material as the preferred form of handicapping." Id. at 124. [48] Steinitz wrote: 44 [A] learner should seek as much as possible to play on even terms with superior players. From experience and observation we feel sure that he will learn much faster in this manner than by taking odds. The latter method of practice engenders the habit on the part of the odds-receiver of exchanging pieces without any motive other than to reduce the forces. He may also with comparative impunity commit many mistakes anyone of which would surely cost him the game if he started on even terms, and the object of the student ought to be not so much to win games as to train himself to play correctly. By taking odds a players loses the opportunity to observe the finer points of play of his adversary who on account of his inferiority in force cannot always afford to adopt the best strategy and is more apt to resort to lines of play which he knows to be unsound, relying on the inability of the weaker player to perceive the correct reply. Moreover, the openings in games at odds are quite different from those adopted in even games and, therefore, the odds-receiver is not advancing in one important branch of Chess knowledge. Wilhelm Steinitz, The Modern Chess Instructor, Part I, Edition Olms Zürich, 1990 (reprint of 1889 work), pp. xxix-xxx. ISBN 3-283-00111-1. [49] Mason wrote: Strictly speaking, odds play is somewhat foreign to the general principles of Chess, and, therefore, less conducive to improvement of the player—giver or receiver—than serious conduct of the game on proper even terms. This would be so for the weaker party, if only because correctness of development must needs be missing, the whole theory of the opening being distorted and disturbed; and it would be so, for the stronger party, if only because of the habit of speculative and unsound combination odds play so Chess handicap naturally induces—a habit which if once acquired is so difficult of rejection, and whose effects cannot fail to prove inconvenient to its subject, when confronted by a foeman entirely worthy of his steel, and calling for the full exercise of all his powers. James Mason, The Principles of Chess in Theory and Practice, David McKay, Fourth Edition, c. 1910, pp. 317-18. [50] Ralph Ginzburg, "Portrait of a Genius as a Young Chess Master", Harper's Magazine, January 1962, pp. 49-55, at 50. [51] Bobby Fischer quotes (http:/ / www. bobby-fischer. net/ bobby_fischer_quotes_96. htm) [52] I. A. Horowitz and P. L. Rothenberg, The Complete Book of Chess, Collier Books, 1972, pp. 139-40. [53] Fischer biographer Frank Brady wrote of the Ginzburg interview (not specifically addressing the part about women chessplayers) that Fischer "claimed emphatically that much in it had been twisted, distorted, and taken out of context". Frank Brady, David McKay, Profile of a Prodigy, Second Edition, 1973, p. 47. [54] Former World Champion Mikhail Tal responded, "Fischer is Fischer, but a knight is a knight!" Cathy Forbes, The Polgar Sisters: Training or Genius?, Henry Holt and Company, 1992, p. 22. ISBN 0-8050-2426-3. Ironically, in 1991 Judit Polgár, a girl aged 15 years, 4 months, and 28 days, became the (then) youngest grandmaster ever, beating Fischer’s own record, set in 1958, by just over a month. Id. at 171. [55] G. H. Diggle, Chess Characters: Reminiscences of a Badmaster, Volume II, Chess Notes, Geneva, 1987, p. 25. [56] Kasparov makes it a knight to remember - Telegraph (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ uknews/ 1317037/ Kasparov-makes-it-a-knight-to-remember. html) [57] Rybka-Ehlvest I (http:/ / rybkaforum. net/ cgi-bin/ rybkaforum/ topic_show. pl?tid=519) [58] Rybka-Benjamin match (http:/ / rybkaforum. net/ cgi-bin/ rybkaforum/ topic_show. pl?tid=2937) [59] Rybka-Dzindzichashvili match (http:/ / rybkaforum. net/ cgi-bin/ rybkaforum/ topic_show. pl?tid=3363) [60] Rybka-Meyer match conditions (http:/ / rybkaforum. net/ cgi-bin/ rybkaforum/ topic_show. pl?tid=4249) [61] Rybka-Meyer games (http:/ / chessok. com/ broadcast/ live. php?key=pgn/ 2008/ rvsmeyer/ KnightOdds. pgn& game=0) [62] Rybka-Meyer II match conditions (http:/ / rybkaforum. net/ cgi-bin/ rybkaforum/ topic_show. pl?tid=4658) [63] Rybka-Meyer II games (http:/ / chessok. com/ broadcast/ live. php?key=KnightOdds. pgn& game=0) [64] 2008-06-02 comment on Rybka Community Forum (http:/ / rybkaforum. net/ cgi-bin/ rybkaforum/ topic_show. pl?tid=4249) [65] Larry Kaufman, The Evaluation of Material Imbalances (http:/ / home. comcast. net/ ~danheisman/ Articles/ evaluation_of_material_imbalance. htm), originally published in Chess Life, March 1999. [66] Eckart-Tarrasch (http:/ / www. chessgames. com/ perl/ chessgame?gid=1341035) [67] Fred Reinfeld, Tarrasch's Best Games of Chess, Dover, 1960, pp. 287-88. ISBN 0-486-20644-0. [68] Irving Chernev and Fred Reinfeld, The Fireside Book of Chess, Simon and Schuster, 1976, p. 218. ISBN 0-671-21221-4. [69] William Ewart Napier, Paul Morphy and the Golden Age of Chess, William Ewart Napier, David McKay, 1971, pp. 112-13. [70] Francis J. Wellmuth, The Golden Treasury of Chess, Chess Review, 1943, p. 5. [71] As to the spelling of Zukertort's opponent's name and the year in which the game was played, see Edward Winter, Chess Notes 5564, 5568, and 5580 (http:/ / www. chesshistory. com/ winter/ winter46. html#5563. _Who_C. N. _5555). [72] Francis J. Wellmuth, The Golden Treasury of Chess, Chess Review, 1943, p. 250. [73] Arnold Denker and Larry Parr, The Bobby Fischer I Knew and Other Stories, Hypermodern Press, 1995, pp. 10-11. ISBN 1-886040-18-4. [74] Irving Chernev, 1000 Best Short Games of Chess, Fireside; Rei Sub edition, 1955, pp. 56-57. ISBN 978-0671538019. [75] Macon Shibut, Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory, Dover Publications, 2004, p. 212. ISBN 978-0486435749. [76] Irving Chernev, 1000 Best Short Games of Chess, Fireside; Rei Sub edition, 1955, p. 433. ISBN 978-0671538019. [77] Staunton quotes Carrera: "The player who gives the odds, loses the game if he checkmate with any other Piece than the one named." Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, p. 383. [78] Staunton wrote in 1849 that the game was played "some years ago" and referred to his opponent as the "Hon. Mr. T." Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Compansion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, p. 384. David Levy writes, "probably Taverner". D.N.L. Levy, Howard Staunton, The Chess Player, 1975, p. 137-38. ISBN 978-0486435749. [79] Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Companion, Henry G. Bohn, 1849, p. 387 n. *. [80] D.N.L. Levy, Howard Staunton, The Chess Player, 1975, pp. 137-38. ISBN 978-0486435749. [81] Andy Soltis, Chess to Enjoy, Stein and Day, 1978, pp. 53-54. ISBN 0-8128-6059-4. [82] Irving Chernev, The Chess Companion, Simon and Schuster, 1973, pp. 216-17. 45 Chess handicap 46 Further reading • The Chess-player's Companion: Comprising a New Treatise on Odds, and a ... (http://books.google.com/ books?id=iO0IAAAAQAAJ&printsec=titlepage) by Howard Staunton, 1849. External links • The Romance of Chess - A Perspective on the Art of Odds-giving (http://sbchess.sinfree.net/odds-giving. html) from Sarah's Chess Journal. (dead link) • Odds chess (http://www.chessvariants.org/other.dir/oddschess.html) by Roger Cooper. • Video of Fischer making the claim about giving knight odds to women (http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=jdA7I9nPhSU&feature=player_embedded) Dunsany's chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Dunsany's chess, the starting position. Dunsany's chess, also known as Dunsany's game,[1] is an asymmetric chess variant in which one side has standard chess pieces, and the other side has 32 pawns. Unlike many chess variants, this one does not feature any fairy pieces, which are pieces not found in conventional chess. This game was invented by Lord Dunsany in 1942. A similar game is called 'horde chess'. Rules Object of the game: • The standard pieces win by capturing all 32 pawns before the pawns run out of legal moves. • The pawns win by checkmating the king. This is far easier if they first get at least one pawn promoted to queen. • The pawns can also accomplish a draw, which for them is almost as good as a win, by running out of legal moves. Piece movement is the same as in regular chess, except that only the eight pawns from the standard side (second row) have the option to move forward two spaces on their first move. Dunsany's chess 47 Variations a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Horde chess. There exists an almost identical game called Horde chess. In difference to Dunsany's chess, the colors of pieces are exchanged, and the middle two columns of pawns are shifted forward one space. References [1] Pritchard, D. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. External links • Lord Dunsany's chess java applet at www.pathguy.com (http://www.pathguy.com/chess/Dunsany.htm) 48 Different board Minichess Minichess is a family of chess variants played with regular chess pieces and standard rules, but on a smaller board.[1] The motivation for these variants is to make the game simpler and shorter than the standard chess. Martin Gardner recommended 5x5 chess variant to fill short breaks during the work. The first chess-like game implemented on a computer was a 6x6 chess variant Los Alamos chess. The low memory capacity of the early days computer required reduced board size and smaller number of pieces to make the game implementable on a computer. Magnus Carlsen promoting 5x6 chess variant Chess Attack 3x3 and 3x4 boards Chess on a 3x3 board does not have any clearly defined starting position. However, it is a solved game: the outcome of every possible position is known. The best move for each side is known as well. The game was solved independently by Aloril in 2001 and by Kirill Kryukov in 2004. The solution by Kryukov is more complete, since it allows pawns to be placed everywhere, not only on second row as by Aloril. The longest checkmate on 3x3 board takes 16 moves. The number of legal positions is 304,545,552.[2] In 2009 Kryukov reported solving 3x4 chess.[3] On this board there are 167,303,246,916 legal positions and the longest checkmate takes 43 moves. 4x4 and 4x5 chess Silverman 4x4 Silverman 4x5 Microchess Minichess In 1981 Silverman suggested 4x4 chess variant shown on the diagram.[4] The first player wins easily in this game (1. axb3+ Qxb3 2. cxb3+ Kxb3 (or 2...Kb4 3. bxc3 checkmate) 3. bxa3+ Kc4 4. Qa2 checkmate) , so Silverman proposed a variant: Black can select a pawn, and White must make a first move with this pawn. However, in this case Black wins even more easily (select pawn b2, 1.bxa3 (or 1.bxc3) b2+ 2. Qxb2 Qxb2 checkmate). To make the variant more playable, Silverman finally proposed to insert a row between pawns and use the board 4x5. In this variant pawns can do double-move if target square is free. Another chess variant on 4x5 board, Microchess was invented by Glimne in 1997.[4] Castling is allowed in this variant. 49 5x5 chess Gardner Baby chess Jacobs-Meirovitz Mallett A 5x5 board is the smallest which can contain all kinds of chess pieces. In 1969, Martin Gardner suggested a chess variant on 5x5 board in which all chess moves, including pawn double-move, en-passant capture as well as castling can be made.[5] Later AISE (Associazione Italiana Scacchi Eterodossi) abandoned pawn double-move and castling. The game was largely played in Italy (including by correspondence) and opening theory was developed. The statistics of the finished games is the following:[4] • White won 40% of games. • Black won 28%. • 32% were draws. Gardner minichess was also played by AISE with suicide chess and progressive chess rules. In 1980 HP shipped HP-41C programmable calculator, which could play this game.[6] The calculator was able to play on quite a decent level. In 1989, Martin Gardner proposed another setup, which he called Baby chess. In difference from Gardner minichess, kings are placed into opposite corners here. Paul Jacobs and Marco Meirovitz suggested another starting position for 5x5 chess shown at the right. Jeff Mallett (main developer of Zillions of Games), suggested setup in which white has two knights against two black bishops.[7] Minichess 50 5x6 chess Petty chess Speed chess QuickChess Elena chess Chess Attack There are several chess variants on 5x6 board. The earliest published one is Petty chess, which was invented by Walker Watson in 1930. Speed chess was invented by Mr. den Oude in 1988.[8] Elena chess was invented by Sergei Sirotkin in 1999. QuickChess was invented by Joseph Miccio in 1991.[9] Pawn double-move and castling are not allowed in this variant, pawns can only promote to captured pieces. The game was sold by Amerigames International and received National Parenting Publications Award in 1993. Miccio obtained an USA patent in 1993, which described 3 further chess variant on 5x6 board.[10] Besides two variants similar to Speed chess and Elena Chess (same position of white pieces, position of black pieces is symmetrical), the patent claimed one further variant, which have been named later Chess Attack. Miccio advocated these games as educational tools for chidren to learn chess rules. The smaller board and less pieces would reduce the complexity of the game and allow for more quicker games. The piece setup like in Speed chess was intended to teach short side castling and setup as in Chess Attack - long side castling. Laszlo Polgar published a book in 1994 Minichess 777+1 Positions (Quickchess teaches chess quick)[11] , completely devoted to chess on 5x6 board. Besides initial setup as in QuickChess, Polgar proposed to use any other possible setup of pieces, even asymmetrical one. The book contained problems, combinations and games for 5x6 chess. Polgar recommended to use is as a first book to teach children to play chess. Chess Attack, which has the same setup as Gardner minichess (but played on a bigger board) is sold by Norway company Yes Games AS since 2008. In this variant, pawns can make double-moves and en-passant capture is allowed. The game was endorsed by Magnus Carlsen and Alexandra Kosteniuk. Minichess 51 6x6 chess a 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f b c d e f 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f a b c d e f 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f a b c d e f 6 5 4 3 2 1 Diana chess L'Hermitte chess Los Alamos chess Besides Los Alamos chess, there are other chess variants played on a 6x6 board. The game Diana chess (or Ladies chess) was suggested by Hopwood in 1870. The initial position is shown above. There are no queens on the board and pawns can't promote to queens either. Pawns cannot move forward two squares on their initial move. Castling is done by switching the positions of the king and rook. The same condition as in chess apply for castling (e.g. the king should not be under check, neither rook nor king should have moved before etc.) Serge L'Hermitte suggested in 1969 a game with nearly the same setup as Diana chess, except that the positions of the black king and knight are exchanged from their positions in Diana chess. Additionally, knights cannot move within the first three moves, and the king can move to the knight position without losing the right to castle. a 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f a b c d e f a b c d e f Simpler chess, without rooks Simpler chess, without knights Mallett 6x6 chess A. Wardley proposed in 1977 a Simpler chess, a family of 6x6 chess variants, in which a pair of pieces is removed from the both sides: rooks, knights, bishop or even king and queen. Removing bishops results in Los Alamos chess; the result of removing rooks or knights is shown on the diagrams above. Jeff Mallett proposed the setup knights versus bishops also on 6x6 board. On a normal 8x8 board, bishops are considered slightly more valuable than knights (especially two bishops). However, on 6x6 boards, because of the smaller size of the board, two knights are presumably equal to two bishops. Minichess 52 Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Pritchard, D. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. 3x3 Chess (http:/ / kirr. homeunix. org/ chess/ 3x3-chess/ ) by Kirill Kryukov. 3x4 Chess (http:/ / kirr. homeunix. org/ chess/ 3x4-chess/ ) by Kirill Kryukov. Pritchard (2007), p. 113 Martin Gardner (1991). The Unexpected Hanging and Other Mathematical Diversions (Reprint ed.). University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-2262-8256-2. [6] HP-minichess (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ small. dir/ hpmini. html) by Hans Bodlaender, based on an email from Ross Crawford. [7] This game can be found in set of games shipped together with Zillions of Games. The history section says: A little experiment by Jeff Mallett. [8] Chess - Speed Game (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ small. dir/ chessspeed. html) by Hans Bodlaender [9] Polgar (1994), p.3 [10] USA patent 5257787 Chess-like game (http:/ / www. freepatentsonline. com/ 5257787. html) [11] Polgar (1994) References • Pritchard, D. (2007). The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. John Beasley. ISBN 978-0955516801. • Laszlo Polgar (1994). Minichess 777+1 Positions (Quickchess teaches chess quick). Laszlo Polgar. ISBN 963-4508057. External links • • • • Knight court (http://www.chessvariants.org/small.dir/knightcourt.html) by Jason D. Wittman Quick Chess (http://www.chessvariants.org/small.dir/quick.html) by Hans Bodlaender Mini-chess variants (http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/minichessvariants.html) 6 Ranks, remaining variants (http://www.chessvariants.org/index/msdisplay.php?itemid=MS6ranks,remaini) by Charles Gilman. Los Alamos chess 53 Los Alamos chess a 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f b c d e f 6 5 4 3 2 1 Los Alamos chess Los Alamos chess (or anti-clerical chess) is a chess variant played on a 6×6 board without bishops. This was the first chess-like game played by a computer program. This program was written in Los Alamos laboratory by Paul Stein and Mark Wells for the MANIAC I computer in 1956. The reduction of the board size and the number of pieces from standard chess was due to the very limited capacity of computers at the time. The computer played three games. The first it played against itself. The second one was against a strong human player, who played without a queen. The human player won. In the third game, MANIAC I played against a novice chess player who had been taught the rules just before the game. The computer won, marking the first time that a computer had beaten a human player in a chess-like game. Rules The starting position is shown on the right. All rules are as in chess except: • There is no pawn double-move, nor is there en passant capture; • Pawns may not promote to bishops; • There is no castling. References • D.B. Pritchard (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. • H. L. Anderson (1986). Metropolis, Monte Carlo, and the MANIAC [1] (from Los Alamos Science [2], N 14, Fall 1986), pp 104-105. Los Alamos chess 54 External links • Los Alamos Chess [3] by Hans L. Bodlaender. • A short history of computer chess [4] by Frederic Friedel • BrainKing.com [5] - internet server to play Los Alamos chess. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. fas. org/ sgp/ othergov/ doe/ lanl/ pubs/ 00326886. pdf http:/ / library. lanl. gov/ cgi-bin/ getfile?number14. htm http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ small. dir/ losalamos. html http:/ / www. chessbase. com/ columns/ column. asp?pid=102 http:/ / BrainKing. com Grid chess Grid chess is a chess variant invented by Walter Stead in 1953. It is played on a grid board. This is a normal 64-square board with a grid of lines further dividing the board into larger squares. For a move to be legal in grid chess, the piece moved must cross at least one of these lines. Grid chess is also used in chess problems. Rules Various arrangements of the grid have been tried, but the original, and by far the most popular, is that shown to the right, which divides the board into 16 2×2 squares. Unless otherwise stipulated, the term grid board can be assumed to refer to this arrangement, and grid chess to chess played on this board. A sample position. In the position shown, white can play either a3 or a4 (see algebraic notation), but cannot move his b-pawn. Black cannot play Bd5 but can play any other bishop move — if he wants to put his bishop on d5, it will take two moves (for example, first Ba8, and then Bd5). The white king is not in check from the queen, but if the queen were to take a step back with Qe3, it would be. The white king cannot take the queen, although the white knight can. The black king, on the other hand, is in check from the rook on c8. Black cannot escape check, as he could in normal chess, with Ke7 or Kf7, as these moves do not cross a grid-line, but he can play Kd7 and also Kd8, bringing the king into the same large square as the rook. Grid chess 55 Example problem It is possible to play entire games under grid chess conditions, and a number of chess problems using grid chess rules have also been composed. The one to the right won first prize in the first grid chess problem tournament. It is by H. Ternblad and was published in the Fairy Chess Review, 1954. It is a helpmate in 4 (black moves first and cooperates with white to checkmate him within 4 moves). The solution is 1.Ke2 Bc4+ 2.Kd3 (note that this brings the king into the same large square as the bishop, and so escapes the check) 2...Bxb5+ (withdrawing the bishop over a grid-line gives check again) 3.Ke4 Bc6+ 4.Kd5 (note that two kings can co-exist next to each other so long as they are in the same large square) 4...Bxb7#. This problem displays attractive correspondence between the paths Helpmate in 4. taken by the king and bishop. It is worth noting the zig-zagging path the black king must take to reach d5 — the straightfoward route Kd1-d2-d3-d4-d5 is not possible because two of the moves do not cross grid-lines, and d1-e2-e3-d4-d5 is not possible because on d4 the king is checked by white's king. External links • Grid Chess Problems [1] References [1] http:/ / members. tripod. com/ ~JurajLorinc/ chess/ fi_g. htm#gridc Cylinder chess 56 Cylinder chess Cylindrical chessboard a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Cylinder chess The diagram shows possible moves of the bishop on c1 and the knight on h2 on a cylindrical board. Note that the bishop can't move through the upper and lower sides of the board. Cylinder chess (or cylindrical chess) is a chess variant with an unusual board. The game is played as if the board were a cylinder, with the left side of the board joined to the right side. According to Bill Wall, in 947 in a history of chess in India and Persia, the Arabic historian Ali al-Masudi described six different variants of chess, including astrological chess, circular chess and cylinder chess.[1] Cylindrical board is also used in chess problems. Rules and gameplay Cylinder chess 57 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Mate in 2 Cylinder chess with the null-move. The game is played as if there is no edge on the side of the board. When a piece goes off the right edge of the board in cylinder chess, it reappears on the left edge; when a piece goes off the left edge, it reappears on the right edge.[2] It is legal to move a rook from a3 to h3, even if there is a piece on b3, since the rook can move left from a3. A bishop on c1 can go to h4, by moving from c1 to a3, and then going up and left from a3 to h4. Moves that do not change the position, like rook a3-a3 (assuming 3rd rank is empty), are usually not allowed, but sometimes they are in some problems. It is allowed to capture en passant over the board edge. For example, if white has a pawn on a5, black on h7 and black plays h7-h5, white can capture it: a5xh6. Bishops are more valuable in this variant. And, unlike in standard chess, king and rook cannot enforce checkmate against the lone king on the cylindrical board. The game is sometimes played with changed rules for castling: • Castling is not allowed. Proponents of this convention argue that the purpose of castling is nullified by all files being equivalent, as they are on the cylinder. • Additionally to normal castling, castling with the wrong rook (over the board edge) is also allowed. By such castling on the king side the king e1 moves to g1 and rook a1 moves to f1. This castling on the queen-side has the rook on h1 moving to d1, king moves to c1. Some cylinder chess problems allow moves that don't change the position (null moves).[3] At the right an example of such a problem is shown. The solution is to put black in a zugzwang by playing 1.Rh4-h4 . Now, after any move by black white has a mate. The move 1.Rg4 doesn't work because of 1....Ka5 threatening to capture the rook. Cylinder chess 58 Horizontal cylinder chess and toroidal chess Toroidal chessboard a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Initial position Torus chess on a standard board In horizontal cylinder chess, first and last rank are connected. In toroidal chess the board has the form of a torus. One can get a toroidal board by connecting first and last ranks of the cylindrical board. On the toroidal board, even king and queen can't checkmate the lone king.[4] See the Torus Chess link below for a toroidal variant that can be played, with an explanation of moves and strategy. The diagram on the right shows the starting position for play on a standard board, using toroidal geometry. Cylinder chess 59 References [1] Earliest chess books and references (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20091028082822/ http:/ / www. geocities. com/ SiliconValley/ Lab/ 7378/ oldtexts. htm) by Bill Wall. [2] D.B. Pritchard (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants (p. 79). ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. [3] From A. W. Mongredien, Bulletin de la FFE, No. 19, 1926 (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ problems. dir/ prcylin2. html) [4] Е.Я. Гик, Шахматы и математика, Наука, Москва, 1983 (in Russian) External links • Cylinder chess (http://www.bcvs.ukf.net/cylin.htm) by George Jelliss, Variant Chess, Volume 3, Issue 22, Winter 1996-7, pages 32–33. • Cylindrical chess (http://www.chessvariants.org/boardrules.dir/cylindrical.html) by Ron Porter and Cliff Lundberg. • BrainKing.com (http://BrainKing.com) - internet server to play Cylinder chess and many other chess variants • Torus Chess (http://www.chessvariants.org/shape.dir/torus_standard_board.html) by Karl Fischer, Torus Chess on a standard board - playable, if bloody. Circular chess Circular chess is a chess variant played using the standard set of pieces on a circular board consisting of four rings, each of sixteen squares. This is topologically equivalent to playing on the surface of a cylinder. History Documents in the British Library and elsewhere suggest that circular Circular chess chess was played in Persia as early as the 10th century AD, and further references are found in India, Persia, and, later, Europe. Historical rules are in sources that are little-known in the West, such as Muhammad ibn Mahmud Amuli's 'Treasury of the Sciences', so when, in 1983, Lincoln historian David Reynolds came across a reference to the game being played in the Middle Ages and set about attempting to revive interest in it, he chose to draw up a new set of rules, based around those of orthodox chess. Since that time, the older rules of circular chess have become far better known. Historical Circular Chess Rules One set of rules for medieval circular chess is from the Persian author Amuli (1325). In this version, called shatranj al-muddawara (circular chess) or shatranj al-Rûmîya (Roman or Byzantine chess), the game uses a board with four concentric rings, each split into 16 spaces, for a total of 64 spaces. The game uses the same pieces as shatranj. The king and the counselor on the inner ring, next to each other. The next ring has the elephants, the next ring has the knights, and the last ring has the rooks. A single row of 4 pawns flanks each side of the central pieces. The king of one side "faces" the counselor of the other (a shorter Starting position for historical circular chess. Circular chess path is between the king of one side and the counselor of the other than between the kings of the two sides). Movement is the same as shatranj, except that, if two pawns from the same side, going in opposite directions, end up being blocked by each other, the opponent may remove both pieces, which does not use the opponent's turn. As there is no back row, there is no promotion. A stalemate is a victory for the stalemating player. A bare king is a loss for the player who only has the king left unless, in the next turn, the player can also impose a bare king, at which point the game is a draw. Citadel Chess A variant of this game attested by Amuli has two "citadel" spaces in the center of the board and a different starting setup. In the citadel game, if a king reaches the citadel, a draw is forced. 60 Modern Circular Chess Starting position for citadal chess. Rules The starting position is essentially obtained from that of orthodox chess by cutting the board in half and bending the two halves to join at the ends. Two lines are marked on opposite sides of the board, and each set of pieces is positioned so as to straddle this line. The king and queen start on the innermost ring, with, as is the case in square chess, the queen on a square of the same colour; the bishops start in the second ring from the centre, the knights on the third and the rooks on the outermost ring. The pawns are positioned in front of the pieces. The moves of the pieces are identical to those in orthodox chess; a queen or rook may, if it is not obstructed, move any distance round a ring, except that the "null move" of moving a piece all the way round the board and back to its original square is not permitted. A pawn is promoted after moving six squares from its initial position, to the square immediately before the opponent's starting line. Castling and en passant captures are not permitted. Announcing a check is not obligatory, and "snaffling" (winning the game immediately by capturing the opponent's king after he either moved into or failed to move out of check) is allowed and has on more than one occasion decided a world championship game. Starting position for modern circular chess. Theory Most textbooks on orthodox chess assign the pieces relative values of 9 points for a queen, 5 for a rook, 3 for a bishop or knight, and 1 for a pawn; although no attempt has been made to assign specific values for circular chess, it is certain that the same values do not hold. The values of the queen and rook are considerably augmented by their greater range - with two rooks or a queen and rook unobstructed on the same ring being especially powerful - while those of the bishop and knight are diminished; for example, on an 8 x 8 board two minor pieces are held to be stronger than a rook, but on a circular board the rook is considerably stronger. The minor pieces do, however, pose a significant danger value, as their moves are more difficult to visualise on the circular board and even strong players often fail to notice a threat. One of the major differences between orthodox and circular chess in practice is in the opening. In the former, opening theory has developed over several centuries, and the use of computer analysis has resulted in top level Circular chess games frequently not deviating from known theory until the 20th move or beyond; in the latter, there is virtually no opening theory, and consequently players are "on their own" from the first move. In orthodox chess, advancing the king's or queen's pawn are generally considered the best opening moves, as doing so attacks two key central squares, opens a diagonal to enable the development of a bishop, and, in the case of the king's pawn, the queen also. On a circular board these advantages are negated, as a king's or queen's pawn only attacks one square, and its advance only opens one square for the bishop. Some players advance the central pawns first anyway, while others prefer to advance the rooks' pawns in order to open lines of attack for the more powerful pieces; it is not known which move, if any, is objectively best. The different geometry of the square and circular boards creates considerable differences in endgame theory: three of the four "basic checkmates" on a square board (those with king and rook, king and two bishops or king, bishop and knight against a lone king) rely on forcing the defending king into the corner of the board, and thus are impossible on a circular board since it doesn't have corners. The "basic mates" in circular chess are thus those with king and queen, king, rook and minor piece or king and three minor pieces against a lone king. The greater tendency towards drawn endgames often results in the defender playing on in a position which would be considered cause for resignation on a square board. In one particular endgame, however, the circular board favours the attacker: with king and pawn against king, there is no stalemate defence and thus, unless the defending king can capture the pawn before it can be either promoted or defended, this endgame is always a win. So most rules are as in orthodox chess. 61 The World Championship Chess championship year 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Location Winner The Tap and Spile public house, Lincoln Rob Stevens, Lincoln Lincoln Lincoln Lincoln Lincoln Lincoln Bishop Edward King House, Lincoln Bishop Edward King House, Lincoln Lincoln Lincoln Cathedral Lincoln Castle The Tap & Spile public house, Lincoln Francis Bowers, Peterborough Francis Bowers, Peterborough Francis Bowers, Peterborough Herman Kok Francis Bowers, Peterborough David Howell Francis Bowers, Peterborough Francis Bowers, Peterborough Michael Jones, Lincoln Herman Kok Kevin McCarthy After experimenting with various possible layouts for the game, Reynolds decided on that pictured above, constructed a board and introduced the game to other players in Lincoln; it caught on, and in 1996 the Circular Chess Society was formed, with the aim of popularising circular chess, primarily by organising a tournament. Since it was not known to be played competitively anywhere else, its claim to the status of world championship was not contested, and thus it became. The inaugural tournament was held in the Tap and Spile public house in Lincoln in 1996; it was played as a knockout, with Lincoln player Rob Stevens beating Nottinghamshire's Mark Spink in the final. Subsequently the tournament has been held at different venues in Lincoln, usually under the Swiss system, and has been dominated by two players: Peterborough engineer Francis Bowers and Dutch businessman Herman Kok, who between them won eight of the following ten tournaments. Bowers took the title from 1997 to 1999, and remains not just the only player to have won the tournament three years in succession, but the only one to win on more than two occasions; Kok broke the sequence with victory in the 2000 tournament, before Bowers won again in Circular chess 2001. The 2002 World Championship, staged in Bishop Edward King House in Lincoln and sponsored by the Duke William Hotel, saw the only instance to date of the participation in the tournament of a player widely known outside the world of circular chess: David Howell, then aged 11 and having recently gained national publicity by becoming the youngest player to avoid defeat (at standard chess) against a reigning world champion, with a draw in the final game of his match against Vladimir Kramnik (having lost the other three games). Howell won the tournament, scoring a maximum 5 points after beating Bowers in the final round, although he commented afterwards "This is the first time I have played in a circular chess contest and it was difficult. Circular chess is a lot harder to play than square chess. Every time you or your opponent makes a move, you have to think about what is happening on the other side of the board.". Kok finished runner-up with 4½ points. The 2003 tournament was again held in Bishop Edward King House; sponsorship for it and the four subsequent tournaments came from Lindum Group. Howell did not return to defend his title (and has not played in the tournament since); Bowers gained his fifth title with victory over Kok in the last round to complete a 5/5 score, and Lincolnshire player David Carew, with 4½, finished second. Bowers repeated the feat the following year, again finishing with a win against Kok; Nottinghamshire's Mike Clark was the runner-up, with Stevens third and Kok and Carew among a group of six players in joint fourth place. In 2005 the Society gained extra publicity for the tournament by securing the chapter house of Lincoln Cathedral as the venue, only the day after the filming of The Da Vinci Code there had been completed (the cathedral was used to film scenes which, in the book, take place in Westminster Abbey, since the abbey had refused Columbia Pictures permission to film there); much of the film set was (and is) still in place. The draw for the first round of the tournament was conducted by Councillor Steve Allnutt, the Deputy Mayor of Lincoln, and Mrs Chris Noble, the City Sheriff; the two guests accepted an invitation to try the game for themselves, with the Sheriff emerging as the winner. In contrast to previous tournaments, the 2005 championship was held over four rounds rather than five; in the first Stevens drew with Bowers, to end the latter's run of ten consecutive wins in the tournament and leave Kok the favourite to take the title again. At the halfway point there were four players with maximum points - Kok, Hertfordshire's John Beasley, and tournament newcomers David Stamp and Michael Jones, both of Lincolnshire with Bowers on 1½ after surviving a scare to "snaffle" Carew in the second round. Kok beat Beasley in the third round, while Stamp and Jones remained in contention after both winning; Bowers also won, although, since the top four players would be drawn against each other in the final round, his chances of retaining his title were remote, relying on him winning his own game and the other being drawn to force a three-way playoff. The draw for the final round pitted Kok against Jones and Bowers against Stamp - in each case an experienced player against a tournament newcomer. The former game looked to be heading in Kok's favour before he blundered in time trouble and eventually lost on time, leaving Jones on 4/4 and Stamp needing to beat Bowers to force a tiebreak; he could only draw, so Jones finished the outright champion and Stamp runner-up with 3½. Bowers, Herman Kok, his son Robbie, Beasley and Clark tied for third place with 3 points each. The 2006 World Championship was held at Lincoln Castle, and was dedicated to regular competitor Charles Vermes of Derbyshire, who had died shortly before. The first round brought no surprise results - the only two of the main contenders to be drawn together were Clark and Stevens, with Clark emerging the winner; Jones, Herman Kok and Bowers all won. Clark beat Jones in the second round, at which point there remained five players on maximum points: Clark, Kok, Bowers, Lincolnshire's Richard Kidals and Ian Lewis of Cardiff. Lewis lost his third round game to tournament founder Reynolds, but the other four leaders all won, ensuring the need for a tiebreak unless one of the last round games was drawn; Kok beat Clark and Bowers beat Kidals to give them both the maximum 4 points, so the expected tiebreak game ensued. The game was close throughout, with Bowers eventually losing on time to give Kok the title - only the second player, after Bowers himself, to claim it more than once. The 2007 World Championship was held at The Tap & Spile in Lincoln, with Kevin McCarthy lifting the title after remaining unbeaten in his first ever tournament under Circular Rules, including a win against the legendary Herman 62 Circular chess Kok, who had taught him the rules only a fortnight previously. 63 External links • Circular Chess Software (Windows 95 - Windows 7) [1] • Circular Chess Software (Windows 3.x) [2] • An Open Source Online Circular Chess [3] References • The Circular Chess Society [4] • Historical roots [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. circularchess. com http:/ / www. ochess. com/ software. html http:/ / www. codeproject. com/ KB/ aspnet/ circular_chess. aspx http:/ / www. circularchess. co. uk/ http:/ / history. chess. free. fr/ byzantine. htm Alice chess Alice Chess is a chess variant invented in 1953 by V. R. Parton which employs two chessboards rather than one,[1] and a slight (but significant) alteration to the standard rules of chess. The game is named after the main character "Alice" in Lewis Carroll's book Through the Looking-Glass, where travel through the looking-glass is portrayed by the after-move transfer of chess pieces between boards A and B. Alice steps through the looking-glass; illustration by Sir John Tenniel The simple transfer rule is well known for causing disorientation and confusion in players new to the game, and often leads to surprises and amusing mistakes as pieces "disappear" and "reappear" between boards. This "nothing is as it seems" experience probably accounts for Alice Chess remaining Parton's most popular and successful invention among the numerous other chess variants he created in his lifetime. Alice chess 64 A B Move Rules In Alice Chess, pieces move the same as they do in standard chess, but a piece transfers at the completion of its move to the opposite board. This simple change causes a dramatic impact on gameplay. At the beginning of the game, pieces start in their normal positions on board A, while board B starts empty. After each move is made on a given board, the moved piece is transferred (goes "through the looking-glass") to the corresponding square on the opposite board. (So, if a piece is moved on board A, it is transferred to board B at the completion of its move; if the piece started on board B, it ends up on board A.) A Alice chess 65 B Position after 1. Nf3 e6 2. Ne5 Bc5 A B Position after 3. Nxf7 Bg1 For example, after the opening moves 1. Nf3 e6, the white knight and black pawn transfer after moving on board A to their corresponding squares on board B. If the game continued 2. Ne5 Bc5, the knight returns to board A and the bishop finishes on board B. (See diagram.) A move in Alice Chess has some stipulations: the move must be legal on the board on which it is played, and the square transferred to on the opposite board must be vacant. (As a result, capture is possible only on the board a piece sits on – pieces on board A can capture only pieces on board A; pieces on board B can capture only pieces on board Alice chess B. After a capture, the capturing piece transfers to the opposite board the same as a non-capturing move.) To demonstrate, if the above game continued 3. Nxf7, the knight transfers to board B. Then with Black to move, both 3... Kxf7 and 3... Bxf2+ are not possible. Black cannot play 3... Qd4 either, since the queen may not hop over the black pawn on d7. But the move 3... Bg1 is possible (see diagram), despite the fact a white pawn sits on f2 on board A. (The bishop move on board B is legal, and the square transferred to, g1 on board A, is vacant.) A final stipulation is that a king may not put itself into check upon transfer. (In other words, a king may not transfer to a vacant square on the opposite board, if this would result in check to the king.) Castling is largely regarded as permitted in Alice Chess. The en passant rule is normally not used, but can be.[2] 66 Early mates Alice Fool's Mate A B Alice Chess Fool's Mate Several exist, one is: 1. e4 d5 2. Be2 dxe4? 3. Bb5# (diagram). At first glance, it might seem that Black can simply interpose a piece between White's bishop and his king to block the check (for example, 3... Bd7 or 3... Nc6 or 3... c6). But any piece so interposed immediately "disappears" when it transfers to board B. And Black cannot escape check by fleeing to the opposite board via 3... Kd7, because the move is not a legal move on board A. Therefore it is checkmate. Another form of Fool's Mate: 1. e4 d6 2. Bc4 Qxd2? 3. Bb5# And another: 1. e4 e5 2. Qh5 Nf6? 3. Qxe5# Alice chess 67 Alice Scholar's Mate A B Alice Chess Scholar's Mate 1. e4 h5 2. Be2 Rh4 3. Bxh5 Rxe4+ 4. Kf1 d5 5. Qe2? (threatening 6. Qb5#) 5... Bh3# (diagram). 1. d4 e6 2. Qd6 Be7? 3. Qe5+ Kf8 4. Bh6# (Seitz–Nadvorney, 1973). Sample game Yearout vs Jelliss, 1996 A Alice chess 68 B Position after 11. 0-0-0 (Annotations by George Jelliss; moves returning to board A are notated "/A".) Paul Yearout vs George Jelliss, 1996 AISE Grand Prix: 1. d3 Nf6 2. Nc3 c5 3. Qd2 Nc6 (To give a direct check to the king the checking piece must come from the other board, so it is necessary first to transfer forces to the other board.) 4. d4/A Rb8 (This way of developing rooks is common in Alice Chess.) 5. e3 g5 (This prevents the Bc1 coming to g5 or f4.) 6. f4 Rbg8/A (Guarding Pg5 on the other board.) 7. Nd5/A h6 8. Nf3 gxf4/A (Inconsistent play on my part. Ne4/A now looks better to me.) 9. Bxf4 Rg4 10. Be5/A Rh5 11. 0-0-0 [diagram] (Perhaps judging that the activated black force now being on the second board the king might be safer there. The black queen is now effectively 'pinned': 11... Q-c7/b6?? 12. Qd8#.) 11... Ne4/A 12. Bc7 Ra4/A 13. Ba6 Bg7 (The idea is 14... Rc4+ 15. c3/Nc3 Bxc3+/A.) 14. Bb5/A Rc4+ 15. Kb1/A Rf5/A 16. Ba5/A (Desperate measures now needed to save the 'pinned' queen.) 16... Rxd5 17. Qxd5/A Qxa5 (Threatening 18... Qa1#.) 18. a3 Qd2/A 19. Qxd7+ Kf8 (I put these two moves in as an 'if...then' clause, but it seems Paul may not have noticed the discovered check, so perhaps I should have kept quiet!) 20. Qxg7/A Qc3 (Stops Qh8#.) 21. Rd8/A Black resigns (1–0) (If 21... Bd7/Be6/Nf6 22. Qg8/Re8/Qh8#.) Variations a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 8×4 version of Alice Chess Minor (and not-so-minor) rule modification has sprouted a number of different variations on Alice Chess. • Alice Chess 2 (SchemingMind.com [3]): the Black army starts out on the opposite board (board B). Alice chess • Ms. Alice Chess (John Ishkan, 1973): null or zero moves are permitted. (A move consisting of piece transfer only – from the current square a piece sits on, to the corresponding square, if vacant, on the opposite board.) • O'Donohue Chess (Michael O'Donohue, 2003): piece transfer to the opposite board isn't required, if the square normally transferred to is occupied. • Duo Chess (Jed Stone, 1981): Black starts out on board B; transfers are optional; non-pawn pieces may make zero moves (and may capture in so doing); a king is checked when an opposing piece sits on its zero square; mate must cover the king's ability to flee via a zero move. • Looking-Glass Chess (V. R. Parton, 1970): using two complete sets instead of one, and no transfers. (Thus two separate games on two boards.) A move on a given board forces a mirror-image move on the opposite board. (So, 1. Nf3 on board A forces White to play 1. Nc3 on board B.) • Parton also introduced a smaller, 8x4 version of Alice Chess. (See diagram.) • Parton observed that Alice Chess could be played using three boards instead of two. (Players then having a choice between two boards when transferring a piece.) • Alice Chess rules can really be adopted by practically any other chess variant too, by simply doubling the number of gameboards in the variant and applying the Alice piece transfer policy. (For example, Raumschach using two 5×5×5 boards.) 69 Notes [1] Since the rules disallow a given square to be occupied on both boards simultaneously, it is possible to play Alice Chess using one board only, placing checkers under pieces to indicate they are on board B. A similar technique can be used in computer displays or with pocket–magnetic sets, by turning pieces upside-down instead of using checkers. [2] Unlike standard chess, capturing en passant may not always be possible in Alice, for example, when the normal capture-square is already occupied by another piece. [3] http:/ / www. SchemingMind. com References • Pritchard, D. B. (2007), The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants, John Beasley, ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1 External links • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www.chessvariants.org/other.dir/alice.html) Alice Chess article by Edward Jackman and Fergus Duniho • BCVS Variant Chess website (http://www.bcvs.ukf.net/alice.htm) Alice Chess article by George Jelliss • SchemingMind.com (http://www.schemingmind.com/journalarticle.aspx?article_id=9&page=1) Alice Chess article by Michael J. Farris • SchemingMind.com (http://www.schemingmind.com) Alice Chess online correspondence play • ChessVariants.org (http://play.chessvariants.org/pbm/presets/alice_chess.html) Alice Chess PBM Game Courier • pathguy.com (http://www.pathguy.com/chess/AliceChs.htm) a simple Alice Chess program by Ed Friedlander Hexagonal chess 70 Hexagonal chess The term hexagonal chess designates a group of chess variants played on hexagonal boards. The most popular one is Gliński's hexagonal chess which was invented in 1936 by Władysław Gliński of Poland. Gliński's hexagonal chess Gliński's hexagonal chess is the most popular hexagonal chess variant. At one point in time, there were more than half-a-million players, and over 130,000 board sets have been sold.[1] The game was very popular in Eastern Europe, especially in Poland, Gliński's native country. The game is played on a hexagonal board having three colors (light, dark, and medium), with the middle cell (or hex) usually medium.[2] The usual set of chess pieces is increased by one bishop and one pawn. The board has 11 files, marked by letters a –l (letter j is not used), and 11 ranks (which bend 120° at file f). Ranks 1–6 each contain 11 cells, rank 7 (filled with black pawns in the initial setup) has 9 cells, rank 8 has 7, and so on. Rank 11 contains only one cell: f11. The diagrams below show how the pieces Starting position for Gliński's hexagonal chess move. As in chess, the knight can jump over other pieces. Three bishops on different colors can never meet. The queen moves as rook plus bishop. There is no castling in Gliński's hexagonal chess. King Knight Hexagonal chess 71 Bishop Rook Queen Pawn Pawns move straight forward and capture orthogonally to an adjacent square (shown as red circles on the diagram above); the pawn's capturing move direction does not correspond to the bishop's move, as is the case in square chess. All pawns can make a double step from their starting hexes. If a pawn captures from its starting hex in such a way that it now occupies a starting hex of another pawn, it can still make a double move. For example, if the pawn on e4 would capture a black piece on f5, it still has the option to move to f7. , The Pawn in the middle file (hex f5 for White) cannot make a double step on initial setup as the hex is occupied (a black Pawn is placed on f7), but the double step move could be done later, as long as the hex is empty. En passant captures are also possible: for example, if the black pawn on c7 on the diagram above moves to c5, the white pawn on b5 can capture it: bxc6. Pawns promote on the last hex of a file; the hexes where white pawns promote are marked with stars. Stalemate is not a draw in this chess variant, but is still counted less than checkmate. In tournament games, the stalemated player (the one who cannot make any legal moves) earns 0.25 points and the player who delivers stalemate 0.75 points. A numeric (or international) notation exists. Every other detail is exactly as in ICCF numeric notation, except that there is no castling. Hexagonal chess 72 Dateline in Glinski's hexagonal chess 1976 June: First Hexagonal Chess Congress at Bloomsbury Centre Hotel, London, which included the inauguration of the British Hexagonal Chess Federation and the first British Hexagonal Chess Championship. David Springgay took the title. December: First issue of "Hex Press" (Hexagonal Chess News) published. 1977 Hexagonal Chess was topic for many newspapers and magazines in Poland and other Eastern European countries. December: Second British Championship held at Clifton-Ford Hotel, London. Brian Rippon took the title. 1978 January: Inventor visited Poland. Successful Hexagonal Chess event staged. Wide publicity in Eastern Europe. `Wspolna Sprawa' produced and distributed over 90,000 inexpensive sets in 18 months. September: First International Team Match – Poland vs. G.V. at Central Hall, Westminster, London. Event shown on BBC and Australian TV, reported in press at home and abroad – including Japan. 1979 July: Third British Championship held at Polish Cultural Institute, London. Title taken by Simon Triggs, nearly 16 years old. August: Return International Team Match – Poland vs. G.B. in Warsaw. Sponsored by magazine "Horyzonty Technikili" (which includes a regular column on Hexagonal Chess). Whilst in Poland, Simon Triggs played the first mixed (6 square and 6 hexagonal boards) simultaneous display. Hexagonal Chess clubs formed in Poland, Czechoslovakia and USSR. 1980 August: International Congress at Polish Cultural Institute, London, which included: Inauguration of Internatienal Hexagonal Chess Federation First European Championship Team Match: Poland v G.B. Countries taking part: Austria, Great Britain, Hungary and Poland. Event covered by BBC TV and newspapers at home and abroad, including USSR ("Komsomolskaya Pravda" – 10,500,000 circulation), Austria and Hungary. Also radio in USA. First four places: 1: Marek Mackowiak (Poland), 2: Laszlo Rudolf (Hungary), 3: Jan Borawski (Poland), 4: Piers Shepperson (G.B.). 1981 September: First Hungarian Hexagonal Chess Championship in Szekszard. Title taken by Laszlo Sziraki. Fourth British Championship held at Woodford Bridge, Essex. Local and National press coverage, including picture in "The Times". Four players tied for first place. Final playoff arranged for October. October: Playoff held in association with the North London (square-board) Congress, when Simon Triggs retained his title. 1982 April: Second Hungarian Championship held in Miscolc. Laszlo Rudolf became the Hungarian Champion for 1982. June: Final agreement and arrangements completed with "Bohemia" in West Germany regarding production of a new complete Hexagonal Chess boxed game with roll-up double-sided board (hexagonal/square) and wooden pieces to be distributed in the West European market. July: An open Hexagonal Chess Tournament was held on 10th and llth July in the famous Sokolniki Park in Moscow. Players from Moscow and elsewhere in t in the USSR took part in the competition. First place and the "Moscow Trophy" were taken by F. Goncharov. Second was S. Seryubin and Third V. Goltyapin. Judging from the reports received, this tournament has considerably accelerated the development and popularity of Hex Chess in the USSR. Further tournaments, including international team matches (over-the-board and correspondence) are being organized. Open International Tournament held in Pecs, Hungary, 24 – 31 July. This tournament was organized by the President of the Hungarian Hexagonal Chess Association, Mihaly Gelencser, and sponsored by the Zsolnay Hexagonal chess porcelain factory in Pecs, which also donated the "Zsolnay Cup" as well as other prizes of porcelain figures. The winner of the Tournament was Laszlo Rudolf (Hungary). Second place was taken by Simon Triggs (Great Britain). September: Fifth British Championship held in London. Simon Triggs (19) of Garston, Hertfordshire, won the title of British Hexagaonal Chess Champion for the third time in succession. Press Association attended and wrote lengthy background. All the "quality newspapers" took photographs. LBC Radio and BBC Radio London broadcast interviews. 73 McCooey's hexagonal chess Dave McCooey and Richard Honeycutt developed another variation of hexagonal chess.[3] It is very similar to Glinski's version, but there are four differences: the starting array, the pawn's capturing moves, the Pawns on f-file cannot make a double step, and that stalemate is a draw, each player gets half a point. See the diagram on the left for the pawn's move in McCooey's variant. Note that the capturing move corresponds to the bishop's move. The white pawn on d5 can capture the black pawn on e8 en passant in case the black pawn advances to e6. The pawn on the f-file is not allowed to advance two steps, and is not defended in the opening array, which in fact allows a smothered mate when captured by a knight. But this rarely occurs in practical play. These endgame studies apply to Glinski's, McCooey's and Mathewson's games:[4] • King & two knights can checkmate a lone king. • King & rook beats king & knight (no fortress draws and a negligible number (0.0019%) of perpetual check draws). • King & rook beats king & bishop (no fortress draws and no perpetual check draws). • King & two bishops cannot checkmate a lone king, except for some very rare positions (0.17%). • King, knight & bishop cannot checkmate a lone king, except for some very rare position (0.5%). McCooey's hexagonal chess, starting position Hexagonal chess • King & queen does not beat king & rook: 4.3% of the positions are perpetual check draws, and 37.2% are fortress draws. • King & rook can checkmate a lone king. 74 The pawn's move Shafran's hexagonal chess Invented by Soviet geologist Isaak Grigorevich Shafran in 1939 and registered in 1956. It was demonstrated at the Worldwide Chess Exhibition in Leipzig in 1960. The board is shaped like an irregular hexagon with nine files and ten ranks. There are 70 hexes in the board, as opposed to 91 in Glinski's and McCooey's versions. The files are labelled a to i; the straight lines running from 10 to 4 o'clock are numbered 1 to 10. In the diagram, the two kings start on e1 and e10; Black's rooks start on a6 and i10; White's rooks start on a1 and i5. The hex i1 does not exist. Each player calls the left-hand side of the board his queen's flank and the right-hand side his bishops' flank; note that they do not match (White's queen's flank is Black's bishops'). The pieces and pawns move and capture exactly like McCooey's. However, a pawn's Shafran's hexagonal chess, starting position first move can take him to the middle of his file. This means that the a- and i-pawns advance only one step, and the d-, e-, and f-pawns may make a triple move. If they do they are subject to be captured en passant. Hexagonal chess 75 On the diagram of the left, the black pawn d8 has three possible moves, but none is safe; after 1.. d7 it can be captured 2. exd7; after 1... d6 it can be captured 2. exd7e.p. or 2. cxd7; after 1... d5 it can be captured en passant by either pawn. Castling is possible in Shafran's chess. The usual restrictions apply. It can be long or short in either direction. The notation consists of Q- or B- (indicating whether the queen's or the bishops' rook is used) followed by 0-0-0 (long castling: the king moves next to the rook and the rook jumps over him) or 0-0 (short castling, the opposite procedure). In the diagram, the black king on h10 has castled long queenside (1... Q-0-0-0) and the one on c8 has castled short bishopside (1... B-0-0). Castling does not really increase the king's safety or make the rook more active, but it is present in the game nonetheless, for completeness. Castling and en passant Finally, stalemate is a draw. Other hexagonal chess variants The first published hexagonal chess variant was the commercial game Hexagonia.[1] It was invented in 1864 by John Jaques & Son. The board had 125 cells; each side had the king, 2 cannons, 4 knights and 8 pawns. In 1998 Derick Peterson invented the Grand Hexachess. In this variant the board is placed horizontally, placing each player's pieces to opposite sides. Pawns then have two forward possible moves (forward left and forward right) and three diagonal capturing movements possible (one directly in front). Precisely this was the motivation for this design, considering the fact that usually hexagonal chess pawn is the only piece that does not increase their mobility. C'escacs 2007 is a Grand Glinski chess of 169 hexes.[5] It introduces a dragon (chancellor), two pegasi (cardinal, archbishop) and two almogavars to the Glinski's set. Pawn's moves are increased to allow forward 60° moves, and captures are the same way McCooey's chess. The scornful pawn capture additional rule counterbalances the excessive pawn mobility. Multiplayer hexagonal chess variants Multiplayer chess variants have existed since the beginning of the game, as chaturaji was a four-player version of chaturanga. Multiplayer chess introduces a diplomacy factor, turning the game into a quite a different one from two-player chess. In 1984, Ronald Planesi invented the ImmortalStarMasters game. It is a chess or checkers variant for two to six players played on a hexagonal board.[6] . The original 1984 name of this game was Kingmaster., however, due to the U.S. Copyright Office's lack of support for title copyright protection, and asserted infringement, the name was changed. The board in this game is significantly larger than in Glinski hexagonal chess in order to accommodate six players and placed in a such a way that each side of a large hexagon may be occupied by one of six players. Pieces are arranged essentially along traditional lines (bishops and knights exchange places to account for the hexagon variation) and one extra bishop is added so all spaces on the board are covered by bishops (a ninth pawn is also added to "seal" the third bishop within the initial structure). All pieces except pawn move in the same way as in Glinski hexagonal chess. The pawn moves and captures similar to McCooey's chess, but within an individual territory a pawn can move in two forward directions and capture in three directions (one directly forward direction and two diagonally-forward directions), due Hexagonal chess to the particular orientations of a hexagon. In the central area pawns can move and capture in any direction. Napoleonesque methods of play include two players each using three sets of pieces or three players each using two sets of pieces. The primary structural difference between ImmortalStarMasters and the listed hexagonal variants, other than the critical size of the board, is that the listed variants all allow a bishop to exit the initial structure as its first move without movement by any pawns whatsoever (concurrently meaning that a bishop is unprotected by any pawns and subject to immediate attack without the prior movement of a protecting pawn), which is an extreme violation of basic chess structure logic. A two-player version uses essentially the same rules and can use the same board, but a smaller board is available and recommended for closer adherence to "number of pieces versus available space" (powers of force) considerations to match the "difficulty of play" as related to standard square-based chess. 76 Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Pritchard, D. (2000). Popular Chess Variants. Batsford Chess Books. ISBN 0-7134-8578-7. Wladyslow Gliński. Rules of Hexagonal Chess. ISBN 0-904195-00-7. McCooey's Hexagonal Chess (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ hexagonal. dir/ hexchess2. html) by Dave McCooey. Endgame analysis for Hexagonal Chess (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ hexagonal. dir/ hexendgame. html) by Dave McCooey "C'escacs" (http:/ / cescacs. orgfree. com/ ). . ImmortalStarMasters (http:/ / www. immortalstarmasters. com) by Ronald D. Planesi External links • Hexagonal chess computer software (http://www.hexagonalchess.com) • Gliński's Hexagonal Chess (http://www.chessvariants.org/hexagonal.dir/hexagonal.html) by Hans L. Bodlaender • Hexagonal Chess by I G Shafran (http://www.math.bas.bg/~iad/tyalie/shegra/shegrax.html) by Ivan A Derzhanski • Rules (http://world.altavista.com/babelfish/trurl_pagecontent?lp=ru_en&trurl=http://www.loktev.h1.ru/ hexachess/rules.php) Russian page translated to English via Alta Vista • Scatha (http://www.glaurungchess.com/) a free GUI and engine for Mac OS which plays Glinski's Hexagonal Chess • e2–e4 (http://lutecium.org/stp/cochonfucius/e2e4.html) a bilingual comment on having three kinds of bishops Three-dimensional chess 77 Three-dimensional chess Not to be confused with chess software with a 3D rendering. Further information: Chess (disambiguation) E D C B A White to move and mate in 4 by Udo Marks Three-dimensional chess (or 3D chess) is any of various chess variants played on three-dimensional boards. Three-dimensional variants have existed since the late 19th century, one of the oldest being Raumschach (German for "Space chess"), invented in 1907 by Dr. Ferdinand Maack and considered the classic 3D game.[1] Maack founded a Raumschach club in Hamburg in 1919, which remained active until World War II. Chapter 25 of Pritchard's The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants discusses games using boards with three or more dimensions and contains some 50 such variations. And chapter 11 covers variants using multiple boards normally set side by side ("such games can also be considered as examples of three-dimensional chess" — Beasley).[2] Raumschach Raumschach starting position Three-dimensional chess 78 E D C B A An inverted knight is used to represent the unicorn. The pawn on Bd2 can move to squares marked "●" and capture on squares marked "x". The inventor contended that for chess to be more like modern warfare, attack should be possible not only from a two-dimensional plane but also from above (air) and below (underwater). Maack's original formulation was for an 8×8×8 board, but after experimenting with smaller boards eventually settled on 5×5×5 as best. The Raumschach 3D board can be thought of as a cube sliced into five equal spaces across each of its three major coordinal planes. This sectioning yields a 5×5×5 (125-cell) playing volume. The horizontal levels are denoted by capital letters A through E. Ranks and files of a level are denoted using algebraic notation. White starts on the A and B levels and Black starts on E and D. (So, the kings begin on squares Ac1 and Ec5.) Other obvious physical differences from chess include two additional pawns per player, and a special piece (two per player) named unicorn. Move Rules Rooks, bishops, and knights move as they do in chess in any given plane. Rooks, for example, move through the walls of the cubes in any Raumschach board rank, file or column. Bishops move through the edges of the cubes, and knights make a (0,1,2) leaping move (the same effect as one step as a rook and one as a bishop). Unicorns move in a manner special to a 3D space (called triagonal movement) through the corners of the cubes. (Thus each unicorn can reach only 30 cubes; each player's pair, 60.) The queen combines the moves of a rook, bishop, and unicorn. The king moves the same as a queen but one step at a time. Pawns move forward as in chess, or one step directly upward (for White) or downward (for Black). Pawns capture diagonally as in chess, including one step upward (White) or downward (Black) through a front or side cube edge. Promotion occurs where pawns cannot move further, namely the rank E5 (for White's pawns) and rank A1 (Black's pawns). Three-dimensional chess There is no pawn initial two-square advance, no en passant capture, and no castling. White moves first, and the object is still to checkmate the opposing king. 79 Star Trek Tri-Dimensional Chess 3D chess on Star Trek The Tri-D chessboard Playing Parmen Probably the most familiar 3D[3] chess variant to the general public in the middle 20th and early 21st centuries is the game of Tri-Dimensional Chess (or Tri-D Chess), which can be seen in many Star Trek TV episodes and movies, starting with the original series (TOS) and proceeding in updated forms throughout the subsequent movies and spinoff series.[4] [5] The game even assumed a fairly significant role in the TOS episode "Court Martial". (Captain Kirk is put on trial for negligence in the death of a crew member. Spock, who had programmed the Enterprise's computer to be unbeatable at the game, plays five matches with the computer and easily wins each one, proving the machine—the source of seemingly irrefutable evidence confirming Kirk's guilt—had been tampered with, thereby destroying its credibility in its account of the incident.) Three-dimensional chess 80 Notes [1] Pritchard (2007), p. 229 [2] Pritchard (2007), p. 93 [3] An ongoing discussion is whether Star Trek Chess is really three-dimensional or not, as its structure is something in between 2D and 3D. But since a third coordinate is needed to describe the position of the pieces, it is known by many as "3D Chess". [4] Pritchard (2007), p. 226 [5] There is some discussion whether this game should be called "Tri-Dimensional Chess" as in the Star Trek Star Fleet Technical Manual (Franz Joseph 1975, p. T0:03:98:3x) or "Three-Dimensional Chess" as in The Star Trek Encyclopedia (Okuda 1994, p. 342) and as on Memory Alpha. References • Pritchard, D. B. (2007), The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants, John Beasley, ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1 • Franz Joseph Schnaubelt (1975), Star Trek Star Fleet Technical Manual, ISBN 0-345-34074-4 • Okuda, Denise; Okuda, Michael; & Mirek, Debbie (1997), The Star Trek Encyclopedia, Pocket Books, ISBN 0-671-53607-9 • Abstract Games (Issue 14 Summer 2003), Carpe Diem Publishing, ISSN 1492-0492 External links • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www.chessvariants.org/index/mainquery.php?type=Any&category=3d& orderby=LinkText&displayauthor=1&displayinventor=1&usethisheading=Three+Dimensional) Three Dimensional (index) Raumschach • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www.chessvariants.org/3d.dir/3d5.html) Raumschach article by Bruce Balden and Hans Bodlaender • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www.chessvariants.org/3d.dir/555.html) 3D Chess FAQ by David Moeser Star Trek Tri-Dimensional Chess • Tri-D Chess Rules site of Andrew Bartmess (http://www.yestercade.net/tactical.htm) commercial site; history of Standard Rules • Star Trek 3D Chess Rules site of Charles Roth (http://www.thedance.net/~roth/TECHBLOG/chess.html) free summary of Standard Rules • 3D Chess site of Jens Meder (http://home.arcor.de/jens.meder/3dschach/indexe.html) in English; Tri-D Chess Tournament Rules, boards, and more • 3D Chess site of Michael Klein (http://www.3dschach.de/start_.asp) in English; collection of Tournament Rules games, and more • Parmen site of Doug Keenan (http://www.parmen.com) free Tri-D Chess for Windows; supports Standard and Tournament rulesets according to posted sample games • fzort.org (http://www.fzort.org/mpr/projects/vulcan/) Vulcan open source Tri-D Chess program ("inspired by Star Trek") • Three-dimensional chess (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memoryalpha:three-dimensional_chess) at Memory Alpha (a Star Trek wiki) • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www.chessvariants.org/3d.dir/startrek.html) 3D Chess from Star Trek by article Hans Bodlaender Cubic chess 81 Cubic chess Vernon Rylands Parton (1897–1974) was an English chess enthusiast and prolific chess variant inventor, his most renowned variant being Alice Chess.[1] Many of Parton's variants were inspired by the fictional characters and stories in the works of Lewis Carroll. Parton's formal education background, like Lewis Carroll's, was in mathematics.[2] I have distinct memories of sitting on his knee and listening to these [Lewis Carroll] stories, and not a book in sight. He had a favorite uncle, who was blind, and Vern was content to escort him around. Vern never wanted to benefit financially from his work, but asked only for a contribution to charities for the blind. — Peter Parton[2] Parton wrote a series of nine monographs published from 1961 to 1974 detailing his inventions. Parton died at age 77 on 31 December 1974. The same year, variant inventor Philip M. Cohen created the variant Parton Chess in his honor. V. R. Parton demonstrating 3D chess to a reporter for The Birmingham Post, 1957 Cubic Chess In this 6×6×6 3D variant by Parton, boards are denoted A (bottom level) through F (top level). Each side has six pieces: king (K), queen (Q), bishop (B), unicorn (U), knight (N), and rook (R); and twelve pawns.[3] Game rules Pieces move the same as in Raumschach, except that pawns move and capture one step forward (either orthogonally, diagonally, or triagonally), but not directly upward or downward. As in chess and Raumschach, the objective is checkmate. • White's starting position: KAa1, QAb1, BAc1, UAd1, NAe1, RAf1; pawns on Aa2–f2 and Ba1–f1 • Black's starting position: KAf6, QAe6, BAd6, UAc6, NAb6, RAa6; pawns on Aa5–f5 and Ba6–f6 Cubic Chess gameboard Cubic chess 82 Variation Parton made a variation of Cubic Chess for the same gameboard: In Compulsion Cubic Chess, capture is compulsory, there are no checks, and the object is capture of the opposing king. Mad Threeparty Chess a 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Mad Threeparty Chess starts on an empty board This variant is for three[4] players on a 10×10 board. Each player has a standard set of pieces in his own color, including an extra king,[5] but no pawns. Rules The board starts empty. Players take turns, in clockwise rotation around the board, placing one of their pieces on any vacant square. Kings are placed last, but must not be placed in check. The two kings of each player are marked differently. (For example, of a player's two kings, one might be marked with a star.) Each player attacks the marked king of the opponent to his left, and the unmarked king of the opponent to his right. It is not permitted to check the opponents' other kings. The Mad Hatter's tea party; illustration by Sir John Tenniel The first player to checkmate a king wins the game. Chess variants by V. R. Parton • Checkers Chess (1950s) • Decimal Four-Handed Chess (1950s) • Idle Kings' Chess (1950s) Cubic chess • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Nightrider Chess (1950s) Scaci Partonici (1950s) Rettah Chess (1952) Decimal Rettah Chess (1952) Double Rettah Chess (1952) Tweedle Chess (or Twin Orthodox Chess) (1952) Alice Chess (1953) Kinglet Chess (or Imperial Fiddlesticks) (1953) Neutral King Chess (1953) No-Retreat Chess (1954), co-inventor J. Boyer Black & White Chess (1955) Degraded Chess (1958) Contramatic Chess (1961) Complete Contramatic Chess (1961) Damate (1961) Dunce's Chess (1961) Gryphon Chess (or Complicacious Chess) (1961) Jabberwocky (1961) Knightmare Chess (1961) Linear Chess (1961) Racing Kings (1961) Scacia (1961) Royal Scaci Partonici (1961) Simpleton Chess (1961) Twin Chess (1961) Unirexal Chess (1961) Chimaera Chess (1969) Mock Chess (1969) Ambi-Chess (1970) Butters (1970) Best Decimal Butter (1970) Blot-Straight Chess (1970) Capricorn Chess (1970) Centaur Royal (1970) Cheshire Cat Chess (1970) Co-Regal Chess (1970) Cubic Chess (1970) Demigorgon Chess (1970) Dodo Chess (1970) Ecila (1970) Gorgona Chess (1970) Identific (1970) Looking-Glass Chess (1970) Mad Threeparty Chess (1970) Meddlers' Chess (1970) 83 • Semi-Queen Chess (1970) • Sphinx Chess (1970) Cubic chess • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Timur's Cubic Chess (1970) Wyvern Chess (1970) Circean (1971) Dabbabante Chess (1971) Decimal Oriental Chess (1971) Imitante Queen Chess (1971) Synchronistic Chess (1971) Royal Fury (1972) 2000 A.D. (1972) Gorgon Chess (1973) Megasaur Chess (1973) Mimotaur Chess (1973) Rangers Chess (1973) Triscacia (1974) 84 Checkers variants by V. R. Parton • Good-for-Nothings • Dragon • Kinger, Simple Kinger, and Grand Kinger Monographs by V. R. Parton (with section headings) Curiouser and Curiouser, (1961), 31 pp. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Scacetic The First Lesson in Chess Dunce's Chess in Three Grades Imperial Fiddlesticks The Queen's Relations The Dodo's Chess Rettah Simpletonry Alician The Black King's Complaint Tweedledee and Tweedledum Mock Turtle's Pseudomprphy Damification A New Pudding Podospherism Contramatic The Rules According to the March Hare Knightmares Gryphon's Fancy and Fun The Realm of Circum Morus The Caterpillar's Idea of C.C.C. Challenge and Delight of Chessical and Decimal, (1970), 14 pp. Chesshire-Cat-Playeth Looking-Glass Chessys, (1970), 27 pp. • The Queen of Hearts' Chess Cubic chess • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Capricorn Chess The Black King's Complaint The Rules According to the March Hare Identific Synchronistic Chess Jabberwocky Chess Dodo Chess The Chesshire Cat's Grin Scaci Partonici A Chess Reflection Demigorgons The Mad Tea Party Knightmares Scaci Partonici 85 Chessical Cubism or Chess in Space, (1971), 16 pp. • Cubic Chess • Tamerlane Variation of Cubic Chess • Sphinxian Chess • The Compulsion Sphinx Chess Variations • Ecila Chess 100 Squares for Chess + Damante, (1972), 16 pp. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Capablancan Chess Decimal Falcon-Hunter (Schulz Chess) Half-Queen's Chess Decimal Oriental CHess Decimal Imitante Q Chess Centaur Royal Damate Game Damatic Chess Decimal Duffer's Chess Wyvern Chess Dabbabante Chess Decimal Butter Decimal Obstacles Chess Chimaera Gorgona Circean Ambi-Chess Decimal Scaci Partonici My Game for 2000 A.D. and After, (1972), 12 pp. Enduring Spirit of Dasapada, (1973), 19 pp. • Dasapada Idea for a Personal Game, (1973), 12 pp. • The Basis of Pawn Partonici • The Idea of Scaci Partonici Chessery for Duffer and Master, (1974), 23 pp. Cubic chess • • • • • • • • Chessery for Duffer and Master The Game of Rettah Chess Semi-Queen Chess The Diversion of Zerta Meddlers Chess Game The Alice Chess Game The Idea of Gryphon Chess Royal Fury 86 Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] Pritchard (1994), p. 3 AG8 (2001), p. 9 Pritchard (1994), p. 77 "What are you threee doing?" asked Alice. "We're going to have a Mad Three party" explained the Mad Hatter. Alice thought he must have meant "tea party". "Can I join you please in this party?" she asked politely, and with much curiousity over this painting with jam. "No, you can't" said the March Hare rather impolitely. "If you join, then it would be a Four party instead." Chesshire-Cat-Playeth Looking-Glass Chessys, Parton (1970), p. 6 [5] "Each player has two Kings!" replied the Hatter very crossly at Alice's ignorance in this matter. "It is home-made plain cake commonsense. One of your opponents attacks one of your kings and the other attacks the other. That is quite easy to understand. If you had only a single king it would get too complicated when both of your opponents attacked the same king." He added with a glare of annoyance at Alice's obvious doubt about that point. "If they had only one teapot they would have to halve it, and what use is half a teapot? You seem as stupid as the Dormouse!" Chesshire-Cat-Playeth Looking-Glass Chessys, Parton (1970), p. 7 References • Pritchard, D. B. (1994), The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants, Games & Puzzles Publications, ISBN 0-9524142-0-1 • Peter Parton, "Reflections on Vernon Rylands Parton", Abstract Games (Issue 8 Winter 2001), Carpe Diem Publishing, ISSN 1492-0492 External links • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www.chessvariants.org/parton/parton.html) Vernon Rylands Parton (1897–1974) • BrainKing.com (http://brainking.com/en/GameRules?tp=125) play Racing Kings online Flying chess 87 Flying chess Flying chess is a chess variant, based around a three dimensional board. It was invented by Dr David Eltis (a noted historian of the Military Revolution) in 1984. Rules The board used for Flying chess is 8 * 8 * 2, giving a 128 cell board. There can either be markers on 'flying' pieces or a second board can be used for the upper level. All pieces start the game as per a standard chess game. Most commonly, two, adjacent chess boards are used, one representing the Top tier, and the other, the bottom tier. Moves Kings, Queens, and Pawns may not go to the higher level. They move as in standard chess, but can also capture an enemy piece that is flying on the square directly above them. Rooks are among the three pieces that can 'fly'. They can move on, to, and from the higher level. A rook can make a normal move on any of the two levels: note that the squares it passes over must be empty on the level he moves in. Additionally, a rook can go up when moving on the ground level by making a normal move and then moving diagonally up in the direction the rook moves. They also can go up directly one level. The only way a rook can go down from the upper to the lower level is to directly move one square down. Bishops are also among the three pieces that can 'fly'. A bishop can make a standard move on any of the two levels. It can make a normal move on the higher level and then descend diagonally in the direction of movement, or go up from a ground square to the upper level square directly above it, or go down from an upper level square to the ground square immediately below it. Knights are the third type of 'flying' piece. A knight can either make a normal move in any level, or a knight can move in the upper level combined with a direct descend. Taking All pieces take in the same way as they move. Additionally, each piece can headbutt; when he is in a square on the lower level and a piece of the opponent is in the same square in the upper level, he can take that piece without moving. References • Pritchard, D. B. (2007), The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants, John Beasley, p. 226, ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1 External links • Flying chess [1] References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ 3d. dir/ flying. html Dragonchess 88 Dragonchess Dragonchess is a three-dimensional fantasy chess variant created by Gary Gygax, co-creator of the famed role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons.[1] Dragonchess was first presented in 1985 in issue No. 100 of Dragon Magazine. The Dragonchess gameboard consists of three vertically-stacked 12×8 levels. The upper level (blue and white) represents the air, the middle level (green and amber) represents the land, and the lower level (red and brown) is the subterranean world (Gygax 1985:34). The Dragonchess game pieces (42 per player) are an ensemble of characters and monsters inspired or derived from fantasy settings in Dungeons & Dragons. Intricate inter- and intra-level game piece capabilities are defined. As in chess, the game is won by delivering checkmate to the enemy king. Gary Gygax The Dragonchess 3D gameboard Dragonchess 89 Upper board The Sylph (S) On level 3: • can move one step diagonally forward, or capture one step straight forward;[2] • can capture on the square directly below on level 2. On level 2: can move to the square directly above on level 3, or to one of the player's six Sylph starting squares. The Griffon (G) Upper board starting position On level 3: • can move and capture by jumping[3] in the following pattern: two steps diagonally followed by one step orthogonally outward;[4] • can move and capture one step triagonally to level 2.[5] On level 2: • can move and capture one step diagonally; • can move and capture one step triagonally to level 3.[6] Dragonchess 90 The Dragon (R) Bound to level 3: • can move and capture any number of unobstructed steps diagonally, or one step orthogonally;[7] • can capture remotely (without leaving level 3) on the square directly below on level 2, or on any square orthogonally adjacent to that square. Middle board The Warrior (W) Bound to level 2: • can move one step straight forward, or capture one step diagonally foward;[8] • promotes to Hero when reaching the 8th rank. The Oliphant (O) Bound to level 2: can move and capture any number of unobstructed steps orthogonally.[9] Middle board starting position The Unicorn (U) Bound to level 2: can move and capture the same as a chess knight. The Hero (H) On level 2: • can move and capture one or two unblockable steps diagonally; • can move and capture one step triagonally to levels 1 or 3.[6] [5] On levels 1 and 3: can move and capture one step triagonally to the same square on level 2 the Hero previously left. Dragonchess 91 The Thief (T) Bound to level 2: can move and capture any number of unobstructed steps diagonally.[10] The Cleric (C) On level 2: • can move and capture one step in any direction;[11] • can move and capture to the square directly above or directly below on an adjacent level. On levels 1 and 3: the same powers as when on level 2. The Mage (M) On level 2: • can move and capture any number of unobstructed steps diagonally or orthogonally;[12] • can move and capture to the square directly below on level 1 or directly above on level 3. On levels 1 and 3: • can move one step orthogonally;[13] • can move and capture one or two steps directly above or directly below to one of the other levels.[14] The King (K) On level 2: • can move and capture one step in any direction;[11] • can move and capture to the square directly below on level 1 or directly above on level 3; On levels 1 and 3: can move to (only) the same square on level 2 the King previously left.[13] The Paladin (P) On level 2: • can move and capture as a chess king+knight; • can move to levels 1 or 3 using an (unblockable) knight-like move: one level up or down followed by two steps orthogonally. On levels 1 and 3: • can move and capture one step in any direction;[11] • can move to the other levels using an (unblockable) knight-like move: one level up or down followed by two steps orthogonally, or two levels up or down followed by one step orthogonally. Dragonchess 92 Lower board The Dwarf (D) On level 1: • can move one step straight forward or sideways, or capture one step diagonally foward; • can capture on the square directly above on level 2. On level 2: • can move one step straight forward or sideways, or capture one step diagonally foward; • can move to the square directly below on level 1. Lower board starting position The Basilisk (B) Bound to level 1: • can move one step diagonally forward or straight backward, or capture one step straight forward; • always freezes (immobilizes) an enemy piece on the square directly above on level 2. The Elemental (E) On level 1: • can move and capture one or two steps orthogonally;[14] • can move one step diagonally; • can capture in the following pattern: one step orthogonally followed by the square directly above on level 2.[14] On level 2: • can move and capture in the following pattern: the square directly below on level 1 followed by one step orthogonally. Dragonchess 93 Notation Recording moves is done the same as in algebraic notation for chess, extended to a 12×8 board, with the addition of a numeric prefix (1, 2, or 3) in front of each square coordinate to idenfity the level.[15] (So for example, Black's king starts on 2g8.) Sample game 1. Rx3a7 Rx3a2 2. Rx2a8 ... Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Pritchard (1994), p. 95 The same as a Berolina pawn (without promotion or an initial two-step option). The move or capture is unblockable. Or (the same result): one step orthogonally followed by two steps diagonally outward. The same as a Zebra fairy chess piece, or an elephant in janggi. That is, to a square diagonally below. That is, to a square diagonally above. The same as a chess king+bishop, or a dragon horse in shogi. The same as a chess pawn (without an initial two-step option). [9] The same as a chess rook. [10] The same as a chess bishop. [11] The same as a chess king. [12] The same as a chess queen. [13] Gygax does not mention whether for moves only, or for moves and captures. [14] Gygax does not mention whether the move is unblockable or not. [15] Gygax initially describes levels beginning with "1" for upper board in the first page of his article (Gygax 1985:34), but consistently uses "3" for upper board and "1" for lower board in the subsequent six pages (Gygax 1985:35–40) for all examples, move definitions, and sample moves. References • Gygax, Gary (August 1985). "Dragonchess". Dragon Magazine No. 100 (TSR, Inc.) X (3): 34–40. ISSN 0279-6848. • Pritchard, D. B. (1994), The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants, Games & Puzzles Publications, ISBN 0-9524142-0-1 External links • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www.chessvariants.org/3d.dir/dragonchess.html) Dragonchess article by Edward Jackman • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www.chessvariants.org/3d.dir/dragonchess2.html) more on Dragonchess • Strategy Game Server (http://3moves.net/) Dragonchess online play • sourceforge.net (http://dragonchess.sourceforge.net/index.html) Dragonchess software for local and network play • Pathguy.com (http://www.pathguy.com/chess/DragonCh.htm) a simple Dragonchess program by Ed Friedlander 94 Unusual rules Antichess Antichess, also called losing chess, loser's chess, zero chess, giveaway chess, suicide chess, take-me chess or reverse chess is a chess variant in which the objective of the participants is to get all of their pieces captured. The most widely played variation, as described in the book Popular Chess Variants by D.B. Pritchard, is described below. Rules The rules of the game are the same as those of chess except for the following additional rules: • Capturing is compulsory. • When more than one capture is available, the player may exercise choice. • The king has no special prerogative and accordingly: • It may be captured like any other piece. • There is no check or checkmate. • There is no castling. • Pawns may also promote to King. • In the case of stalemate, there are different rules: • It is a win for the stalemated player (international rules). • It is a draw. • It is a win for the player with the fewer number of pieces, and if both have the same number it is a draw. The type of the piece makes no difference (FICS rules). A player wins by losing all his pieces, or being stalemated (as detailed.) Apart from move repetition, mutual accord and the fifty-move rule, the game is also drawn when a win is impossible, such as if a dark-squared bishop and a light-squared bishop are the only pieces remaining. In another little-played version, forcing the opponent to checkmate the king is another option to win. P.H. Törngren Tidskrift för Schack 1929 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Antichess 95 a b c d e f g h Suicide chess, white to play and win. Solution goes: 1.h3! a5 2.h4 a4 3.h5 a3 4.h6 a2 5.h7 a1R! 6.h8B!! Ranywhere (Black is in zugzwang) 7. Ba1 Rxa1 1-0 Because of the forced capture rule, antichess games often involve long sequences of forced captures by one player. This means that a minor mistake can ruin the game. Losing openings include 1.d4, 1.e4, 1.d3, 1.Nc3, 1.Nf3, 1.f4, 1.h4, 1.b4, 1.h3.[1] Some of these openings took months of computer time to solve, but the wins against 1.d3, 1.d4, and 1.e4 consist of a single series of forced captures and can be played from memory by most experienced players. Kamikaze chess variation Kamikaze chess is similar to Antichess, but with one main difference, players must lose their king last. As with Antichess, players must take at every opportunity and make a choice if more than one piece can be taken. Players must not move into check until they only have the King left. If an opponent's move puts them in check, they must get out of it, as per standard chess. If they only have the king left, they can just make a move which still leaves them in check, their opponent must take the king and then the player who has lost the king is the winner. If they are checkmated before all the other pieces are gone, they lose. Pawns may only be promoted to a Queen. References [1] http:/ / brainrook. com/ archives/ 14-ANTI-CHESS. html External links • • • • • KPanta (http://freecode.com/projects/kpanta/) at Freecode – AntiChess Game for Linux Play Antichess online (http://grandgames.net/en/) Nilatac's Suicide Opening Book (http://catalin.francu.com/nilatac/book.php) The complete review of suicide chess by Fabrice Liardet (http://www.pion.ch/Losing/index.html) An interesting look on suicide chess by Vladica Andrejić (http://www.matf.bg.ac.rs/~andrew/suicide) • Web site of Stan Goldovski, pioneer of suicide chess (http://www.matf.bg.ac.rs/~andrew/suicide/StanGold/ Index.htm) • Suicide and Losers Chess database (http://www.wildchess.org/) • SuicideChess (http://suicidechess.ca/) • Play Antichess online (http://online.gambiter.com/) (Suicide and Losers variants) Atomic chess 96 Atomic chess Atomic chess is a chess variant. While the other rules of chess apply fully, all captures result in an atomic explosion. This means that the surrounding pieces — not including pawns — will be taken off the board as well. The rules The rules of atomic chess are the same as standard chess with the following differences: Capturing In standard chess, the captured piece is removed from the board and the capturing piece takes its place. In atomic chess, both pieces are removed from the board (i.e. "killed"). Furthermore, this atomic explosion extends to all eight surrounding squares. Any pieces caught in the surrounding squares are also captured with the exception of pawns. Pawns are captured only when they are involved in the actual capture event in the central square. In en passant, ground zero of the explosion is the square on the sixth rank upon which the capturing pawn lands. The game frequently ends with one king being caught in the explosion of a surrounding piece. Moves that result in the explosion of your own king are illegal. There is also a variant without check, in which checkmate will only mean a capture of the king in the next move, and not a win by itself. Check As in normal chess check still fully applies. However if a player's king is in check he has nevertheless the ability to win by exploding his opponents king. Also as the king cannot take another piece, it is possible to move the kings next to each other. In this case check does not apply. In a further variant of atomic chess, check is not enforced at all. This means that any move, even one leaving the king to be captured in the next move, is possible and can be forced by zugzwang. Some chess servers, such as the Internet Chess Club, use slightly different rules which completely ignore check, meaning that victory can only be attained via the explosion of an enemy king. This requires more awareness from the players with regards to direct threats against their kings. Stalemate If the check rule is enforced then a stalemate is possible in similar way to that of standard chess. If the check rule is not enforced, and for example if a player's only legal move is to move into check then he or she must do so. Without check, a stalemate can only occur in extremely rare situations. Death match If both kings die simultaneously in an atomic explosion, the game continues until all the pieces of one player are removed from the board. If all the remaining pieces are removed in the last explosion (i.e. the board is empty), then it's a draw. This is not possible on most online servers, as it is an illegal move to explode your own king in any circumstances - even if the other king would be exploded as well. In game tactics The first-move advantage enjoyed by White is much greater in this game than in standard chess. Hence, this game is imbalanced against Black. Some players consider atomic chess to be a forced win for white, but so far all attempts to refute the game have been unsuccessful, and high-rated players tend to disagree. The transition from opening to mid-game and from mid-game to end-game is as ambiguous and subjective as in standard chess. However, below are ideas and theory about the game that most players will agree with or change emphasis. Atomic chess 97 Opening Because White has the initiative, Black is often preoccupied initially to fending off attempts to kill its king via atomic explosions directed at the pawns adjacent at d7, e7 and f7. These attacks usually involve the knights, which are fastest to develop, but the queen and bishops are also dangerous. A strong White opening will dictate Black's moves for the start of the game and Black has a small number of choices at each move compared with standard chess. Ignoring an attack set and making benign moves will cause a loss of the game far earlier than in standard chess, if the opponent is familiar with the opening. A weak white opening can result in black taking the initiative and forcing white's moves. In atomic chess a sacrifice of knights, bishops and sometimes even queens are acceptable. It is extremely common to make sacrifices of material, which would seem to a chess player to be nonsensical in order to gain a positional advantage in the opening. By far the most common sacrifice in atomic chess openings is to advance either knight from the third rank to the fifth, knowing it can be taken by a pawn. Mid-game Generally speaking once a player's knowledge of opening theory is expended in the direction a game has gone, or when neither player has an opportunity to attack their opponent for several moves the game can be said to have moved into the mid-game. This can occur with both players having all their material, or when all but a few pawns are left. The moves a player makes in his mid-game will be dictated by the position he is left with after the opening. For example if he is "a piece up" (i.e. has a material advantage) a strategy is to play purely defensive moves and try to make all subsequent exchange of material equal or better, and then use that advantage at the end. Depending on the style of play of a player in his mid-games he may wish to risk material or losing by attacking or may play defensively, digging in until the end game comes where he may feel more confident. Or he may try to continue making move sets to gain material advantage or threaten the opponent's king. The survival of the queens in non-defensive positions tend to lead to shorter games, making the queen more powerful than almost all defensive alignments of the other pieces. Though there are some openings where one side can successfully exchange the queen (for example, by taking the pawn on b7, getting a rook, knight, bishop and a pawn for it). Losing the queen without having a trap or very accurate play is a huge disadvantage. An endgame position in Atomic chess. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Black has connected kings and became immune to check. However, white can win by forcing the black king to be adjacent to the black pawn, then capturing the pawn. 1.Kc4 Kd4 2.Kb5+ Kc5 3.Ka6+ Kb5 4.Ka7+ Ka6 5.Qxa5 Note that black is forced to retain the connection, or the queen will chase the king and mate him. Atomic chess 98 Endgame Endgame theory is now as detailed as opening theory and it is possible to say whether a forced win or draw is possible. A notable and amusing feature of atomic chess which can first attract chess players to the game is that kings can be in adjacent squares. This is not a rare occurrence and a player can in some positions force a draw with it, though there are many ways to disconnect or win by blowing up a piece next to the opponents king. For example a win is always possible if one side is up a queen or rook and a second piece, or just a queen and there are still blocked pawns on the board. Creative use of Zugzwang is a common tactic to force a win. New theory and game culture New opening theory is still being developed and played by different players on different servers, trying to catch each other out. As more games are played and more players play across different servers using what they believe is a new opening line or an unusual defensive line which an opponent has not seen. Strong attacking ideas come for white and then are refuted again, so that there is no known line that will result in a win for white. A player who knows many variations will often be able to gain significant advantage when playing with white. Variants and other games called atomic chess Another variant of this game is that the pawns will be killed by an explosion, but will not set off one, which drastically decreases the potency of pawn killers. Yet another variant has surfaced, particularly in online play, such as through ItsYourTurn.com [1]. In this variant, each side secretly identifies one of their pieces as the "bomb". Capture of any piece, including the bomb, will not set off a detonation. The bomb can only be detonated willfully by the player when his turn comes, and setting off the bomb counts as a turn. The explosion kills the bomb and all pieces surrounding it. Killing the opponent's bomb in this fashion does not initiate a chain reaction. Since it is impossible to determine for sure whether or not your opponent's bomb is still active (unless he has detonated it), bluff is part of a good strategy in this variant. Blowing up the opponent's king in this fashion results in a win, killing your own king in a loss and killing both kings in a draw. Setting off the bomb is a valid move when in check only if the explosion removes the check status and does not cause your king to be in check again by the removal of the destroyed pieces. All other standard chess rules apply. References [1] http:/ / www. itsyourturn. com Three checks chess 99 Three checks chess Three-check chess is a variation of chess, in which a player wins if he checks his opponent three times. Anatoly Karpov is said to excel in this chess variant (Pritchard 2007:83). This chess variant is much more tactical than standard chess, sacrifices are very common, there are a lot of traps in the opening. Two checks is already a big advantage and may be worth more than one piece. The game rarely reaches endgame – usually it is decided before queens are traded. Example game a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 A game of three-check chess in progress. Position after 4....Qh4. 1.e4 e6 2. d4?? This typical opening in standard chess immediately loses in three-check chess. 2....Bb4+ First check. 3.c3 Bxc3+! Second check. 4.Nxc3 Qh4! (see diagram). 0-1. White resigned here, there is no way to prevent a third check by Qxf2+ or Qxe4+. References • Pritchard, D. B. (2007), The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants, John Beasley, ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1 Extinction chess 100 Extinction chess Extinction chess is a variant of western Chess where the objective of the game has changed. Instead of the winning condition of the game being the checkmate of the opponent's king, the object of the game is to capture all of a particular kind of piece the opponent has. In other words, the objective is to achieve any of the following: • • • • • • Capture the opponent's king Capture the opponent's queen Capture both of the opponent's knights Capture both of the opponent's bishops Capture both of the opponent's rooks Capture all of the opponent's pawns. If your opponent promotes their last pawn, you will also win the game. Since the king is not a special piece in this game, it is legal to castle when in check, or to castle through check. Promotion to king is also allowed. This game was invented by R. Wayne Schmittberger. External links • Extinction Chess [1] • Extinction Chess on Game Courier [2] - Play Extinction Chess against others online • ItsYourTurn.com [1] - Extinction chess tournaments online References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ winning. dir/ extinction. html [2] http:/ / play. chessvariants. org/ pbm/ presets/ extinction_chess. html Crazyhouse 101 Crazyhouse Crazyhouse is a chess variant similar to bughouse chess, but with only two players. It effectively incorporates a rule in shogi (Japanese chess), in which a player can introduce a captured piece back to the board as his own. Rule differences from normal chess • A captured piece reverses colour and goes to the capturing player's 'reserve', or 'pocket'. At any time, instead of making a move with a piece on a board, a player can 'drop' a piece, in his reserve, onto an empty square on the board. • Promoted but captured pawns are dropped as pawns.[1] • Pawns must not be dropped on the first or eighth ranks.[1] • Drops which cause immediate checkmate are allowed. Unlike in shogi, this includes pawn drops.[1] • A check that would cause checkmate, in regular chess, can be answered if the defender can make a legal drop which blocks the check.[2] 1. N@e7+ Kh8 2. Bxg7# Notation When recording games, an extension of the usual algebraic notation for chess is used, so that drops can be specified. Drops first give the piece type, followed by an @ symbol, then the target square. For example, "P@d5" means "pawn is dropped on d5 from reserve".[2] Strategy Crazyhouse, which has been analysed much less than regular chess, requires different strategies. Pawns and knights increase in relative importance in crazyhouse, while rooks, queens, and bishops decrease in relative importance. If a king is put in check by any of the latter three pieces, from two or more squares away, dropping a pawn next to the king becomes defensively useful. A knight, on the other hand, cannot be blocked by anything and its offensive value is more manifest. That piece can be used effectively to maintain a strategic influence over a region. After an early exchange of queens, it is usually unwise to reintroduce the queen too soon, particularly if she can be harassed by dropped minor pieces. Careful preparation is needed, in order to reintroduce the queen to maximum effect. Pawns could be dropped deep in the enemy position where, for example, they can fork pieces or give an uncomfortable check. Crazyhouse 102 Variations Minor variations of the rules are possible, such as: • Loop Chess - promoted pawns keep their rank when captured.[3] • Chessgi, Neo Chess - promoted pawns keep their rank when captured; pawns may be dropped on the first rank.[4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. chessclub. com/ help/ crazyhouse http:/ / www. freechess. org/ Help/ HelpFiles/ crazyhouse. html http:/ / brainking. com/ game/ GameRules?tp=6 http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ other. dir/ chessgi. html External links • Crazyhouse (http://www.chessvariants.org/other.dir/crazyhouse.html) by Fergus Duniho • Database of Crazyhouse games (http://wildchess.org/index.php?variant=Crazyhouse) Knight relay chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Knight relay chess The diagram shows possible moves of white pawn on e6. White knight on d4 "relays" knight power to this pawn. Knight relay chess (also called N-relay chess) is a chess variant invented by Mannis Charosh in 1972. In this game knights "relay" their power to friendly pieces. Knight relay chess 103 Rules Any piece defended by a friendly knight can move as a knight. Knights can't be captured and they can't capture enemy pieces. Pawns can't move to the first and the last rank by a relayed knight move. If the pawn moved to the second rank by a knighted move, it can move two steps again on one of the next moves. In this game there is no en passant capture. Pawns can promote to knights and promoted knights also have relay power. The diagram on the right shows possible moves of the pawn e6. It can move on e7 and capture on d7 and f7 as a usual pawn. However since it is defended by a friendly knight on d4, it can move like a knight to c7, c5, f4, g5 and g7. It can't move on last rank to f8 with a knight move and the black king is not under check. White knight on b7 doesn't check black king as well and can't capture black pawn on a5. White queen can't capture black knight on c3. White can deliver checkmate in this position by moving Qd6. In this case black king can't escape on c8 or e8. These fields become attacked by the queen on d6, because the queen gets knight power by the knight on b7. References • D.B. Pritchard (2000). Popular Chess Variants. ISBN 0-7134-8578-7. External links • N-Relay Chess [1] by Alessandro Castelli. • BrainKing.com [2] - allows to play knight relay chess online. References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ diffmove. dir/ nrelay. html [2] http:/ / brainking. com/ en/ GameRules?tp=71 Andernach chess 104 Andernach chess Michel Caillaud Comm. Andernach TT, 1993 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Shortest proof game in 3.0 (Andernach chess). Andernach chess is a chess variant in which a piece making a capture (except kings) changes colour.[1] For instance, if a white bishop on a2 were to capture a black knight on g8, the end result would be a black bishop on g8. Non-capturing moves are played as in orthodox chess. If a pawn captures on 8th rank, it is promoted first and then changes color. The game was named after the German town of Andernach, which is the site of annual meetings of fairy chess enthusiasts. It was during the 1993 meeting there that Andernach chess was introduced with a chess problem composing tournament for Andernach problems. It has since become a popular variant in problem composition, though it has not yet become popular as a game-playing variant. Example problem At the right an example Andernach chess problem is shown. The task is to find a proof game, which would last 3 moves and lead to the shown position. The solution is: 1.Nf3 Nc6 2.Ne5 Nxe5 (=wN) (Black knight turns to white knight after capture on e5. White can now move this knight.) 3.Nxd7 (=bN) (This time white knight turns into black knight.) Nb8. This leads to the position shown on the diagram. Variations Predecessor of Andernach chess was Tibetan chess, in which a black unit (called lama) changes colour when it captures a white piece of a different type. As in Andernach chess, the king is not affected by capture. For example, if black pawn on d7 captures white queen on c6, it becomes white pawn and can be moved by white on the next move. This game has nothing to do with Chandraki, a chess variant played in Tibet.[2] A variant on Andernach chess is anti-Andernach, in which pieces except kings change colour after non-captures, but stay the same colour after a capture. There is also super-Andernach in which all pieces except kings change colour after every move, whether a capture or not. Super-Andernach was introduced by John Rice in The Problemist Supplement in March 2006. Andernach chess 105 References [1] Andernach Chess (http:/ / www. janko. at/ Retros/ Glossary/ Andernach. htm) by Joost de Heer and Otto Janko [2] Chandraki, the Tibetan Chess (http:/ / history. chess. free. fr/ chandraki. htm) by Jean-Louis Cazaux. External links • A selection of Andernach problems (http://members.tripod.com/~JurajLorinc/chess/fi_a.htm#ander) Checkless chess Checkless Chess (or prohibition chess) is a chess variant where neither player is allowed to give a check, with the exception of checkmate. All other rules are as in regular chess. This change has a profound impact on the way the game is played. In regular chess, the king needs to be kept safe, since attacks on it need to be parried, and checks can be used to gain time or chase the king to an unsafe position. In checkless chess however, the king is immune from most attacks, as long as checkmates are avoided. In order to achieve checkmate the king must be encircled without checks. Another impact of this rule is that the king, immune from attack, is now itself a powerful force. The king can defend pieces by placing itself so that capturing the piece would place the king in check. The king can advance into the enemy position, creating havoc in the enemy camp as they need to avoid squares where they would put the king under check. Such a plan may be risky however, since getting the king trapped in the enemy camp may subject it to an untimely checkmate. References • Entry on "Checkless chess" in Hooper, David; Whyld, Ken (1984). Oxford Companion to Chess. ISBN 0-19-217540-8. External links • Checkless chess [1] by Hans Bodlaender. References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ usualeq. dir/ checklss. html Circe chess 106 Circe chess Circe chess (or just circe) is a chess variant in which captured pieces are reborn on their starting positions as soon as they are captured, based on the following rules: 1. Pawns return to the start position on the same file they are captured on. 2. Rooks, knights and bishops return to the starting square which is the same color as the square they are captured on. For instance, a white pawn captured on b4 is reborn on b2; a black knight captured on f6 is reborn on b8; a black rook captured on the same square is reborn on h8. Castling with a reborn rook is permitted. If the square that the rebirth should take place on is occupied, either by a friendly or enemy piece, the captured unit is not reborn—it is instead removed from the board and takes no further part in the game (like a capture in orthodox chess). The rules of circe chess were first detailed by P. Monréal and J.-P. Boyer in an article in Problème, 1968. These are the most usual rules employed in circe - there are numerous other forms of the game in which the rules of rebirth may vary. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Black to move. White is threatening a mate with 2.Re1# but Black can defend with 1...Ba1! When notating a circe game in algebraic notation, it is conventional to place details of where a captured piece has been reborn in brackets following the move. For example, if in the diagram to the right, white were to take black's knight, this would be notated Rxe8(Ng8). The position to the right demonstrates a couple of unusual effects which can occur in circe. It is black to move. White is threatening checkmate with 1.Re1#. Black would not be able to defend with 1...Kxe1 after this move, because the rook is instantly reborn on a1 from where it gives check (black's bishop does defend a1, and the black king is free to move to e2 or capture at d2, but this is of no consequence as after Kxe1 it will be white's move.). It might appear that there is nothing black can do to prevent this threat, but in fact he has 1...Ba1! - if now 2.Re1+, Kxe1 is possible because the rook is not reborn because its rebirth square is occupied. Circe is rarely played as a variant game (when it is, it is usually combined with progressive chess), but very often employed in composed fairy chess problems. Circe chess 107 Circe variants There are many variants of circe, especially in chess problems. Instead of being reborn on their starting positions the pieces may be reborn on other locations: • Anticirce: the capturing piece is reborn on its initial square. The captured piece disappears from the board. The rebirth square must be empty or the capture is illegal. There are two types: Type Cheylan: captures on the rebirth square are illegal (i.e. a white rook can't capture on a1). Type Calvet: captures on the rebirth square are legal. • Assassin circe: The rebirth occurs, even if the rebirth square is occupied. The occupying piece is removed from the board. When a piece is captured on its rebirth square, the capturing piece disappears. • Chamaeleon circe: a captured piece (other than a pawn) is reborn as a different piece: knight becomes bishop, bishop becomes rook, rook becomes queen and queen becomes knight. The reborn piece is placed according to the circe rule for the new piece. • Circe Parrain: a captured piece is reborn on the square displaced from the capture square by a vector equal to that of the move following the capture. If the following move is castling, then the sum of the king-move and rook-move vectors is used (for a king-side castle, rebirth can occur only if the piece is a pawn captured en passant). • Circe Rex inclusive: as circe but also the kings may be captured. A mate requires that the initial square of the king is occupied. • Clone circe: a captured piece is reborn on its initial square but reappears as the piece by which it is captured (not a king). • CouCou circe: as circe but the rebirth square is that of the capturing piece. Pawns captured by a piece are reborn on the promotion rank, and promote. The promotion is chosen by the capturing side. • CousCous circe: as CouCou circe, but for captures resulting in promotion, the promotion type is chosen by the side whose pawn promotes. • Diagram circe: a captured piece is reborn on the position it had on the diagram. • Equipollents circe: As Circe Parrain, but the rebirth occurs immediately on a vector equal to the capturing move. • Kamikaze circe: the captured piece is reborn on its initial square. The capturing piece disappears. • Martian circe: pieces move in the ordinary manner but capture only from their initial position (if it is unoccupied). Captured pieces disappear from the board. • Mirror circe: a captured piece is reborn on a square where a piece of the opposite color would be reborn in ordinary circe. • Platzwechsel circe (PWC): a captured piece is reborn on the square where the capturer was placed before the capture. Platzwechsel means "position exchange" in German. • Strict circe: as ordinary circe but the rebirth square must be free for the capture to be legal. • Symmetrical circe: as circe but the rebirth square is the capture square mirrored across the center of the board. • Volcanic circe: as circe, but if the rebirth square is occupied, the captured piece is 'hidden' under that piece. When that piece moves, the hidden piece is revealed. E.g. white king on f1, white bishop on a6, black king on b6: Black captures Kb6xa6(+wBf1(hidden)) Kf1-e1 (+wBf1). Circe chess 108 References • Pritchard, D. B. (2007), The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants, John Beasley, pp. 55–56, ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1 External links • Circe Problems [1] • Circe Chess [2] at Retro Corner References [1] http:/ / members. tripod. com/ ~JurajLorinc/ chess/ fi_c. htm#circe [2] http:/ / www. janko. at/ Retros/ Glossary/ Circe. htm Legan chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Legan chess Legan chess is a chess variant invented by L. Legan in 1913. It differs from standard chess by starting position as well as by pawn movements. Rules The initial starting position is shown at the right. The game can be also played with the board rotated by 45° clock-wise to make pawn movements easier to understand. There are no castling and no en passant moves. Otherwise, the rules of chess apply. Pawn movement Legan chess 109 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Pawn movements in Legan chess Pawns moves one space diagonally forward: white from right to left, black left to right. They capture orthogonally in direction of movements (see the example in the diagram at right). The white pawn on f3 can move to e4 and capture on e3 and f4. Black pawn on b6 can move to c5 and capture on b5 and c6. Pawn promotion a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Pawn promotion in Legan chess Pawns promote on squares occupied in initial position by opponent's king, bishops, knights, and rooks. For example, white pawns promote on squares a5-a8-d8 (marked with white circles); black pawns on e1-h1-h4 (marked with black circles). Note that the pawns that start on d1, h5, a4 and e8 cannot promote without moving toward the center of the board via capturing. Legan chess 110 References • D.B. Pritchard (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants (p. 172). ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. External links • BrainKing.com [1] - internet server to play Legan chess and many other chess variants. References [1] http:/ / brainking. com Madrasi chess Madrasi chess is a chess variant invented in 1979 by Abdul Jabbar Karwatkar which uses the conventional rules of chess with the addition that when a piece is attacked by a piece of the same type but opposite colour (for example, a black queen attacking a white queen) it is paralysed and becomes unable to move, capture or give check. Most of the time, two like pieces attack each other mutually, meaning they are both paralysed (en passant pawn captures are an exception to this, since the attack is not mutual. (The status of an en passant capture is open to debate, according to Pritchard.) This paralysis rule is not usually extended to the kings, meaning that as in orthodox chess, the two kings cannot move to adjacent squares; when it is extended to kings, the variant is called Madrasi rex inclusive (sometimes shortened to Madrasi RI). Although it is possible to play complete games of both Madrasi chess and Madrasi RI, they have mainly been used as a condition in chess problems. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The position to the right demonstrates some of the peculiarities of Madrasi. The black king is not in check from the rook on c5 (see algebraic chess notation), because it (the rook) is attacked by the black rook on g5, meaning it is paralysed. In its turn, the c5 rook attacks the g5 rook, paralysing it. Likewise, the white rook on g2, also attacked by the g5 rook, is paralysed. The black rook on h4, however, is not paralysed, and is free to move. The knights on d8 and f7 also attack each other, as do the pawns on c2 and d3, so these pieces are also paralysed. Note that the bishop on d1 is not paralysed by knight on f2 attacking it - units have to be of a similar type (both knights, both bishops and so on) for paralysis to happen. There are two ways in which a paralysis may be released. The first is for a non-paralysed pieces to make a capture. In the example, white cannot play cxd3 because his pawn is paralysed, but he can play Nxd3, thus unparalysing his Madrasi chess c2 pawn. The second way to unparalyse a piece is to cut off the line of attack from the paralysing unit by interposing a third piece. For example, 1.Be5 in the diagram cuts the line of attack from the g5 rook to the c5 rook and so unparalyses it. As a result, the white rook on c5 is now giving check. The only way for black to escape the check in this instance is to re-paralyse the checking rook, which can be done by 1...Rc4. White then has the reply 2.bxc4 which is checkmate: black has no safe squares for his king, he cannot capture the checking unit, he cannot interpose a piece between the checking unit and the king, and he cannot paralyse the checking unit (note that ...Rxe5 paralysing the c5 rook is not possible, because the g5 rook is paralysed by its counterpart on g2). Isardam ("Madrasi" spelled backwards) is a variant of Madrasi in which only moves that do not lead to a Madrasi paralysis are legal. 111 External links • Madrasi Problems [1] References • Pritchard, D. B. (2007), The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants (2nd ed.), John Beasley, pp. 44–45, ISBN 0-95551-680-3 • Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1992), "Madrasi", The Oxford Companion to Chess (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-280049-3 References [1] http:/ / members. tripod. com/ ~JurajLorinc/ chess/ fi_m. htm#madra Monochromatic chess Raymond Smullyan a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Monochromatic chess: What color is pawn g3? Monochromatic chess is a chess variant created by Raymond Smullyan, in which the initial board position and all rules are the same as in regular chess, except that pieces which begin on a black square must always stay on a black square and pieces which begin on a white square must always stay on a white square. This would mean that knights Monochromatic chess can never move, but The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants says that knights make a double jump. It has been suggested that a knight be replaced with a (3,1)-leaper. If knights are allowed to move (or are captured, clearing the way), castling may become possible, but only on the kingside. Under the rules, pawns can only move by capturing or by advancing two squares for their first move. A stalemate occurs if a player's king is not in check but the player nevertheless has no legal moves under the rules of the game. Similarly, a checkmate occurs if the king is placed in check and the king has no legal moves under the rules of the game. This means that certain board positions in regular chess which would not result in the end of the game can be checkmates or stalemates in monochromatic chess. For example, each player has one bishop for which it is possible to obtain checkmate with just this bishop and a king, while it is impossible with the other bishop along with the king, since only one bishop is capable of threatening the king of the opposing side. Because the two kings must occupy squares of different colours, they are allowed to be located next to each other. This variant is used mostly in chess problems. Smullyan's example asks: What color is pawn g3 - white or black? Answer is black – with white pawns on d2 and f2, the white king can move from e1 only with castling and then g1-h2-g3-... so the pawn on g3 cannot be white. 112 Bichromatic chess In bichromatic chess, the opposite restrictions apply. A piece on a white square must move to a black square and vice versa. Hence pawns cannot capture (or advance two squares) and bishops cannot move. Also castling and en passant are impossible, and queens behave like rooks. References • Pritchard, D. B. (2007), The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants, John Beasley, ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1 External links • http://www.janko.at/Retros/Glossary/Monochromatic.htm Patrol chess 113 Patrol chess Patrol chess is a chess variant in which captures can be made and checks given only if the capturing or checking piece is guarded (or patrolled) by a friendly unit. Non-capturing moves are played as normal. The variant was invented by Frederik Hendrik von Meyenfeldt who published a chess problem using the rules in The Problemist (the magazine of the British Chess Problem Society) in 1975. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The diagram position shows some of the peculiarities of patrol chess. The white king cannot take the black knight because it is not guarded by a friendly piece. Similarly, the black rook is not giving check, and neither is the white knight on f7. If white were to play Nbd8 (see algebraic notation), however, this would be check, as the knights would patrol one another. Black could reply Ke4, with checkmate: the king patrols the rook on e3 giving check and guarding b3 and d3, the rook on a2 is patrolled by the knight on b4 and so controls the squares b2, c2 and d2, Kd4 is not possible because the black king, patrolled by the e3 rook, controls that square, and Kxb4 is not possible because the white king is not patrolled and so cannot capture. Patrol chess has often been used as a condition in chess problems. It is also possible to play complete games under patrol chess rules. External links • Patrol Chess Problems [1] References [1] http:/ / members. tripod. com/ ~JurajLorinc/ chess/ fi_p. htm#patro PlunderChess 114 PlunderChess PlunderChess is a chess variant in which the capturing piece is allowed to temporarily take the moving abilities of the piece taken. Rules The so-called plundering occurs when a chess piece captures an opposing chess piece and "plunders" or "acquires" additional moving capabilities directly from the piece it just captured. Plundering is optional and may be declined by the player making the capture. When plundering is elected, the capturing piece "couples" or "attaches" to itself a vest that corresponds to the moving capabilities it is acquiring from the captured piece. The plundered vest must give added moving capabilities to the piece that wears it or it will not be allowed to plunder. This means that a queen can never wear a rook vest because a queen can already make the moves of a rook and a rook vest provides no additional benefit to the queen. The added moving capability provided by a plundered vest may be used one time only on any future move: i.e., the plundered vest may be used on its very next move or carried around and used later in the game. After a vest is used to move a chess piece on the board, it must be returned to the stand out of play. No more than one plundered vest is allowed on any one piece at a time. If a chess piece with a plundered vest makes another capture, it may upgrade to a stronger vest. If a player captures a piece with a vest, that player may take the vest it wears or a vest that represents the captured piece. The pawn with the vest can use it to reach the last rank. In this case the pawn gets immediately promoted. However, the pieces with pawn vest can't promote. The pawn can also move to the first rank by a vest move. But it has double-move capability only when moving from 2nd to 4th rank. A piece with a vest can give a check (or eventually checkmate) to the opponent's king using vest-move power. External links • PlunderChess [1] - official website. • PlunderChess: Pictures and a review [2] by Hans L. Bodlaender. References [1] http:/ / plunderchess. com [2] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ d. photo/ plunderchess/ plunderchess. html 115 Incomplete information and elements of chance Kriegspiel a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Kriegspiel, the game in progress. Position as seen by White player. Kriegspiel (German for war game) is a chess variant invented by Henry Michael Temple in 1899[1] and based upon the original Kriegsspiel developed by Georg von Rassewitz in 1812. In this game each player can see their own pieces, but not those of their opponent. For this reason, it is necessary to have a third person (or computer) act as a referee, with full information about the progress of the game. When it is a player's turn he will attempt a move, which the referee will declare to be 'legal' or 'illegal'. If the move is illegal, the player tries again; if it is legal, that move stands. Each player is given information about checks and captures. They may also ask the referee if there are any legal captures with a pawn. Since the position of the opponent's pieces is unknown, Kriegspiel is not a game with perfect information. Chess Kriegspiel derives from a war game which was used in 19th century Germany to train military officers. Rules There are several different rule sets for Kriegspiel. The most widespread rules are those used on the Internet Chess Club, where Kriegspiel is called Wild 16. The rules are as follows.[2] The game is played with three boards, one for each player and one for the umpire (and spectators). Each opponent knows the exact position only of his own pieces and doesn't know where the opponent's pieces are (but can keep track of how many there are). Only the umpire knows the exact current position of the game. The game proceeds in the following way. The umpire announces: • White (or black) to move. • Pawn tries, when it is possible for one's pawn to capture an opponent's pawn or piece. The umpire also indicates the square on which the capture is possible to the player who can make the capture. This gives extra information, but saves both players the bother of beginning every turn by trying all possible pawn captures. This is possible at Kriegspiel no risk because pawns don't move the same way they capture. Hence, if no capture is possible, then the move is illegal and there is no penalty for attempting illegal moves. A pawn try is not announced if the pawn is pinned, i.e., completing the capture would expose the king to check. En-passant pawn tries are announced, of course, but not the fact that they are en-passant captures. • Pawn gone, when a pawn is captured. • Piece gone, when a piece is captured. • No, when the attempted move is illegal, given the opponent's position. For example: moving the king into check; moving a queen, rook, bishop, or pawn through squares occupied by the opponent's pieces; advancing a pawn into a square occupied by the opponent's pieces. • Hell no (or Impossible), when the attempted move is always illegal regardless of the opponent's position. For example, moving a bishop a knight's move. • Check on the vertical. • Check on the horizontal. • Check on the long diagonal (the longer of the two diagonals, from the king's point of view). • Check on the short diagonal. • Check by a knight. • Checkmate, stalemate, draw by repetition, draw by insufficient force, 50-move draw. Pawn promotions are not announced. 116 Kriegspiel problems Jacques Rotenberg The Problemist 1976 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Kriegspiel, mate in 8. Black has a bishop somewhere on dark squares, not exactly known where. Kriegspiel is sometimes used in chess problems. In these, usual variations introduced by different black moves are replaced by variations introduced by different announcements. An example of a Kriegspiel problem is shown at the right. White must checkmate Black in 8 moves, no matter where the black bishop initially is (it is somewhere on dark squares) and no matter what black plays. (Note that in a real game, black would not see white's moves, but for a problem in which white is to force a win, one must assume the worst-case scenario in which black guesses correctly on each move.) For example, 1. Ra1?? is a draw by stalemate if the black bishop was initially on a1. 1. Nf2 Bxf2 2. Kxf2 (or Rxf2) is stalemate as well. So, white should not move either the knight or the bishop, because either might capture the black bishop by accident. For the same reason, the Kriegspiel white rook should move only to light squares -- but only half of the light squares are reachable without visiting a dark square along the way. The solution is the following. White tries to play 1. Rg2. • If this move is not possible (umpire says No), then the black bishop must be on b2, d2 or f2. In this case white can instead play 1. N(x)f2# (checkmate). • If the move is possible, it is made and then black moves the bishop. White still doesn't know where the bishop is. White continues with 2. Rg8. • If not possible, then black bishop is on g3, g5 or g7. White plays 2. Be5. If black now plays 2...Bxe5, 3.Nf2#. Otherwise (any move by black) 3. Nf2+ Bxf2 4. Rxh2#. • If possible, white continues 3. Rh8. (This is safe -- the black bishop can't be on h8 to be captured, because it wasn't on g7 on the previous turn.) 4. Rh5 5. Rb5 (if not possible, 5. Rh3 and 6.Be5). 6. Rb1 7. Nf2+ Bxf2 8. Kxf2#. 117 Rule variations Frankenstein suggested in 1903 a variation of the game where one player sees the board and another plays Kriegspiel. To make the game fair, the first player has to play with fewer pieces. Frankenstein proposed two variants: • Pickle pot - the player who sees the board plays only with queen and bishop (as well as with king and 8 pawns in usual starting position). • One-eye - same as above, but only with two rooks and bishop. In both versions, it should be announced, which bishop remains (on c or f-file). The Semi-kriegspiel, suggested by David Silverman in 1971 is similar to variations above. In this game the sighted side has only king and queen, which he/she can place on any legal square before the beginning of the game. In Modern kriegspiel by Bruce Trone (1986), after each move the player calls 7 squares, which must be opened by umpire. Otherwise the rules are as in usual kriegspiel. Combining Crazyhouse with Kriegspiel yields Crazyhouse Kriegspiel[3] (or CrazyKrieg for short). References [1] Pritchard, D. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. [2] Kriegspiel tournament rules of the computer Olympiad (http:/ / www. cs. unimaas. nl/ olympiad2006/ rules. html#Kriegspiel) [3] Crazyhouse Kriegspiel (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ incinf. dir/ crazyhousekriegspiel. html) External links • Kriegspiel (http://www.chessvariants.com/incinf.dir/kriegspiel.html) by Hans L. Bodlaender. • SchemingMind.com (http://www.schemingmind.com) Internet server to play Kriegspiel. • Berkeley Kriegspiel Home (http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~jawolfe/kriegspiel/), Kriegspiel in Artificial intelligence research. • Bologna Kriegspiel Home (http://www.cs.unibo.it/~cianca/wwwpages/chesssite/kriegspiel/kriegspiel.html) A page on Kriegspiel research • U. Maryland Kriegspiel Home (http://chess.cs.umd.edu/kriegspiel/) A page on Kriegspiel research • Freeware Windows Kriegspiel game (called SearchAndDestroyChess) (http://richelbilderbeek.nl/ GameSearchAndDestroyChess.htm). Dark chess 118 Dark chess Dark chess is a chess variant with incomplete information, similar to Kriegspiel. It was invented by Jens Bæk Nielsen and Torben Osted in 1989. A player does not see the entire board, only their own pieces (including pawns), and squares where these pieces could move. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 A game of Dark chess in progress; squares indicated by "×" can not be seen by the white player. Rules The goal of this chess variant is not to checkmate the king, but to capture it. A player isn't told if their king is in check. Failing to move out of check, or moving into check, are both legal, and can obviously result in a capture and loss of the game. En passant capture is allowed, even if you do not see that it is possible. Unlike standard chess, castling is allowed even out of check, into check and through the positions attacked by opponent pieces. This chess variant is best played on one of the online chess servers. For playing over-the-board, three chess sets and a referee are needed, just as in Kriegspiel. There are some minor differences in the rules on different servers: • • • • BrainKing [1]: pawn promotions remain unknown for the opponent. ItsYourTurn [1]: the opponent knows that a pawn was promoted, but does not know where. SchemingMind [2]: you do not see what is in front of your pawns, but know if the position is occupied or not. AjaxPlay.Com [3]: En passant capture is not allowed; pawn promotions remain unknown for the opponent. Dark chess 119 Variations SchemingMind also provides some more variations of dark chess: • Dark chess (checkmate) - you are notified that your king is in check and you can't move your king into check. The goal in this variation is the same as in standard chess - to checkmate the king. • Dark crazyhouse - combination of crazyhouse and dark chess. • Dark suicide - combination of suicide and dark chess. • Sun Tzu chess - combination of Double Fischer Random Chess (like Chess960, but with different positions for white and black), crazyhouse and dark chess. You can drop pieces you have in any possible square on the board (like crazyhouse). This chess variant was invented in 2005 by John Kipling Lewis. • Lao Tzu chess - like Sun Tzu, but you can only drop pieces on square you can see. Also invented in 2005 by John Kipling Lewis. • Generally, because basic Dark chess rules are universal with respect to its “parent” classical variant, any other 2-player chess variant like Omega Chess, Seirawan chess or others may be played “in dark”, for example - Dark Omega Chess.[4] Gameplay Dark chess has a strong strategic flavor. Planning and strategy, as well as some psychological reasoning, are very important; tactics and move searching are not. In this chess variant a king should be carefully protected from very dangerous checks by invisible pieces. For a queen the most dangerous pieces are knights, which can attack it without becoming visible. References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. brainking. com http:/ / www. schemingmind. com http:/ / ajaxplay. com Dark Omega Chess at GamesByEmail.com (http:/ / gamesbyemail. com/ Games/ OmegaChess) External links • • • • Dark Chess Strategy guide (http://docs.google.com/View?docid=df72cxcs_20gj8jfvdm) Darkness chess (http://www.chessvariants.com/incinf.dir/darkness.html) by Jens Bæk Nielsen Online turn-based dark chess (http://www.itsyourturn.com/t_helptopic2020.html#helpitem1504) Dark Chess (http://www.zillions-of-games.com/cgi-bin/zilligames/submissions.cgi/62549?do=show;id=201) implementation for Zillions of games. • Freeware Windows Dark Chess game called SearchAndDestroyChess (http://www.richelbilderbeek.nl/ GameSearchAndDestroyChess.htm). • KIKAItachi chess (http://kikaitachi.org/chess) supports playing Dark chess variant among others. • www.darkchess.com (http://www.darkchess.com) Dark Chess Helper application Penultima 120 Penultima Penultima is a game of inductive logic, played on a chess board. It was invented by Michael Greene and Adam Chalcraft in Cambridge in 1994. The game is derived from the chess variant Ultima (otherwise known as Baroque chess), and played with a standard chess board and pieces, each piece having different movement and capture rules from standard chess. In a manner similar to the game Mao (also popular in Cambridge at that time), the rules for each piece vary from game to game, and are initially kept secret from the players. Penultima is similar in style to Eleusis, Zendo and Mao. The name of the game is a pun on "penultimate", and "Ultima" (the name of the chess variant). Rules Several Spectators create secret rules which govern how the pieces move and two Players attempt to discover these rules. The game is traditionally played with chess pieces but may be played any sufficiently distinct components, such as coins or Icehouse pieces. Before the game starts, the Spectators decide between themselves which pieces they will write rules for. The secret rule for a piece may for example control the way that piece moves, captures, or is captured, and may cause it to affect other pieces on the board. A piece may be given an invoke command which causes it to affect other pieces on the board without moving. When he or she has written the secret rule for a piece, the Spectator also gives it a new name for the duration of the game. These names (and the existence of any invoke commands) are announced to the players at the start of the game. On his or her turn, a Player attempts to move or invoke one of their pieces, and the Spectator for that piece declares whether the action is legal or illegal. If it is legal, that Player's turn ends and play passes to the other Player. If it is illegal, the piece is returned to its position at the start of the turn. In the original game, play then passes to the other Player; in other variants the original Player continues making attempts until he or she succeeds in making a legal move or invoke. As in standard chess, the winning player is the one who forces his or her opponent's king (or equivalent piece) into checkmate. At the end of the game, the Spectators reveal their rules. External links • “Penultima” [1] by Michael Fryers, from Variant Chess, Volume 3, Issue 28, Summer 1998, pages 164-166 References [1] http:/ / www. bcvs. ukf. net/ eureka. htm#penul Dice chess 121 Dice chess Dice chess can refer to a number of chess variants in which dice are used to alter gameplay; specifically that the moves available to each player are determined by rolling a pair of ordinary six-sided dice. There are many different variations of this form of dice chess.[1] One of them is described here. Rules The players alternate rolling the dice and, if possible, moving. On each of the dice, the one represents a pawn, two a knight, three a bishop, four a rook, five a queen, and six a king. The player may move either of the pieces indicated on the two dice. For example, a player rolling a one and a two may move either a pawn or a knight. A player who rolls doubles (the same number on both dice) may play any legal move. Otherwise, standard chess rules apply, with these exceptions: • a player who has no legal move with either of the pieces indicated by the dice loses that turn (passed turn); • if castling is otherwise legal, a player may castle upon rolling a four, six, or doubles; • an en passant capture of a pawn is possible only if the player rolls a one, or doubles, immediately once the opportunity for the en passant capture arises; • a player who is in check can only play a legal response to that check (capturing the checking piece, moving the king, or interposing a piece); • a player who is in check but does not make a roll allowing a legal response to the check loses that turn, but does not automatically lose the game; • except in the unlikely event that the game ends in a draw pursuant to the standard rules of chess, the game ends when one player either checkmates the opponent or captures the opponent's king. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Black is checkmated Sample game Here is a sample game of dice chess. White rolls doubles, allowing her to play any move, and selects 1.e4. Black rolls a two and a three; no bishop move being possible, he plays 1...Nc6. White rolls a three and a four, and plays 2.Bc4. Black rolls a four and a five; since no queen move is possible, he must play the only legal rook move, 2...Rb8. White rolls a three and a six, and plays 3.Bxf7+. Black rolls a two and a four; since no knight or rook move is a legal response to the check, he must pass. (Only a six, or doubles, would have allowed him to move.) White rolls a two Dice chess and a four, and chooses 4.Nh3. (A three or five would have enabled an immediate win with 4.Bxe8, 4.Qf3# or 4.Qh5#). Black rolls a one and a three; again, this does not allow a legal response to the check, so he must pass. White rolls a two and a four, and plays 5.Ng5#. (See final position at right.) 122 Variants on these rules There is no standard set of rules for Dice Chess, and so games called 'Dice Chess' may have different rules to the ones given here. For example, in the version of 'dice chess' given on the BrainKing site:[2] • The players roll only one die. • Pawns may move from the seventh to the eighth rank on any roll, but may promote only to the piece shown on the die (a one allows a pawn to promote to any piece). • There is no check or checkmate. Rather, the goal is to actually capture the king. a 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Dice chess on 10x10 board. BrainKing also provides a variant on 10x10 board with three kings on each side.[3] To win you need to capture all enemy kings. All other rules are the same as for 8x8 version. The intention of adding two more kings is to reduce the elements of chance in the game. Another form of dice chess is "Vegas Fun Chess", whose rules are described here [4]. That site also indicates that "Pritchard's Encyclopedia of Chess Variants contains descriptions of seven versions of what he calls 'Dice Chess'." John Gollon, in his book Chess Variations: Ancient, Regional, and Modern, notes three ways in which dice may be used in connection with a game of chess. The most common is similar to that described in the preceding sections. A second way to use dice is to have each player roll one die on each turn, with the number rolled indicating the number of moves to be played. The maximum number of moves that can be played is usually four, so a roll of a four, five, or six allows the player to make four moves. A third form of the game uses two dice of contrasting colors, with one determining the piece that can move, and the other the number of moves that the piece makes.[1] Dice chess 123 History Anne Sunnucks writes that there is evidence from the literature of the period that dice were used to play chess in Europe between the 11th and 14th centuries, and even earlier in Burma and India. The dice were thrown before each turn to determine the piece to be moved; the same numbering system as set forth above was used (1=pawn, 2=knight, etc.).[5] In the Burmese form of the game, three dice were thrown and each player made three moves at a time.[6] Vladimir Pribylinec writes that the cubes in the Cubic chess are moving as in orthochess by a symbol uppermost it is described in both editions of Pritchard´ Encyclopedia of Chess Variants, first time published in 1977-th. In the variant Protheus cubes are turned on the adjacent squares. Footnotes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] John Gollon, Chess Variations: Ancient, Regional, and Modern, Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1974, pp. 231-32. ISBN 0-8048-1122-9. BrainKing Dice Chess rules (http:/ / brainking. com/ en/ GameRules?tp=95) BrainKing Dice Chess 10x10 rules (http:/ / brainking. com/ en/ GameRules?tp=127& fwa=ShowGame!g=4962555$i=1) http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ dice. dir/ vegasfunchess. html Anne Sunnucks, The Encyclopaedia of Chess, St. Martin's Press, 1970, pp. 97-98. Sunnucks does not make clear if only one die or both dice were thrown, and, if the latter, whether the player could choose which of the specified pieces to move. [6] Sunnucks, p. 98. Knightmare Chess Knightmare Chess is a fantasy chess variant published by Steve Jackson Games (SJG) in 1996. It is a translation of a French game Tempête sur l'échiquier (Storm on the Chessboard), designed by Pierre Cléquin and Bruno Faidutti. Overview Knightmare Chess is played with cards that change the default rules of chess. The cards might change how a piece moves, move opponent's pieces, create special squares on the board or otherwise alter the game. For example, a card called Demotion says: Replace one of your opponent's pieces (except a King or Queen) with one of his captured Pawns. Play this card on your turn, instead of making a regular move. Knightmare Chess 2 cover art. There are two sets of cards sold separately, each consisting of 80 cards. The sets are known as Knightmare Chess 1 [1] and Knightmare Chess 2 [2] but there's nothing at all to stop one from just shuffling both decks into one 160 card deck. SJG also sells blank cards, to be customized as the player wishes, in packs of 20.[3] The graphics in the English version of the Knightmare Chess cards are dark fantasy style, nightmarish (hence the pun Knightmare) color paintings by Brazilian artist Rogerio Vilela. The French original version had a cartoonish tone, unlike the English version, and the cards in the French original version are also different from the English version. Another innovation of the American version is to include rules for "dueling deck" play, where each player has his own customized deck, possibly built from multiple copies of Knightmare Chess 124 the set if desired. In SJG's version, each card is marked with a point cost. The total chaotic power of one's personal deck can be measured in the sum of the points of all cards in the deck. For a balanced game each player uses the same point total, or a stronger player can use a lower point total as a handicap. Cards which are too powerful to appear more than once per side are marked with an asterisk, indicating that a player can only put one copy of that specific card in his deck. The card called Demotion. Critical reaction Peter Sarrett of The Game Report called the game "outstanding", remarking that it "result[s] [in] an unpredictable game which removes the tedium of standard chess while preserving plenty of scope for strategic play," and praising the "gorgeous" paintings by Rogerio Vilela. Sarrett's only complaints concerned the printing of the cards themselves, as he found the wording occasionally confusing and the text "rather small, which makes it difficult for players with poorer eyesight to play the game".[4] Ken Tidwell of The Game Cabinet praised the game for including "elements from both the strategic/predictable side of gaming and the wild/disorderly side" and found the artwork "striking" and "succeed[ing] in creating an air of comic horror". He concluded, "If I had to find a fault with the game it is that there is no attempt to reconcile the strategic game with the chaotic game and the contrast is a bit jarring. Even so, at the end of the day it is a good game and one well worth checking out."[5] Conversely, Steve Darlington of RPGnet, while finding the artwork "absolutely gorgeous" and that "in terms of sheer presentation ... [Knightmare Chess] is streets ahead of anything I've seen in years", felt that while the game itself "might make for an interesting game or two, it's not something you'll be playing an awful lot." He said "the dark design only conflicts with the abstract nature of the game, and ends up being more humorous than dramatic" and that it "ultimately doesn't hold your attention for too long".[6] Footnotes [1] [2] [3] [4] ISBN 1-55634-332-9 ISBN 1-55634-348-5 "Knightmare Chess!" (http:/ / www. sjgames. com/ knightmare/ ). . Retrieved 2007-03-31. Knightmare Chess Review (http:/ / www. gamereport. com/ tgr14/ knightmarechess. html) Peter Sarrett, The Game Report, Issue 4.2, Winter 1996 [5] Knightmare Chess Review (http:/ / www. gamecabinet. com/ reviews/ KnightmareChess. html) Ken Tidwell, The Game Cabinet [6] Knightmare Chess Review (http:/ / www. rpg. net/ news+ reviews/ reviews/ rev_1358. html) Steve Darlington, RPGnet, February 13, 1999 Knightmare Chess 125 External links • • • • Designer's website (http://www.faidutti.com/index.php?Module=mesjeux&id=338) English publisher's website (http://www.sjgames.com/knightmare/) Knightmare Chess Resource Page (http://members.tripod.com/knightmarechess/) Knightmare Chess (http://www.boardgamegeek.com/game/227) and Knightmare Chess 2 (http://www. boardgamegeek.com/game/1677) at BoardGameGeek 126 Multimove variants Marseillais chess Marseillais chess is a chess variant in which each player moves twice per turn. The rules of the game were first published in Marseillais local newspaper Le Soleil in 1925. This chess variant became quite popular in the late 1930s with such chess grandmasters as Alexander Alekhine, Richard Réti, Eugene Znosko-Borovsky, André Chéron playing it.[1] Rules A player can either move one piece twice or move two different pieces on his turn. Castling is considered as a single move. When a player gives a check on the first move, he loses the right for the second move on this turn. If a player is in check, he must move out of check on the first move of the turn. It is not allowed to move the king into the check on the first move of the turn and then move out of the check on the second one. En passant capture is allowed even if the opponent moved the corresponding pawn on the first move of the previous turn. However, en-passant capture must be made on the first move of the turn. When two pawns can be captured en passant after opponents move, both of them can be captured. To avoid too much advantage for white, usually a balanced version of the game is played. In the balanced version, white makes only one move on the first turn. The moves are made in the following order: white, black, black, white, white, black, black, etc. This rule was introduced in 1963 by Robert Bruce and since then gained a wide acceptance. References [1] Marseillais chess (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ multimove. dir/ marseill. html) by Hans L. Bodlaender and Antoine Fourrière Progressive chess 127 Progressive chess Progressive chess is a chess variant in which players, rather than just making one move per turn, play progressively longer series of moves. The game starts with white making one move, then black makes two consecutive moves, white replies with three, black makes four and so on. Progressive chess can be combined with other variants; for example, when circe is played as a game, it is usually progressively. Progressive chess is considered particularly apt for playing correspondence chess using mail or some other slow medium, because of the relatively small number of moves in a typical game. Rules There are two main varieties of progressive chess: Italian progressive chess and Scottish progressive chess (otherwise known as Scotch chess). The two have the following rules in common: • A check must be escaped from on the first move of a series--if this cannot be done, it is checkmate and the game is lost. • En passant captures of pawns are allowed if the pawn in question moved two squares in one move, but no further, at some point during the last turn, but the capture must be made on the first move of a series. • If ten consecutive turns are played with no captures and no pawn moves, then the game is declared a draw unless one of the players can force a checkmate (this is the progressive chess equivalent of the fifty-move rule in orthodox chess). • If at any stage a player has no legal moves but is not in check, the game is a draw by progressive stalemate. Italian and Scottish progressive chess are distinguished by rules on when a player is allowed to give check: • Scottish progressive chess: check may be given on any move of a series, but a check ends the series--all further moves that would otherwise be allowed are forfeited. This has no effect on the other player's next series--he will receive as many moves as he would have had the other player played his full series. • Italian progressive chess: a check may only be given on the last move of a full series (for example, on move six, a check can only be given on the sixth move)--giving a check at any other point in a series is illegal. In particular, if the only way to escape a check is to give check on the first move of the series, then the game is lost by the player in check by "progressive checkmate". Progressive chess, like orthodox chess, is notated with algebraic notation. However, the numbering of moves is handled slightly differently. Rather than one white and one black move being given under each move number (leading to notation in orthodox chess like 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6), each turn by each player is given its own move number (leading to notation in progressive chess like 1.e4 2.e5 Nf6 3.Bc4 Qh5 Qxf7#). In this way, the move number is equal to the number of moves in a series available to a player on that turn. Other variations There is another form of progressive chess, English progressive chess, which makes quite a significant change to the rules: within each turn, no piece may be moved twice until every other piece which has a legal move has moved once; no piece may move three times until every other piece which can have moved twice; and so on. These restrictions do not carry over from one turn to the next--so the opening 1.e4 2.e6 f6 3.e5 Nf3 Bc4 is legal (white's e-pawn may move again because its moves are on different turns), but the sequence 1.e4 2.e6 f6 3.e5 Ba6 Bxb7 is not (the bishop has made two moves, but there are many other white pieces which have not moved on that turn). There is no en passant capture under English rules, and rules on checks follow the Scottish rules. Progressive Take-All uses the same rules as Progressive chess, but involves capturing all pieces of your opponent's instead of checkmate. Pawns can also be promoted to Kings. Progressive chess In Logical progressive chess (by Paul Byway, Variant Chess 18, automne 1995) there's no castling or pawn two advance (hence no en-passant capture) since these rules were added to speed up the game, which is not relevant in progressive form. 128 External links • Progressive Chess [1] by Timo Honkela References [1] http:/ / www. cis. hut. fi/ ~tho/ chess. html Avalanche chess Avalanche chess is a chess variant designed by Ralph Betza in 1977. After moving one of your own pieces, you must move one of your opponent's pawns forward one space. Rules Rules are as normal chess except for the following. After you move one of your own pieces, you must move one of your opponent's pawns one space forward toward you. You cannot use your opponent's pawn to capture and you cannot move your opponent's pawn two spaces forward. If none of opponent's pawns can be moved, then that part of the turn is skipped. If you must move your opponent's pawn to promotion, then your opponent chooses to what piece it promotes. If moving an opponent's pawn gives check to you, then your opponent wins the game immediately. Further reading • Pritchard, D. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. Avalanche chess, p. 13-15. • Pritchard, D. (2000). Popular Chess Variants. Bastford Chess Books. ISBN 0-7134-8578-7. Ch. 12 Avalanche chess, p. 78-82. External links • Avalanche chess | ChessVariants [1] References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ mvopponent. dir/ avalanche. html Monster chess 129 Monster chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Monster chess. White can move twice per turn. Monster chess - or Super King chess - is a chess variant in which the White has only a king and four pawns to fight against all the pieces of the Black side. All the rules of chess apply, except that White makes two successive moves per turn. The white king can move into check on the first move of the turn. The goal is to capture the opponent's king. Monster chess is also played with White starting with all eight pawns, or with only two. Queening a white pawn generally allows White to declare a checkmate on one of the next moves. Also, with only the two kings on the board, White can easily force a Monster chess checkmate. Sometimes White's moves can be executed with humour. For example, both hands can be used to move two pawns simultaneously, or a black piece one square away from the white king can simply be removed from the board. Rules • • • • White must execute two moves in his/her turn. He can do this by moving a piece twice or two pieces once. The white king may move into check and then out of check, provided that White can execute two moves. If a king is in check, it must be placed out of check. Otherwise, standard chess rules apply. External links • Monster chess [1] by David Regis • Variants of Monster chess [2], and a description of a strategy for Black. Monster chess 130 References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ unequal. dir/ monster. html [2] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ d. betza/ chessvar/ muenster. html Kung-fu chess Kung-Fu Chess is a chess variant without turns. It is a real-time strategy game. Any player can move any of his pieces at any given moment. After a piece was moved it must "rest" a while before it is allowed to move again. If two pieces of opposite color (for example, the white queen and the black queen) try to capture each other exactly simultaneously, they will trade places. Hence reflexes and timing are key. Victory is achieved when the enemy king is captured. This game was created by Shizmoo Games. Awards Kung-fu Chess was Game of the Year 2003 from Arcade Pod [1] and Game of the Month February 2002 from Game Spot [2]. It could be played online at Shizmoo.com [3], with up to 80 players online during busy hours. Game Styles There are several game styles of Kung-Fu Chess, all based on the same principle of a real-time gameplay, i.e. both players playing simultaneously and can move several pieces in the same time. Standard - The standard Kung-Fu Chess is one-on-one match, with average speed of the pieces' movements ("speed") and the time they are delayed until they can be moved again ("delay"). These two parameters are always set to 1.0 in an official standard match. Match is over when one of the players gets to capture his opponent's king. Fast Four Way - Competes the Standard style for "the most popular Kung-Fu Chess game style", probably with success. Fast Four Way (a.k.a. "F4W", "FFW") is a match between four players on a four-way board similar to the Four-Handed chess board, when the goal is again the eliminate your opponents' kings, as it goes by the principle of "last man standing". The major difference in this game style in addition to being 4 players match, is that the speed of both pieces movement and delay is ten times quicker than the Standard game style (set to 0.1), and therefore F4W games are characterized with more action and speed rather than strategy in the Standard style. Standard and Fast Four Way are the two only official styles that were available at Shizmoo for the nonsubscribers players (free users). By official, it means a player is being rated by playing this game style, and can have a different rank at Standard than at Fast Four Way. Although the official game styles have their constant settings for Speed and Delay, these parameters can be changed in friendly matches. This option created another popular style entitled "Fast 2 Ways" - for players who loved the extreme speed of the F4W but did not want to play with 3 opponents. Nevertheless this game style had never become official, nor as popular as the Standard and the F4W were. Crazyhouse - Crazyhouse is an official game style available only for subscribed players at Shizmoo. The principle is the same as the original chess variant, captured pieces can be used in the board again by the player who captures them, but alongside the real-time feature of the Kung-Fu Chess of course. The speed is average, but a bit quicker than the Standard style, however the captured pieces move slower than the original pieces in the match. Bughouse - A Crazyhouse for four players playing simultaneously, Bughouse is the second subscribers-only game style, as there are two matches of one-on-one being played the same time, and each captured piece is moved to the hands of the teammate of the capturing player, in the neighbor board. It is a pairs match and the first player to eliminate his opponent's king wins for himself and his partner. Kung-fu chess Subscribed members could build new game styles, set new rules and principles, and not only change the speed parameters of the official forms, and thus other chess vaiants were created in a Kung-Fu Chess style, but only these four official game style mentioned above were rated. 131 Rankings Kung-Fu Chess assigns each player a numerical rating based on the player's win/loss record, using the same system as ICC, the Internet Chess Club. Additionally, each rating range corresponds to a Kung-Fu belt color as follows: • • • • • • • • Green Belt: 20 games or fewer played Purple Belt: 800-999 White Belt: 1000-1199 Yellow Belt: 1200-1399 Orange Belt: 1400-1599 Red Belt: 1600-1799 Brown Belt: 1800-1999 Black Belt: 2000+ Additional rankings such as black O and black X are awarded for 2200 rating and 2400 respectively. The Apparent End of Shizmoo On December 16, 2008 the Shizmoo website [3] was no longer accessible. Shizmoo gathered many Kung-Fu Chess fans from all over the world, and many talent players that mastered the new tactics and strategies of the unique game that did not exist in the original Chess game, and brought it to new levels of excitement. As for now it seems that Shizmoo was shut down for good. These sorrowful tidings caused many disappointed fascinated fans to look for clues about the fate of Shizmoo, and a few attempts to revive the community of the Kung-Fu Chess players and create a new home were made. Tempest - Real Time Chess In June 2009 a new project of reviving Shizmoo's Kung Fu Chess was published, and looked more serious attempt than anything made so far. The new project called "Tempest" looks promising, and already gathered and still is gathering former fans, hopefully to become their new home and a worthy successor for Shizmoo. Tempest is still under constant development. Its current state is already playable. Unlike Shizmoo, Tempest uses a software that needs to be downloaded in order to play. A download is available for free from the official site. Ninja Chess In 2010 a game similar to Kung Fu Chess dubbed "Ninja Chess" has been developed for iPhone and iPad. It is published on the App Store by Nordlysa Entertainment. This project brings the concept of Real-Time Chess to touch interfaces and includes the ability to play Head-to-Head (each player facing his own board). This was absent in Kung Fu Chess which offered only online play. However this project does not supports the many variants developed by Shizmoo. Kung-fu chess 132 External links • • • • • • • • • • Official site (currently unavailable) [4] Devilant's Strategy guide [5] Newgen's Strategy guide [6] GameSpy article [7] GameDev.net article [8] Post-Shizmoo meeting place [9] Tempest [10] Ninja Chess [11] Rules definition [12] Notation FENr [13] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. arcadepod. com http:/ / www. gamespot. com http:/ / www. shizmoo. com http:/ / www. kungfuchess. com/ [5] http:/ / www. tubo-world. de/ en/ devilantguide/ [6] http:/ / kfc. kunuk. dk/ newgenstrategy/ [7] http:/ / archive. gamespy. com/ articles/ january02/ igfchess/ bio. shtm [8] http:/ / www. gamedev. net/ columns/ interviews/ shizmoo2004. asp [9] http:/ / www. zenchess. com/ forum [10] http:/ / www. tempestchess. com/ [11] http:/ / www. nordlysa. com/ ninjaches/ [12] http:/ / kfc. kunuk. dk/ rules. htm [13] http:/ / kfc. kunuk. dk/ notation. htm 133 Multiplayer variants Bughouse chess Bughouse chess Players Setup time Playing time 4 1 minute Usually 5 to 10 minutes Random chance None Skill(s) required Chess strategy, Blitz chess Bughouse chess (also called Exchange chess, Siamese chess, Tandem chess, Transfer chess, or simply Bughouse or Bug) is a popular chess variant played on two chessboards by four players in teams of two.[1] Normal chess rules apply, except that captured pieces on one board are passed on to the players of the other board, who then have the option of putting these pieces on their board. The game is usually played at a fast time control; this, together with the passing and dropping of pieces, can make the game look chaotic and random to the casual onlooker; hence the name bughouse, which is slang for mental hospital. The game is traditionally played as a diversion from regular chess both over the board and online. Yearly, several dedicated bughouse tournaments are organised on a national and an international level. Rules Bughouse chess 134 Team 1, Board A Team 1, Board B Bughouse setup and start position Bughouse is a chess variant played on two chessboards by four players in teams of two. Each team member faces one opponent of the other team. Partners sit next to each other and one player has black, while the other has white. Each player plays the opponent as in a standard chess game, with the exception of the rules specified below.[2] Captured pieces A player capturing a piece immediately passes that piece to the partner. The partner keeps these pieces in reserve and may, instead of playing a regular move, place one of these pieces on the board (as in shogi and crazyhouse). Pieces in reserve or on deck may be placed on any vacant square, including squares where the piece delivers check or checkmate. However pawns may not be dropped on the first and last rank. Dropped pawns may promote, but all promoted pawns convert back to pawns when captured. In play over the board, a promoted pawn can be put on its side to indicate promotion.[3] A pawn placed on the second rank may move two squares on its first move. Each player must keep the reserve or stock pieces on the table in front of the board, always visible to all players of the game. Clock and completion of a move Bughouse chess is usually played with chess clocks to prevent players from waiting indefinitely for a piece. Clocks are placed on the outside so that each player can see both clocks. At the start of the game, the players with the black pieces start the clocks simultaneously. Bughouse is usually played using clock move, which allows touching of pieces. A move is completed only when the clock is pressed. Touch move is practiced to a lesser extent.[4] When used, it applies to pieces in reserve as well; they are considered dropped after contact has been made with an empty Bughouse chess square. Bughouse can be played without a clock, but then there is usually a rule preventing a player waiting for pieces (stalling or sitting) indefinitely. One rule states that players may not delay their move beyond the time that it takes for their partner to make three moves.[5] 135 End of the game The match ends when either of the games on the two boards ends. A game is won when one player gets checkmated, resigns, forfeits on time or when an illegal move is made in which the offending side is caught. The match can be drawn by agreement or when two players run out of time or are checkmated simultaneously. Depending on (local) rules threefold repetition applies, in which case the reserve of pieces is not taken into account.[6] Alternatively, when one board finishes, play can continue on the other board. In this case, pieces in reserve can still be dropped, but no new pieces are coming in. The outcome of the match is then decided by adding the score of the two boards.[5] Communication Partners are normally allowed to talk to each other during the game. They can for instance ask for a specific piece, for more trades, ask to hold a piece, suggest moves or ask their partner to stall. Shouts like "Knight mates!" or "Give me pieces!" are common, and can lead to seemingly absurd sacrificial captures on the other board. Partners are not allowed to physically act on the other board.[7] Variations Bughouse comes in many variants, especially in the way drops are handled. Examples include:[8] • Pieces cannot be dropped with check and/or checkmate. This variation is common in Europe and is sometimes referred to as tandem chess.[9] [10] • Pieces can only be placed on the player's half of the board. • Pieces may only be placed on the third, fourth, fifth and sixth rank (the four middle ranks). • Play continues until both games are complete. • Kings are not subject to check; the game ends when one player's king is captured, even though there might have been an escape. • Kings can be captured and the game continues until one team has all kings on the board. • Pawns cannot be dropped on seventh (and sometimes sixth) rank. • Pawns never promote, when they reach the eighth rank they remain pawns. This was a common variation in Australia in the 1980s which saves having to find extra pieces. • Pawns may be dropped on the first rank. • Promoted pawns carry their promotion over after a capture. It is possible to play the game with just two players (one per team) by having each player move on two boards. Analogous to simultaneous chess, this way of playing the game is referred to as simultaneous bughouse. It can also be played with just one clock by playing the boards in a specific order (WhiteA, WhiteB, BlackB, BlackA) and pressing the clock after each move. This variation is suitable for play by mail.[11] Bughouse can be played with three or more boards. The game is played in exactly the same way as normal bughouse with boards placed with alternating colours and two players and one clock per board. On capturing a piece however, the player has to decide which player of the team will get that piece. In three board bughouse chess the middle player is the key since he gets material from two boards, but has to decide how to divide the captured pieces.[12] The middle board also commonly becomes very cramped due to having twice the number of pieces available. Bughouse chess 136 Strategy Material In chess a minor material advantage is important as when material gets exchanged, the relative advantage becomes larger. Because new pieces come in, there is no endgame play in bughouse and material is therefore less important. It is common to sacrifice pieces in bughouse while attacking, defending or hunting down a certain piece which the partner requires.[12] A scoring system to evaluate material is to add up the piece values of the material on the board. In chess, when a pawn equals one unit, a bishop or knight is worth three, a rook five and a queen nine. These values are a consequence of the difference in mobility of the pieces. In bughouse piece values differ because pieces in reserve essentially have the same mobility as they can be dropped on any vacant square.[13] The pawn relatively gains importance in bughouse chess, its very limited mobility does not handicap reserve pawns. They can for instance be dropped to block non-contact checks. Pawns can be dropped onto the seventh rank, one step away from promotion, which again adds to their importance. Long range pieces like the queen or the rook lose relative value, due to the constantly changing pawn structure. They are also more likely to be cornered in.[14] A valuation system often applied to bughouse is pawn=1, bishop=knight=rook=2 and queen=4.[15] Coordination Captured pieces are passed on and thus what happens on one board influences what happens on the other board. It is therefore natural for team members to communicate during game play. A common request of an attacking player would be "trades are good", while players in trouble would ask their partner to hold trades with "trades are bad". Equally a player can request a piece e.g. "knight wins a queen" or ask to hold a piece e.g. "rook mates me".[16] Another common situation in the interplay between the two boards is a player not moving, also called sitting or stalling. This can happen in anticipation of a certain piece or at the request of the partner. Suppose a player is under heavy attack, and an additional pawn would mate him. When the partner cannot prevent giving up a pawn on the next move, sitting is the only strategy. It would of course be perfectly logical for the attacker to sit as well, waiting for a pawn to come. The situation, where diagonal opponents sit at the same time is known as a "sitzkrieg" (literally "sitting war" in German, and a pun on "blitzkrieg"). The difference in time between the diagonal opponents will eventually force one party to move. This diagonal time advantage is more important than the difference on the clock between opponents on the same board.[17] Apart from this active communication, a good bughouse player tries to coordinate silently by keeping an eye on the other board and adapting moves accordingly. This can mean as little as glancing at the other board before trading queens, or as much as playing an opening adapted to the other board.[18] Attack and defense Attacking the king can mean checking the opponent but also controlling vital squares around the king. It is an essential part of bughouse gameplay. From a player's perspective, attacking the king has important advantages as opposed to defending or attempting to win material:[19] • Because of the possibility of dropping pieces, attacks in bughouse can quickly lead to checkmate. • The attacking player has the initiative, he is the one who controls the board, while the opponent is left to react. This has also important consequences for the other board. • It is easier to attack than to defend. A defending mistake can have bigger consequences than an attacking mistake. Thus, the defender needs to be more precise, which in turn can lead to a time advantage for the attacker. It is common to sacrifice material to build up, or sustain an attack. Characteristic for attacks is the so-called "piece storm", where a player drops piece after piece with check. Contact checks or knight checks, which force the king to Bughouse chess move as opposed to dropping pieces, are especially important. They can be used to drive the king into the open, away from its defenders, while they prevent the opponent from putting new material on the board.[20] Partner communication is essential in a good defense. When one partner is under attack, the other partner should be aware of which pieces hurt most. Sitting strategies might be necessary, and it is therefore important to play the defense fast. Accepting a sacrifice can be lethal. On the other hand, it results in the attacker having a piece less to play with, with the defender's partner having a piece more. Sacrifices therefore give the partner of the defender an opportunity to take initiative.[21] 137 Opening There are significantly fewer bughouse openings than there are chess openings. Many chess openings create weaknesses which can be easily exploited in bughouse. It is for instance not recommended to move pawns other than the d and e pawn.[22] Bughouse openings are generally geared towards dominating vital squares and fast development. Captured pieces become available after the first few moves and it is important to develop at this stage as there is often not enough time to do so later. Development also helps to defend against early piece drop attacks.[23] Notation and sample game The algebraic chess notation for chess can be used to record moves in bughouse games. Different notations for piece drops are possible.[24] The internet chess servers FICS and Internet Chess Club use the at-sign @, as in N@f1 (knight drop at f1), Q@e6+ (queen drop with check at e6) or P@h7 (pawn drop at h7). Because of the fast pace at which the game is played, bughouse games are rarely recorded in games played over the board. With the arrival of online chess it has become possible to systematically record games.[25] Example bughouse game. The format in which this is done is the bughouse portable game notation (BPGN), an extension of the Portable Game Notation for chess.[26] Software, such as BPGN viewer can be used to replay and analyse bughouse games.[27] Below is an example bughouse game in the BPGN format. [Event "rated bughouse match"] [Site "chess server X"] [Date "2004.04.12"] [WhiteA "WA"][WhiteAElo "1970"] [BlackA "BA"][BlackAElo "2368"] [WhiteB "WB"][WhiteBElo "1962"] [BlackB "BB"][BlackBElo "2008"] [TimeControl "180+0"] [Result "0-1"] 1A. e4 {180} 1a. Nc6 {180} 1B. d4 {179} 2A. Nc3 {179} 1b. Nf6 {178} 2a. Nf6 {178} 2B. d5 {178} 3A. d4 {177} 2b. e6 {177} 3a. d5 {177} 3B. dxe6 {176} 4A. e5 {176} 3b. dxe6 {176} 4B. Qxd8+ {175} 4a. Ne4 {175} 4b. Kxd8 {175} 5B. Bg5 {174} 5A. Nxe4 {174} 5a. dxe4 {173} 5b. Be7 {173} 6A. Nh3 {173} 6B. Nc3 {172} 6a. Bxh3 {171} 6b. N@d4 {171} 7A. gxh3 {171} 7a. Nxd4 {170} 7B. O-O-O {169} 8A. P@e6 {168} 7b. Nbc6 {168} 8B. Bxf6 {166} Bughouse chess 8a. N@f3+ {165} 9A. Qxf3 {165} 8b. Bxf6 {164} 9a. Nxf3+ {164} 10A. Ke2 {164} 9B. e3 {164} 10a. Q@d2+ {164} 11A. Bxd2 {164} 11a. Qxd2+ {164} {WA checkmated} 0-1 138 Where to play Over the board Little is known on the history of bughouse, but it seems to have developed in the early 1960s.[28] It is now quite popular as a diversion of regular chess in local chess clubs throughout Europe and the US.[28] [29] Grandmasters such as Levon Aronian, Joel Benjamin, Yasser Seirawan, Andy Soltis, John Nunn, Jon Speelman, Sergey Karjakin, Michael Adams, Emil Sutovsky and Michael Rohde have been known to play the game.[28] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] With the absence of an International Federation, competitive over the board bughouse is very much in its infancy. There is also no world championship. A few countries do organize bughouse tournaments within the national chess federation. Examples include: • The yearly international chess festival Czech Open in July features the Czech republic bughouse championship.[35] • Yearly, USCF organizes bughouse tournaments as part of the National Junior High (K-9) Championship and the National High School (K-12) Championship.[36] [37] Other tournaments are organized privately: • One of the largest international bughouse tournaments is the yearly tournament in Berlin.[38] Going into its sixth edition, it is popular among top players from FICS. Grandmaster Levon Aronian took part in the 2005 edition of the tournament and took the second place with his teammate Vasiliy Shakov.[39] • Since 2000 there has been an annual bughouse tournament in Geneva, attracting the best European players.[28] [40] Online Bughouse can be played online at chess servers such as FICS and ICC since 1995.[41] FICS is currently the most active server for bughouse, attracting the world's best players like Levon Aronian.[42] The game is played online in the same way as over the board, but some aspects are unique to online bughouse. In games over the board, communication is heard by all players, while in online bughouse it is usually done via private messages between two partners. This makes communication a more powerful weapon. It is also easier to coordinate as the second board is more visible on the screen than over the board.[43] The time aspect is altered due to existence of premove and lag. The latter can influence the diagonal time difference significantly, and it is good sportsmanship to restart the game when this difference gets too large.[44] ICS compatible interfaces particularly suitable for bughouse include Thief and BabasChess. They have the ability to display both boards at the same time and store played or observed games, they also have partner communication buttons and a lag indicator. Special Xboard compatible engines have been written that support bughouse, examples are Sunsetter, Sjeng and TJchess.[45] [46] [47] Although much faster than humans, they lack in positional understanding and especially in coordination and communication, an essential skill in this team game.[48] Bughouse chess 139 Controversy Bughouse chess is controversial among scholastic chess teachers. The majority view is that it does not have a positive effect on novice chess players.[49] In the words of Susan Polgar: "If your children want to play bughouse for fun, it is OK. But just remember that it is not chess and it has no positive value for chess. In fact, I absolutely recommend no bughouse during a tournament."[50] One argument supporting this view is that bughouse distorts the typical pattern recognition used in chess.[51] Another argument is that bughouse neglects positional values due to its highly tactical game play.[52] On the other hand, there is no evidence that bughouse would hurt experienced chess players. In the words of Levon Aronian: "Bughouse is good for players who know chess well already. ... I started to play bug when I was already at master level, [you] see, and I think bughouse is good for the imagination, to develop new ideas."[52] Notes [1] Other less common names for bughouse include Team chess, Hungarian chess, Swedish chess, New England Double Bughouse, Pass-On chess, Tandem Put-back, Double Speed, Double chess, Double Five, Simultaneous chess, Double Bug or Double Bughouse (von Zimmerman (2006), front; Manson and Hoover (1992), p. 186 and Bughouse on Chessvariants (http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ multiplayer. dir/ tandem. html)). See Bughouse in other languages (http:/ / www. bughouse. be/ bughouse translations. htm). Accessed July 29, 2007. [2] It should be noted though that bughouse has many variations and that there is no international standard. The rules below are in accordance with the US chess federation (http:/ / www. uschess. org/ tournaments/ 2006/ 2006bughouse. pdf), the rules as applied on the chess servers Free Internet Chess Server and Internet Chess Club and the Berlin bughouse tournament (http:/ / bughouse. info). In the case rules contradict, alternatives are listed. Accessed July 29, 2007. [3] von Zimmerman (2006), p. 15 [4] See for example the rules of the Geneva bughouse tournament (http:/ / pion. ch/ Bug/ ruleseng. html). Accessed July 29, 2007. [5] Bughouse on ChessVariants.org (http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ multiplayer. dir/ tandem. html). Accessed July 29, 2007. [6] For instance, the threefold repetition applies on FICS but not on Internet Chess Club. [7] See Article nr. 12, US chess federation Bughouse rules (http:/ / www. uschess. org/ tournaments/ 2006/ 2006bughouse. pdf). Accessed August 27, 2007. [8] Comments on tandem chess rules from chessvariants.com (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ index/ listcomments. php?itemid=TandemChess). Accessed July 29, 2007. [9] See for example the bughouse rules from the Geneva gathering page (http:/ / www. pion. ch/ Bug/ rules. html) and the official bughouse rules in the Netherlands (http:/ / www. schaakmeester-p. nl/ spelregels. htm#doorgeefschaak). Accessed July 29, 2007. [10] Tandem chess rules from chessvariants.com (http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ multiplayer. dir/ tandem. html). Accessed July 29, 2007. [11] von Zimmerman (2006), p.108 [12] Manson and Hoover (1992), p. 34–37 [13] von Zimmerman (2006), p. 17. [14] Manson and Hoover (1992), p. 32–33 [15] von Zimmerman (2006), p. 17. The bughouse playing program Sunsetter (http:/ / sunsetter. sourceforge. net/ ) uses the values pawn=100, bishop=195, knight=192, rook=200 and queen=390, while the engine Sjeng (http:/ / www. sjeng. org/ indexold. html) uses pawn=100, bishop=230, knight=210, rook=250 and queen=450. Accessed July 29, 2007. [16] von Zimmerman (2006), p. 243–244 [17] Manson and Hoover (1992), p. 75–89 [18] See Chris Ferrante (2000) (http:/ / personal. atl. bellsouth. net/ f/ e/ ferrantc/ chess/ bughouse. html), reproduced in von Zimmerman (2006), p.79–94 [19] von Zimmerman (2006), p.109 [20] von Zimmerman (2006), p.20 [21] von Zimmerman (2006), p.113 [22] von Zimmerman (2006), p.21–24 [23] von Zimmerman (2006), p.68 [24] Manson and Hoover (1992) use an "x" (as used in captures) in front to indicate a piece drop, as in xNf1. Penn and Dizon (1998) use the "I" (for insert) in front as in INf1. Von Zimmerman (2006) uses the @-notation. [25] Two large bughouse databases are Jamesbaud's database (http:/ / www. bughouse-db. org) and Lieven's database (http:/ / www. bughouse. be/ database. html).Accessed July 31, 2007. [26] Specification of the BPGN format from bughouse.be (http:/ / www. bughouse. be/ BPGN_Standard. txt). Accessed July 29, 2007. Archived (http:/ / web. archive. org/ 20070927030540/ http:/ / www. bughouse. be/ BPGN_Standard. txt) September 27, 2007 at the Wayback Machine [27] BPGN viewer can be obtained from bughouse.net (http:/ / www. bughouse. net/ ). Accessed July 29, 2007. [28] Pritchard (2007), p. 327 Bughouse chess [29] von Zimmerman (2006), p.162–173 [30] John Nunn playing bughouse at the 2004 World Chess Solving Championship; Chessbase news, 22 September 2004 (http:/ / www. chessbase. com/ newsdetail. asp?newsid=1919). Accessed July 29, 2007. [31] Sergey Karjakin playing bughouse at the 2005 Young Stars tournament; Chessbase news 31, May 2005 (http:/ / www. chessbase. com/ newsdetail. asp?newsid=2423). Accessed July 29, 2007. [32] Bughouse Newsletter, Vol I 1992 edited by Jeremy Graham [33] The Independent (London), 12 July 1999 (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4158/ is_19990712/ ai_n14255436). Accessed July 29, 2007. Archived (http:/ / web. archive. org/ 20080308153016/ http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4158/ is_19990712/ ai_n14255436) March 8, 2008 at the Wayback Machine [34] Emil Sutovsky playing bughouse at the 8th Montreal International (http:/ / chesspro. ru/ _events/ 2007/ monreal13. html) Accessed July 31, 2007. [35] Chess festival Czech Open (http:/ / www. czechopen. net/ ). Accessed July 29, 2007. [36] The official announcements for the 2006 (http:/ / www. uschess. org/ tournaments/ 2006/ jhs/ ) and 2007 (http:/ / www. uschess. org/ tournaments/ 2007/ jhs/ ) editions. Accessed July 29, 2007. [37] The official announcements for the 2006 (http:/ / www. uschess. org/ tournaments/ 2006/ hs/ ) and 2007 (http:/ / www. uschess. org/ tournaments/ 2007/ hs/ ) editions. Accessed July 29, 2007. [38] Official website of the Berlin bughouse tournament (http:/ / www. bughouse. info). Accessed July 29, 2007. [39] Report of the 2005 edition (http:/ / www. berlinerschachverband. de/ archiv/ chronik/ 2005/ tandem/ ), Berliner Schachverband. Accessed July 29, 2007. [40] Official site of the bughouse tournament in Geneva (http:/ / www. pion. ch/ Bug/ gath. html). Accessed July 29, 2007. [41] von Zimmerman (2006), p.239 [42] von Zimmerman (2006), p.5–9, 16, 25, 95 and 240 [43] von Zimmerman (2006), p.240 [44] Anders Ebenfelt's Bughouse page (http:/ / reocities. com/ Paris/ metro/ 1324/ ). Accessed August 29. [45] Homepage of Sunsetter (http:/ / sunsetter. sourceforge. net/ ). Accessed July 29, 2007. [46] Homepage of Sjeng (http:/ / www. sjeng. org/ indexold. html). Accessed July 29, 2007. [47] Homepage of TJchess (http:/ / www. tonyjh. com/ chess/ ). Accessed July 29, 2007. [48] Georg von Zimmerman (2000), Figuren recycling, Computerschach und Spiele 5/00 p44–46 (in German). [49] A guide to scholastic chess (http:/ / www. uschess. org/ scholastic/ sc-guide2. html), United States Chess Federation. Accessed October 3, 2007. Archived (http:/ / web. archive. org/ 20071011044350/ http:/ / www. uschess. org/ scholastic/ sc-guide2. html) October 11, 2007 at the Wayback Machine [50] Scholastic Chess: Polgar Girls' World Open and Boys' Chess Challenge (http:/ / main. uschess. org/ content/ view/ 7794/ 302/ ), USCF Chess Live Magazine. Accessed October 3, 2007. [51] Snyder, Robert M. (2004). Winning Chess Tournaments for Juniors. Random House Puzzles & Games. ISBN 978-0812936353., p. 10. [52] von Zimmerman (2006), p. 27 140 References • Manson Jr., John F.; Hoover, Todd (1992), Siamese Chess. How To Play...How to Win!, Farnsworth Enterprises, ASIN B0006PFGZS • Penn, David A.; Dizon, Rommel (1998), Comprehensive Bughouse Chess (http://www.bughousechess.net/), Graham Cracker Studios, ISBN 0-966-98060-3 • Pritchard, D. B. (2007), The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. (second edition), John Beasley, ISBN 0-95551-680-3 • von Zimmerman, Georg, ed. (2006), Bughouse Chess (http://www.bughouse-book.com/), Books on Demand GmbH, ISBN 3-833-46811-4 Bughouse chess 141 External links • Bughouse Chess (http://www.bughouse.net) • Explanation of BugHouse Chess by FM Gulamali and NM Stewart (http://www.onlinechesslessons.net/2011/ 06/11/what-is-bughouse-chess/) • Bughouse on the ChessVariants pages (http://www.chessvariants.org/multiplayer.dir/tandem.html) • Errant Fischer's Bughouse Page (http://personal.atl.bellsouth.net/f/e/ferrantc/chess/index.html) • The Bug Board - Forum and software (http://www.thebugboard.net/) • bughouse-db.org - FICS bughouse database (http://www.bughouse-db.org/) • bughousedb.com - Another bughouse database (http://www.bughousedb.com/) • bughouse.be - Database and links (http://www.bughouse.be/) • Bughouse live on XBOX (http://www.xblaratings.com/component/content/article/2358-team-chess) Three-handed chess Three player chess is a family of chess variants specially designed to be played by three people.[1] There are many variations of three-handed chess. They usually use some non-standard board, for example, hexagonal or three-sided board connected in the middle in a special way. Three-player chess (and other games) variants are the hardest to design fairly, because the imbalance created when two gang up on one is usually too great for the player to withstand. Some versions avoid this problem by deciding victory such that the third player loses as well as the checkmated player, leaving the player who delivers checkmate first to be the victor. Chessboard for three-handed chess Hexagonal board Many three-player chess variants use a hexagonal board. Pieces move usually as in one of versions of hexagonal chess: • ThreeChess: Three-player chess online played on hexagonal board with classical chess rules, adapted for three players. It is available multiplayer and free to play online at www.ThreeChess.com [2]. • Chesh [3] by Gianluca Moro. • Chexs [4] by Stephen P. Kennedy. • Echexs [5] by Jean-Louis Cazaux. • HEXChess [6]: commercial chess variant by HEXchess Inc. • Three-way chess was invented by Richard Harshman.[7] It is played by three players on a six-sided board with hexagonal cells.[8] Three-handed chess 142 Three-sided board Often a special three-sided board is used (like shown in the picture above): • Self's variant [9]: by Hency J. Self (1894). • Three player chess [10]: by Robert Zubrin (1972). The patent for this game describes a variant in which whoever is first to checkmate one of the other two players gains control of that player's forces. If more than one player's pieces contribute to a checkmate, this applies to whoever makes the final move that causes a checkmate.[11] • Triple chess [12]: chess board is extended with 8x3 rectangles on 3 sides. This game is invented by Philip Marinelli in 1722. • Triochess [13] (1975). • Waider's game [14]: by Waider (1837). Other boards Besides hexagonal and three-sided boards some other board forms were tried: • 3-color chess [15]: uses a special three-dimensional board or can be used with three-colored boards. • 3 Man Chess [16]: uses round board. • Orwell chess [17]: cylindrical board is used, similar to cylinder chess. • Megachess [18]: uses a triangular board. Strategy The introduction of a third player drastically changes the style of play, even if standard pieces are used. Many chess openings are useless due to the extended board and third player. The introduction of the 'extra' move by the third player can introduce situations of deadlock, for example if a white piece is undefended and simultaneously attacked by both black and red pieces. Black cannot take the white piece, since red would then capture the black piece next turn. Thus the black and red pieces are both simultaneously attacking the white piece and defending it from attack by the other player. In similar situations, a piece can move quite safely into a square where it is attacked by both opponents, since neither opponent would take the piece and risk capture by the third player. Each player must think twice as far ahead — anticipating the moves of both opponents, with the added complexity that the next player may move to attack either of his opponents. In games where the third player loses as well as the checkmated one, players must concentrate not only on their own attack and defense, but also on preventing the two opponents from checkmating each other. A player can take advantage of one opponents position to checkmate the other, but must be careful that the third player does not checkmate first. White could checkmate red, only to have his piece captured by a black piece, which checkmates red. In this situation, white would lose since black delivers the final checkmating move. This strategy also applies to games which give the checkmating player command of the checkmated opponent's pieces- a player who allows the second player to checkmate the third would surely go on to lose due to the increased power of his remaining opponent, now armed with the third player's pieces. Three-handed chess 143 References [1] Pritchard, D. (2000). Popular Chess Variants. Bastford Chess Books. ISBN 0-7134-8578-7. [2] http:/ / www. ThreeChess. com [3] http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ query?url=http:/ / www. geocities. com/ Athens/ Olympus/ 5867/ chesh. html& date=2009-10-25+ 06:08:39 [4] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ hexagonal. dir/ chexs. html [5] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ hexagonal. dir/ echexs. html [6] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ hexagonal. dir/ hexreview. html [7] Nikos Sidiropoulos and Rasmus Bro (2009). "In memory of Richard Harshman". Journal of Chemometrics 23: 315. doi:10.1002/cem.1247. [8] http:/ / www. threewaychess. org/ [9] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ historic. dir/ self. html [10] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ multiplayer. dir/ 3pl2. html [11] US3,652,091 (http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?vid=3652091) – Three-player chess board – Robert Zubrin [12] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ historic. dir/ marinelli. html [13] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ d. photo/ triochess. html [14] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ historic. dir/ waider. html [15] http:/ / www. 3schach. de/ german/ device. html [16] http:/ / www. 3manchess. com/ page6. html [17] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ large. dir/ contest84/ orwellchess. html [18] http:/ / boardgamegeek. com/ boardgame/ 4572/ megachess External links • Chess for three (http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,910529-1,00.html). Four-handed chess 144 Four-handed chess Four-handed chess A common four-way chess board Genre(s) Players Random chance Skill(s) required Chess variant 4 None Strategy, Logic Four-handed chess (also known as Chess 4 and 4-way chess) is a chess variant, which is typically played with four people. It is played on a special board, which is made of standard 8x8 board with an additional 3 rows of 8 cells extending from each side. Four sets of different colored pieces are needed to play this game. Four way chess follows the same basic rules as regular two way chess. There are many different rule variations of this game. Most variants, however, share the same board and similar piece setup. Team The most common form of play is two vs. two in which allied pieces cannot eliminate each other, but help the others in defense and offense. The allied players sit across from each other and help checkmate the people to the left and right of them. The game is over when both opposing kings are checkmated. If only one can be checkmated, the game is a draw. Singles Singles is substantially harder than team play. In this method, each player can attack any of the other three players and vice versa. Once a player is checkmated, the checkmated player can either remove their pieces from the board, or the person that checkmated can use the remaining pieces during his/her turn. Play continues until only one player is left. Game rules • Players can only move their chess pieces on their turn. • If a player is placed in check, that player must wait until their designated turn before that player can respond to the threat. • Pawns move forward only, unless attacking in a diagonal forward manner. • In the event a pawn reaches the King's row to the left, right or directly across, that pawn shall receive all the privileges of a pawn reaching King's row during a traditional chess game (i.e. bringing back a queen (most commonly), a rook, a bishop, or a knight). Four-handed chess 145 External links • • • • Four-player Chess [1] at BoardGameGeek Four Handed Chess I [2], II [3] and III [4] from chessvariants.org Four-handed Chess [5] by Capt. George Hope Verney Free online version (Chesapeake Four-handed Chess) [6] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. boardgamegeek. com/ game/ 2173 http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ multiplayer. dir/ 4players. html http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ multiplayer. dir/ fourhanded2. html http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ multiplayer. dir/ fourhanded3. html http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ books. dir/ 4handed/ index. html http:/ / www. pathguy. com/ chess/ Chesapea. htm Forchess 146 Forchess Forchess Players Age range Setup time Playing time 4 any 2 minutes 30-90 minutes Random chance None Skill(s) required Chess strategy Forchess is a four-person chess variant developed by an American engineer named T. K. Rogers. It uses one standard chess board and two sets of standard pieces. History and motivation Forchess was developed around the year 1975. Its inventor T. K. Rogers wanted to create a pure strategy game with the social dynamic of card games like Bridge. Rogers believed in the educational merits of chess and felt that making the game a more popular social activity would benefit society. Rogers wanted the game to use only standard pieces and a standard board so that everything necessary to play would be readily available. He also did not want to severely limit the number of pieces each player had. In 1992, Rogers published the instruction set as a 64-page booklet Forchess: The Ultimate Social Game, designed to fit in a shirt pocket. The booklet also contained strategies for playing the game and a new technique invented by Rogers for analyzing both chess and Forchess games. He called it influence indicator. In 1996, Rogers posted a free instruction set on the then newly-founded Intuitor website. He simultaneously began distributing thousands of free instruction brochures to schools and colleges. Overview of the game Initial Forchess Board Layout a b c d e f g h 8 K R N P P B R K 8 7 R Q B P P N Q R 7 6 B N P P B N 6 5 P P P P P P P P 5 4 P P P P P P P P 4 3 N B P P N B 3 2 R Q N P P B Q R 2 1 K R B P P N R K 1 a b c d e f g h The game is played by four people in teams of two. At the outset, each player controls an entire quadrant of the board with a full set of chess pieces (minus one pawn). Partners occupy quadrants diagonally across from each other. Forchess The diagram at right shows the initial layout of the Forchess board (K=King, Q=Queen, R=Rook, B=Bishop, N=Knight, and P=Pawn). Note that only 4 squares are initially unoccupied. All the pieces move and capture in the same manner as conventional chess, except the pawn, which moves diagonally and captures laterally. A pawn may not move two squares at a time, and there is no en passant capture. There are no checkmates and no stalemates: kings are captured like all other pieces. When a player is in check and has no legal moves to escape check, he may make a "token move" every turn until his king is actually captured. When a player loses his king, his remaining pieces subsequently become the captor's. The game ends when one team has lost both kings or chooses to concede. Partners typically coordinate their moves as part of a single strategy. Thus, communication of that strategy becomes a requirement of the game. Clandestine forms of communication such as code words, furtive gestures, or secret notes are not allowed. All strategizing between partners must be done openly in front of their opponents. This rule lends Forchess much of its social character. 147 Cutthroat Forchess Forchess has a variant called Cutthroat, in which there are no partners and only one player wins by defeating all three opponents. Successful strategy in Cutthroat Forchess can differ greatly from "regular" Forchess, as fluid alliances may spark a game of psychological manipulation. In this respect, Cutthroat shares strategy elements with the board game Risk. External links • The official Forchess homepage [1] • Forchess discussion forum [2] References [1] http:/ / www. intuitor. com/ forchess/ [2] http:/ / games. groups. yahoo. com/ group/ forchessonline/ Djambi 148 Djambi Djambi (also described as "Machiavelli's chessboard") is a board game and a chess variant for four players, invented by Jean Anesto in 1975. Rules Material The game is played on a 9×9 board whose central square (called "the maze") is marked with a different color or a sign. Each player has 9 pieces: • • • • 1 Chief 1 Assassin 1 Reporter 1 Troublemaker (also called Provocateur, or Diplomat) • 1 Necromobile • 4 Militants. Objective The objective of the game is to capture the chiefs of the other players before they capture yours. Although informal alliances can be temporarily agreed upon, there is no team: each player plays against the other players. Board of Djambi, with the pieces in their start position. Each piece is identified by the first letter of its name as well as a symbol. Start position The pieces are placed in each corner of the board as shown in the picture above. Movements Each player, at his/her turn, moves one of his/her pieces, and can possibly capture a piece in this way. The militants move of one or two squares in the eight directions; the other pieces can move through any number of squares in the eight directions. A piece cannot jump above another piece. Captures The pieces are "killed" as soon as they are captured, but their "corpses" stay on the board (the pieces are turned upside down to show that they are "dead"). The militant kills by occupying the square of a piece (capture by replacement). He places the corpse on an unoccupied square of his choice, except on the central square (the "maze"). A militant cannot kill a chief in power (see below). • the chief kills and places the corpse in the same way as the militant. • the assassin kills in the same way as the militant, but places the corpse in the square he comes from. Djambi • the reporter kills by occupying one of the four squares next to the square of the piece he wants to kill (he cannot kill diagonally). The corpse stays in his square. The reporter can only kill at the end of his move. The troublemaker and the necromobile cannot kill the other pieces but can move them. • the troublemaker can move another living piece by occupying its square (of course, he can only move the pieces of the other players). The piece is placed on any unoccupied square (except the maze if this piece is not a chief). • the necromobile acts like a troublemaker but only with the dead pieces (whatever the origin of the dead piece is). The corpses cannot be placed in the maze. 149 Death and surrounding of a chief When a player kills the chief of another player, he/she takes control of the living pieces of this one. At his/her turn, he/she will have the choice between using one of his/her own pieces, or using one of the captured pieces. When a player has no necromobile and his chief is surrounded by corpses, he is eliminated (except if he is in power, in the maze). His/her pieces now belong to the chief in power. If there is no chief in power, then the pieces cannot be moved or killed, until the moment when a chief takes the power, and captures them in that way (he keeps control on these pieces even if he leaves the maze). The maze The central square of the board is called the maze. Each piece can go through this square, but the chief is the only piece that can stop on it. A chief who is in the maze is a chief "in power". He plays one time after each player. For instance, if there are four players, he plays three times in a turn (if there are two players, he plays twice consecutively). When he leaves the maze, he loses this power. A chief in power takes control of the pieces of the surrounded chiefs, and keeps them after losing the power. A chief in power cannot be killed by a militant. The surrounding has no effect on him. When an assassin, a troublemaker or a necromobile goes in the maze to kill or move a chief, the assailant must make an additional move immediately, in order to leave the maze. Alliances and betrayals There can be informal agreements or alliances between the players, but there is no rule to prevent any betrayal. End of the game The game ends when a player has captured the chiefs of all of the other players. Variants Three-player variant The pieces of the missing fourth player are "hostages". These pieces can be killed or moved by the pieces of the players. When the chief is captured, the normal rules to take control of them apply. The hostage chief can be placed in the maze, but it has no influence on the game. Djambi 150 Five-player variant There is a five-player variant of djambi, called pentachiavel. External links • Board and pieces to download [1] • Links and comments [2] References [1] http:/ / jeuxsoc. free. fr/ d/ djamb. htm [2] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ link2. dir/ djambi. html Bosworth Bosworth is a four-handed chess variant manufactured by Out of the Box Publishing company since 1998. It is played on 6x6 board and uses 4 sets of standard chess pieces. Instead of traditional chess pieces, the "kingdoms" are represented by pictures of the pieces on large colored tokens, (each player has his own color: red, yellow, green, or blue), accompanied by a humorous picture of a Dork Tower character.[1] Rules The game can be played by two to four players,[2] pieces act like their normal chess counterparts (i.e. rooks move vertically and horizontally), with minor exceptions.[1] Due to the multi-player nature of the game, there is no checkmate and kings can be captured. The goal of the game is to be the last player who still has a king. Bosworth has certain rules for game set-up and placing new pieces on the board. The game board has 36 squares, in a 6x6 pattern, but the four corner squares are marked by trees, which designate the squares as impassable, and the remaining four squares between the trees on each side are marked by tents and are the "camps" of the pieces. At the start of the game each player takes his tokens, puts four pawns in his spawn camp, and shuffles the remaining tokens face down into a deck. From there the player draws four tokens from the top of the deck, and chooses from these tokens to replace empty spots in his/her spawn camp. The player must then draw enough pieces from the deck to get four in his/her hand. Bosworth 151 References [1] Lidberg, Paul Arden (1998-07-31). "Pyramid Pick: Bosworth". Pyramid (online) (Steve Jackson Games). [2] "Bosworth official rules" (http:/ / www. otb-games. com/ bosworth/ rules. html). . External links • Bosworth overview (http://www.otb-games.com/bosworth/) by the publisher • Bosworth (http://www.boardgamegeek.com/game/645) at BoardGameGeek • RPGnet: Review of Bosworth (http://www.rpg.net/reviews/archive/11/11858.phtml) by Tom Vasel Enochian chess Enochian chess is a four-player chess variant, similar to Chaturaji, associated with the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. The name comes from the Enochian system of magic of Dr. John Dee (magus and astrologer to Queen Elizabeth I), which was later adapted by Victorian members of the Golden Dawn into "a complete system of training and initiation." Enochian Chess was created by William Wynn Westcott, one of the three founders of the Golden Dawn, but the rules of the game were probably never completed by him. The game was finished by S. L. MacGregor Mathers, who put its rules into final form.[1] The game was four-handed because each set of pieces corresponded to one of the four classical elements and their several watchtowers, and the game was used for divination as well as competition. The four sets of pieces were variously colored, and identified with Egyptian deities or "god-forms". The main identifications of the pieces were: • • • • • Osiris, represented by the king; Isis, the queen; Horus, the knight; Aroueris, the bishop; and Nephthys, the rook or castle.[2] The chess board itself was also varicolored, and divided into four sub-boards in which each of one of the four elemental colors predominated.[3] The rules of the game were partially derived from shatranj and other historical forms of chess; the queen is played like a fers, with a two square diagonal leaping move.[4] The four players would form pairs of two, with each player having a partner. MacGregor Mathers, who finalised the game's rules, was known to play with an invisible partner he claimed was as spirit. Joseph Hone, biographer of William Butler Yeats, claimed, "Mathers would shade his eyes with his hands and gaze at the empty chair at the opposite corner of the board before moving his partner's piece."[5] The game, while complex, was in actual use; Georgie Yeats, wife of poet William Butler Yeats, relates actually playing the game as a part of her occult training in Golden Dawn circles.[6] Her husband took part in some of these games, as did MacGregor Mathers.[7] On the other hand, the full set of the rules is not well presented in the Golden Dawn material handed down; Donald Tyson has observed that the game has "numerous weird little quirks" that "make it impossible to actually play in any satisfactory manner".[8] Enochian chess 152 Notes [1] Ellic Howe, The magicians of the Golden Dawn: a documentary history of a magical order (Taylor & Francis, 1972; ISBN 0710073399) [2] The Golden Dawn: a complete course in practical ceremonial magic : the original account of the teachings, rites, and ceremonies of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, Israel Regardie, Cris Monnastre, Carl Llewellyn Weschcke, eds., p. 686 (Llewellyn, 1989; ISBN 0875426638) [3] Regardie et. al., p. 684. [4] Regardie et. al., p. 691 [5] Joseph Hone, W.B. Yeats, 1865-1939, p. 106 [6] Ann Saddlemyer, Becoming George: The Life of Mrs. W. B. Yeats, p. 71 (Oxford University Press, 2004; ISBN 0199269211). [7] Joseph Hone, W.B. Yeats, 1865-1939, p. 106 [8] Donald Tyson, Enochian magic for beginners: the original system of angel magic, p. 308 (Llewellyn, 1997; ISBN 1567187471). Further reading • Chris Zalewski: Enochian Chess of the Golden Dawn: A Four-Handed Chess Game. Llewellyn's Golden Dawn, 1994. ISBN 978-0875428956. External links • Enochian Chess publications (http://steve-nichols.com/page3.html) • Enochian Chess on the Chess Variant Pages (http://www.chessvariants.org/historic.dir/enochian.html) 153 Unusual pieces Fairy chess piece Some fairy pieces Archbishop (knight + bishop compound) Chancellor (knight + rook compound) Grasshopper (shown as an upside-down queen) Nightrider (Knightmare) or unicorn (shown as an upside-down knight) A fairy chess piece or unorthodox chess piece is a piece analogous to a chess piece. It is not used in conventional chess, but is used in certain chess variants and some chess problems. These pieces vary in the way they move and possibly in additional properties. Because of the distributed and uncoordinated nature of unorthodox chess development, often the same piece is referred to by different names or the same name is used for different pieces in various contexts (chess problems, various chess variants). Classification Fairy chess pieces usually fall into one of three classes, although some are hybrid pieces. Some types of pieces are created by combining the movement powers of two or more different pieces. A specialized solving program, WinChloe, recognizes more than 1200 different fairy pieces. Movement type Leapers An (m,n)-leaper is a piece that moves by a fixed type of vector between its start square and its arrival square. One of the coordinates of the vector 'start square - arrival square' must have an absolute value equal to m and the other one an absolute value equal to n. A leaper moves in the same way whether or not it captures, the taken unit being on the arrival square. For instance, the knight is the (1,2)-leaper.[1] The leaper's move cannot be blocked; it "leaps" over any intervening pieces, like the knight in standard chess. In shatranj, a forerunner to chess, the pieces later replaced by the bishop and queen were also leapers: the alfil was a (2,2)-leaper (moving exactly two squares diagonally in any direction), and the fers a (1,1)-leaper (moving exactly one square diagonally in any direction).[2] Some pieces can be described as combined leapers, i.e. as pieces having the movement capabilities of multiple leapers. The king in orthodox chess (ignoring check restrictions) is an example of a combination of a (1,1)-leaper and a (1,0)-leaper. Fairy chess piece Leapers are not able to create pins, although they are often effective forking pieces. One additional property is that the check of a leaper cannot be parried by interposing. All orthodox chessmen except the pawn are either leapers or riders, although the Rook does 'hop' when it castles. The Wazir is a (1,0)-leaper (an "orthogonal" one-square leaper); the Fers is a (1,1)-leaper (a "diagonal" one-square leaper). Both are used in Muslim versions of chess. The King of standard chess combines the two. The Dabbaba is a (2,0)-leaper; the Alfil is a (2,2)-leaper; the Knight is a (1,2)-leaper. The Alibaba combines the Dabbaba and Alfil; while the Squirrel can move to any square 2 units away. The Arabic word dabbāba formerly meant a type of medieval siege engine, and nowadays means "army tank". The 'level-3' leapers are the Threeleaper, a (3,0)-leaper; the Tripper, a (3,3)-leaper; the Camel, a (1,3)-leaper; and the Zebra, a (2,3)-leaper. 0 0 1 2 3 Zero Wazir Dabbaba 1 Wazir Fers Knight 2 3 154 Dabbaba Threeleaper Knight Alfil Zebra Camel Zebra Tripper Threeleaper Camel An amphibian is a combined leaper with a larger range on the board than its components. The simplest amphibian is the Frog, a (1,1)-(0,3)-leaper. Riders A rider is a piece that can move an unlimited distance in one direction, provided there are no pieces in the way. There are three riders in orthodox chess: the rook can move an unlimited number of (1,0) cells and is therefore a (1,0)-rider; the bishop is a (1,1)-rider; and the queen is a (1,1)- or (1,0)-rider. One of the most popular fairy chess riders is the nightrider, which can make an unlimited number of knight moves (that is, (2,1) cells) in any direction (though, like other riders, it cannot change direction half-way through its move). Sliders are a noteworthy special case of riders which can only move between geometrically contiguous cells. All of the riders in orthodox chess are examples of sliders. The names of riders are often obtained by taking the name of a leaper which moves a similar cell-size and adding the suffix "rider". For example, the zebra is a (3,2)-leaper, and the zebrarider is a (3,2)-rider. Riders can create both pins and skewers. Hoppers A hopper is a piece which moves by jumping over another piece (called a hurdle). The hurdle can usually be any piece of any color. Unless it can jump over a piece, a hopper cannot move. Note that hoppers generally capture by taking the piece on the destination square, not by taking the hurdle (as is the case in checkers). The exceptions are called locusts. There are no hoppers in Western chess, although in xiangqi, the cannon captures as a hopper (when not capturing, it is a rider which can not capture). The most popular hopper in fairy chess is the grasshopper, which moves along the same lines as an orthodox queen, except that it must hop over some other piece and land on the square immediately beyond it. Fairy chess piece Locusts A locust is any piece which captures by hopping over its victim (as in checkers). It is sometimes considered a type of hopper. Marine Piece A marine piece is a combination piece consisting of a rider (for ordinary moves) and a locust (for captures) in the same directions. Marine pieces have names alluding to the sea and its myths, e.g., nereïde (marine bishop), triton (marine rook), mermaid (marine queen), or poseidon (marine king). 155 Games Some classes of pieces come from a certain game; often these have a common set of characteristics. Chinese pieces Chinese pieces are pieces derived from those found in xiangqi, the Chinese form of chess. The most common Chinese pieces are the leo, pao and vao (each of which are derived from the Chinese cannon) and the mao (derived from the horse). Those derived from the cannon are distinguished by moving as a leaper when capturing, but otherwise moving as a rider. Less frequently encountered Chinese pieces include the moa, nao and rao. Special attributes Royal pieces A royal piece is one which must not be allowed to be captured. If a royal piece is threatened with capture and cannot avoid capture next move, then the game is lost (this is "checkmate"). In orthodox chess, each side has one royal piece, the king. In fairy chess any other orthodox piece or fairy piece may instead be designated royal, there may be more than one royal piece, or there may be no royal pieces at all (in which case the aim of the game must be something other than to deliver checkmate, such as capturing all of the opponent's pieces). Xed pieces Name Notes Crowned pieces Any piece which, in addition to its normal powers, can move like a King. Knighted piece Any piece which, in addition to its normal powers, can move like a knight. For example, an amazon is a knighted queen. Notations Parlett's movement notation In his book The Oxford History of Board Games[3] David Parlett used a notation to describe fairy piece movements. The move is specified by an expression of the form m={expression}, where m stands for "move", and the expression is composed from the following elements: • Distance (numbers, n) • 1 - a distance of one (i.e. to adjacent square) • 2 - a distance of two • n - any distance in the given direction • Direction (punctuation, X) • * - orthogonally or diagonally (all eight possible directions) Fairy chess piece • + - orthogonally (four possible directions) • > - orthogonally forwards • < - orthogonally backwards • - orthogonally forwards and backwards • = - orthogonally sideways (used here instead of Parlett's divide symbol.) • >= - orthogonally forwards or sideways • - diagonally forwards • X< - diagonally backwards • Grouping • / - two orthogonal moves separated by a slash denote a hippogonal move (i.e. jumping like knights) • & - repeated movement in the same direction, such as for hippogonal riders (i.e. the nightrider) Additions to Parlett's The following can be added to Parlett's to make it more complete: • Conditions under which the move may occur (lowercase alphanumeric, except n) • (default) - May occur at any point in the game • i - May only be made on the initial move (e.g. pawn's 2 moves forward) • c - May only be made on a capture (e.g. pawn's diagonal capture) • o - May not be used for a capture (e.g. pawn's forward move) • Move type • (default) - Captures by landing on the piece; blocked by intermediate pieces • ~ - Leaper (leaps) • ^ - Locust (captures by leaping; implies leaper) • Grouping (punctuation) • / - two orthogonal moves separated by a slash denote a hippogonal move (i.e. jumping like knights); this is in Parlett's, but is repeated here for completeness • , (comma) - separates move options; only one of the comma-delimited options may be chosen per move • () - grouping operator; see nightrider • - - range operator The format (not including grouping) is: On this basis, the traditional chess moves are: • • • • • • King: 1* Queen: n* Bishop: nX Rook: n+ Pawn: o1>, c1X>, oi2> Knight: ~1/2 156 Fairy chess piece 157 Ralph Betza's "funny notation" Ralph Betza created a classification scheme for fairy chess pieces (including standard chess pieces) in terms of the moves of basic pieces with modifiers.[4] Capital letters stand for basic pieces and components, besides the standard abbreviation for the chess pieces (R, N, B, Q, and K) the following letters are used: Wazir, Ferz, Alfil, Dabbaba, H (0,3)-leaper, Long Leaper (CameL), J (2,3)-leaper (Giraffe), and G (3,3)-leaper. Riders are denoted by duplication of the letter, e.g., NN is the funny notation for the nightrider piece; restricted range is denoted by a digit after the letter, e.g., R4 is a rook restricted to at most 4 steps. Small letters in front of the capital letters denote modifications of the component. Often used modifiers are: forward, backward, right, left, sideward, vertical, move only, capture only, z crooked (moving in a zigzag line like the Boyscout), grasshopper, jumping (i.e., it must jump, cannot move without a hurdle), non-jumping like the Chinese Elefant, o cylindrical, pao (like the Chinese Cannon captures), and q circular movement (like the Rose). In addition, Betza has also suggested adding brackets to his notation: q[WF]q[FW] would be a circular king, which can move from e4 to f5 then g5, h4, h3, g2, f2, e3, and back to e4, effectively passing a turn. Example: The standard chess pawn can be described in Ralph Betza's funny notation as mfWcfF (ignoring the initial double move). There is no standard order of the components and modifiers. In fact, Betza often plays with the order to create somehow pronouncable piece names and artistic word play. Addition to Betza's Betza does not use the small letter i. It is used here for initial in the description of the different types of pawns. Notable examples Name Alfil Alibaba Parlett ~2X ~2* A AD Betza Found in Shatranj Fairy Chess Problems Knightmare Chess Andernach chess nX, ~1/2 BN Capablanca chess Four Dimensional Chess on* (Immo~1/2) mQ (Immo-N) Nova Chess Notes A (2,2)-leaper. Compare to Elephant. Alternate notation: ~2/2 Combines the powers of Alfil and Dabbaba Amazon n*, ~1/2 QN Combines the powers of the Queen and the Knight. Also called Superqueen. Andernach grasshopper Archbishop A Grasshopper that changes the colour of the hurdle it leaps over. Also known as a Chopper. Combines the powers of Bishop and Knight. Also called a Princess, Cardinal, Janus or Paladin. A Bishop-like piece used in four-dimensional chess, i.e. it changes all coordinates simultaneously while moving. Balloon Basilisk A piece that moves as a Queen but immobilizes any piece within a knight's move of itself, that is, it prevents it from moving or taking. If it is a fairy piece with additional powers it may or may not perform these other tasks depending on the case in question. A Basilisk that is caught by another Basilisk in this fashion, for example, may continue to immobilize others, including the other Basilisk. Moves one square diagonally forward (except on its first move, when it may move two), but captures by moving one square straight forward. Compare with Pawn. Berolina pawn o1X>, c1>, io2X> mfFcfWimfF2 Berolina chess Fairy chess piece 158 nX B Orthodox Chess Fairy Chess Problems Moves any number of free squares diagonally. Bishop Boyscout zB Moves like a bishop, but takes 90 degree turns after each step. Invented by J. de A. Almay in the first half of the 20th century. Rediscovered as Crooked Bishop by Ralph Betza. Can jump to any square which would not be reachable by any orthodox chess piece. Since the Amazon is the sum of all orthodox chess pieces, the Bug-Eyed Monster is the complement of the Amazon. Old historic piece. Jumps 2 squares orthogonally followed by one square diagonally outwards. See "Pao" and "Korean Cannon" See "Archbishop" Bug-Eyed Monster Fairy Chess Problems Camel ~1/3 L Tamerlane Chess Cannon Cardinal Champion Chancellor 1+, ~2* n+, ~1/2 WAD RN Omega Chess Capablanca chess Checkers Combines the powers of the Wazir and the Alibaba. Combines the powers of the Rook and Knight. Also called Empress or Marshal. Multiple captures in one turn, or without capturing can move forward one diagonal space, but cannot move backward until after it has finished a turn on the far rank of the board. (cf. Draughts, Checkers) Checker cn(^2X>), o1X> King: cn(^2X), o1X Chopper Colonel n>, n=, 2/1> 1* KfsRfN Chess with different armies Tamerlane Chess See "Andernach grasshopper" Moves as forwards and sideways Rook, the forwards moves of a Knight, or a King. Dabbaba ~2+ D Old historic piece, also known as War machine or Machine. Alternate notation: ~0/2 Combination of Alfilrider and Dabbabarider. Also known as Alibabarider. A piece with no moves at all. It may be captured, gain temporarily moving ability by relay, or pushed or pulled around by other pieces if there are pushing or pulling pieces on the board. Different from Zero. Dayrider Dummy n(~2*) AADD Edgehog n* Q Edgehog [5] Chess Xiangqi (Chinese) A Queen that can move only to or from the edge of the board. Variant: when it moves from an edge, it may not move to an edge. Represented in diagrams by a Queen rotated 90° counterclockwise. Invented by John Driver in 1966. A (2,2) leaper, but it cannot jump over an intervening piece, like the Ma. In Chinese Chess, the Elephant is restricted to its half of the board. See "Chancellor" Elephant 2X nA Empress Fers Fusilier 1X o1+, c1X F mWcF Shatranj Centennial Chess Move one square in any direction diagonally. Moves and captures like a Pawn in all 4 directions. Invented by F. Marinelli in 1770. Also known as Steward or Quadrapawn. Old historic piece. Jumps one square diagonally followed by three squares orthogonally. See also Zurafa. Giraffe ~1/4 Gold General Grasshopper 1+, 1X> WfF gQ Shōgi Fairy Chess Problems Moves in all 4 orthogonal directions or diagonally forward. A hopper which moves along the same lines as a queen and lands on the square immediately beyond that of the hurdle. One of the most popular fairy pieces. In diagrams, the Grasshopper is usually represented by an inverted Queen. Fairy chess piece 159 1*> , io2*> fWfFifmW2ifmF2 Fairy Chess Problems Combines the powers of the Berolina Pawn and the standard Pawn. Also known as the Sergeant, this piece was used as early as 1943 in Arno von Wilpert's Wolf Chess. It occurs (without the initial double move) as Iron General in large Shogi variants from 15th century, e.g., in Tenjiku shogi. The Immobilizer, invented by Robert Abbott, moves as a chess Queen. At the end of its move, any enemy piece that is on a square adjacent to the Immobilizer is frozen in place, and can not move away until the Immobilizer moves away or is captured. The Immobilizer can never move to an occupied square and can not capture pieces. If two Immobilizers move next to each other, they are both frozen until the end of the game or until one is captured. An immobilised piece may commit suicide, e.g., to open a line of attack. This action counts as a move. See "Archbishop" Move one square in any direction. Royal in orthodox chess. A non-royal piece which moves in this way is sometimes called a Commoner or Man. Move one square in any direction diagonally or one square straight forward. It has the same moves as the Silver General in Shogi. It jumps one square orthogonally followed by another square diagonally. Graz Pawn Immobilizer on* (Immo1*) mQ (Immo-K) Ultima Janus King 1* K Janus chess Orthodox Chess Makruk Khohn 1X, 1> FfW Knight ~1/2 N Orthodox Chess Korean Chess (Janggi) Korean Cannon pR Moves and captures along orthogonal lines by jumping exactly one piece, called the hurdle. There can be any number of free squares before and after the hurdle. Unlike the Pao it moves the same way for capturing and non-capturing moves. In chess problems it is sometimes called Rook Lion or Rion. Leap to any square on the board, including the one it is currently on (leaping to the current square has the effect of passing a move). Compare with Universal leaper. Kraken ~n/m Leeloo Quintessential Chess on*, c^& mQcpQ Chinese Combines the powers of Quintessence and Rook Leo Combines the powers of the Pao and Vao; it moves like a Queen when not capturing (that is, a (1,0) or (1,1) rider), but captures by leaping over an intervening piece and taking the piece on the Leo's destination square (the captured piece can be any number of squares beyond the hurdle). An extended Pawn which can also step one square sidewards. Proposed in the 1920s by A. G. Lias to improve standard chess A hopper which moves along the same lines as a Queen and which can land on a square any distance beyond the hurdle. A royal Amazon, the only piece for white. Lias' Pawn o1>, o1=, c1X>, io2> mfsWcfFimfW2 Lias' proposal Lion pQ Fairy Chess Problems Maharajah and the Sepoys Chinese Maharaja n*, ~1/2 QN Mao Moves like a Knight except that it does not leap. It first moves one square orthogonally in any direction, and then continues in the same general direction one square diagonally. The square it is on after its orthogonal move must be vacant. For example, if a white mao is on b2 and there is a white pawn on b3, the Mao cannot move to a4 or c4; if the pawn is on c3, however, it can move to both those squares (because the first part of the move is orthogonal, not diagonal). See "Chancellor" Marshal Moa Chinese as the Mao, but the first step is diagonal and the second orthogonal, not the other way round. Fairy chess piece 160 ~2*, c1* ADcK Can move and capture as an Alfil or Dabbaba, and capture only as a King. This piece stems from a misinterpretation of the Lion of Chu Shogi but has become popular in fairy chess problems and chess variants. It is named after the chess historian Harold James Ruthven Murray who brought it up. Chinese A Chinese Nightrider —moves as a normal Nightrider (that is, a (2,1) rider) when not capturing, but which captures by leaping over an intervening piece and taking the piece on the Nao's destination square (the captured piece can be any number of knight-moves beyond the hurdle). A rider which moves any number of 2,1 cells (i.e., knight moves) in the same direction. A Nightrider on b2 on an empty board, therefore, can move to a4, c4, d6, e8, d3, f4, h5 and d1. A Pawn of the opposing colour on d6 could be captured, but the Nightrider could not move any further in that direction (i.e., it couldn't move on to e8). A pawn on b3, for example, would have no effect. On diagrams, the nightrider is usually represented by an inverted Knight. One of the most popular fairy pieces. See diagram below. The Odysseus' move depends on the file where it is located: It moves as a Rook on files a and h, as a Knight on files b and g, as a Bishop on files c and f, as a Queen on file d and as a King on file e. Also known as Querquisite. Moves like a Rook when not capturing (that is, a (1,0) rider), but captures by leaping over an intervening piece and taking the piece on the Pao's destination square (the captured piece can be any number of squares beyond the hurdle). Found in xiangqi (in which context it is normally known in English as a Cannon). Compare with Korean Cannon. Moves one square straight forward (except on its first move, when it may move two squares), but captures one square forward diagonally. Compare with Berolina pawn. Combines the powers of Queen and Quintessence. Murray Lion Nao mNNcpNN Nightrider n(1/2) (in same direction) NN Fairy Chess Problems Odysseus Fairy Chess Problems Pao mRcpR Chinese Pawn o1>, c1X>, io2> mfWcfFimfW2 Orthodox Chess Pentere Quinquereme Chess Princess Pterodactyl ~3/3, ~5/5, ~0/15 Chess mathematics Quang Trung Chess n* Q Orthodox Chess Quintessential Chess See "Archbishop" The simplest triple range amphibian. George Jelliss demonstrated a [6] pterodactyl's knight's tour on a 16×16 board in 1985 Moves as Rook but when capturing must move on square away from captured piece in the same direction. Combines the powers of the Bishop and Rook. Quang trung rook Queen Quintessence A Nightrider who takes 90-degree turns in a zig-zag manner on each step. First described in 2002 by Jörg Knappen and found in several chess variants since then. A Chinese Rose —moves as a normal Rose when not capturing, but captures by leaping over an intervening piece and taking the piece on the Rao's destination square. The captured piece can be any distance beyond the hurdle. Moves like a bishop, but additionally is allowed to "bounce" off the edge of the board when making a move, similar to a hockey puck or billiard ball. Its path continues down the diagonal to any legitimate square after the [7] "bounce". Rao mqNcpqN Chinese Reflecting Bishop Fairy chess piece 161 Renniassance Chess Moves in the same move one square diagonally and any number of squares othogonally or any number of squares orthogonally and one diagonally. It has two paths to the same target square and must make at least a blockable knight's move. Called Cavalier in RennChess, but the name Cavalier is used for other pieces as well. Renniassance Chess was invented by 1980 by Eric V. Greenwood. Moves in the same move one square orthogonally and then any number of squares diagonally or any number of squares diagonally and then one straight. It has two paths to the same target square and must make at least a blockable knight's move. Called Duke in RennChess, but the name Duke is used for other pieces as well. Moves any number of free squares orthogonally. RennCavalier RennDuke Renniassance Chess Rook n+ R Orthodox Chess Fairy Chess Problems Rose qN Moves as a Nightrider, except that rather than moving in a straight line, it moves along pseudo-circular ones. A rose standing on e1 on an empty board, for instance, can move to any of the squares on the large circle c2, b4, c6, e7, g6, h4 and g2; as well as c2 and a1; or d3 and b4; or d3, e5 and g6; or f3, e5, c6 and a5; or f3 and h4. As with the nightrider, an opposite-coloured piece on any one of these squares can be captured, but prevents the rose from progressing any further along that line. See diagram below. The Spy can move two spaces forwards or sideways, or can move like a knight one forward and then one horizontally or vice versa. It can leap over pieces and can only move two spaces; thus, it is "trapped" on its own color like a Bishop. Jumps to any field in a distance of 2. It was discovered independently several times and is also known as Centurion or Castle. Moves without capture any number of fields forward, captures diagonally forwards like a Bishop. Promotes on the 8th rank. Cannot capture en passant nor be captured en passant. May be placed in the first rank. Invented by [8] Werner Speckmann in 1967. See "Amazon" Spy 2>, 2=, (1/1)> fsDfF Chess Empire Squirrel ~0/2, ~1/2, ~2/2 on>, cnX> DAN Fairy Chess Problems Fairy Chess Problems Superpawn mfRcfB Superqueen Taxi Fairy Chess Problems Moves without capture one step forward or backwards, captures one square diagonally forwards like a Pawn. When in the second rank can move one, two or three steps forward or one backwards. Can promote on the 8th rank or continue to be a Taxi. Can capture en passant other Pawns or Taxis. May be placed in the first or eight ranks. Leap to any square on the board apart from the one it is on. Compare with Kraken. Universal leaper Unicorn Raumschach In Raumschach it is a triagonal rider, moves through the vertices of the cubes. See diagram below. The name Unicorn is also used for several pieces in 2 dimensions, e.g., for the Archbishop or for the combination of Bishop and Nightrider also known as Banshee. Moves like a Bishop when not capturing (that is, a (1,1) rider), but captures by leaping over an intervening piece and taking the piece on the Vao's destination square (the captured piece can be any number of squares beyond the hurdle). Moves one square orthogonally in any direction. Vao mBcpB Chinese Wazir 1+ W Tamerlane Chess Omega Chess Wizard Zebra 1X, ~1/3 ~2/3 FL J Combines the movement of Fers and Camel. Old historic piece. Jumps one square orthogonally followed by two squares diagonally outwards. Fairy chess piece 162 ~0/0 A piece which can make a zero move, i. e., jump and land on its starting square without any side effects. This gives the player the option to pass a move. Sometimes used as a component to more complex pieces. It is different from the piece with no move at all called Dummy Tamerlane Chess Starts with a (1,4) leap (like the modern Giraffe) and may continue moving outwards as a Rook. Zero Zurafa a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Nightrider makes any number of knight moves in the same direction. a 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Rose. Moves as Nightrider, but along pseudo-circular lines. (two possible paths depicted.) Of course it may move clockwise or counter-clockwise. Fairy chess piece 163 E D C B A The unicorn, represented here by an upside-down knight, moves through the vertices of cubes (triagonally). A unicorn from its starting position can reach only 30 cubes. The white unicorn's destination squares are marked with a circle, black's with an X. The boards are stacked, with board E on top. Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Poisson, Catégories de pièces - Types of pieces, section "Bondisseur(m,n) - (m,n)Leaper". Poisson, Pièces – Pieces, sections Alfil, Fers Parlett, 1999 http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ piececlopedia. dir/ betzanot. html Betza Notation by Glen Overby II http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ dpieces. dir/ edgehog-chess. html Peter Aronson, "Edgehog Chess" G. Jelliss, Theory of Moves (Retrieved on 2009-07-18) (http:/ / www. ktn. freeuk. com/ 9a. htm) The Piececlopedia: Reflecting Bishop (http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ piececlopedia. dir/ reflecting-bishop. html) by Peter Aronson. Märchenfiguren und ihre Grundtypen (pdf, in german) (http:/ / www. problemschachbuch. de/ Materialien/ Maerchenschach. pdf) References • David Parlett (1999). The Oxford History of Board Games. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-212998-8. • Christian Poisson. "Catégories de pièces - Types of pieces" (http://christian.poisson.free.fr/problemesis/ categories.html). Retrieved 2008-04-18. • Christian Poisson. "Pièces – Pieces" (http://christian.poisson.free.fr/problemesis/pieces.html). Retrieved 2008-04-18. • Ralph Betza's funny notation (http://www.chessvariants.org/d.betza/chessvar/pieces/notation.html) • George Jelliss. "All the King's Men" (http://www.mayhematics.com/v/gm.htm). Retrieved 2010-07-20. Fairy chess piece 164 External links • Piececlopedia (http://www.chessvariants.org/index/mainquery.php?type=Piececlopedia& orderby=LinkText&displayauthor=1&displayinventor=1&usethisheading=Piececlopedia) - an extensive list of fairy chess pieces, their history and movement diagrams • Who is Who on Eight by Eight (http://www.chessvariants.org/piececlopedia.dir/whos-who-on-8x8.html) Compiled by Ivan A Derzhanski, shows also piece values • Jerome Grimbert's List of Fairy Chess Pieces (french) (http://jgrimbert.free.fr/pieces/indexa.html) • Fairy chess pieces and fairy problem conditions (german) (http://www.hilmar-ebert.de/VV1000.htm) • Märchenschachlexikon (http://www.dieschwalbe.de/lexikon.htm) (Die Schwalbe, German) Hippogonal A hippogonal chess move is one similar to a knight's move. That is, a leap m squares in one of the orthogonal directions, and n squares in the other, for integer values of m and n. It need not be a 2:1 ratio for m and n. A specific type of hippogonal move can be written (m,n), usually with the smaller number first. For example, the knight itself moves two squares in one orthogonal direction and one in the other—it moves hippogonally. It is a (1,2) hippogonal mover, sometimes referred to as a (1,2) leaper. Other hippogonally moving pieces include the camel, a fairy chess piece, which moves three squares in one direction and one in the other, and thus is a (1,3) hippogonal mover. External links • Piececlopedia: knight [1] References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ piececlopedia. dir/ knight. html Grasshopper 165 Grasshopper a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Grasshopper (shown as an inverted white queen with notation G) must hop over other pieces in order to move or capture. Here, it can capture the pawn in a7. The Grasshopper is a fairy chess piece that moves along ranks, files, and diagonals (as ordinary queen) but only by hopping over another piece at any distance to the square immediately closest. If there is no piece to hop over, it cannot move. If the square beyond a piece is occupied by a piece of the opposite color, the grasshopper can capture that piece. The grasshopper may jump over pieces of either color; the piece being jumped over is unaffected. On the diagram it is shown as an inverted queen with notation G. For an example of grasshopper movement see the first diagram. The white grasshopper on d4 can move to the squares marked by cross (b2, d1, d7 and h8), as well as capture the black pawn on a7. It cannot move on g4, because there are two pieces to hop over. Grasshopper was introduced by T. R. Dawson in 1913 in problems published in the Cheltenham Examiner newspaper. Nowadays it is one of the most popular fairy pieces used in chess problems. V. Onitiu, N. Petrović, T. R. Dawson & C. M. Fox (1930) a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Mate in 8 (with grasshoppers Ga8, f7, h2 and h1) Grasshopper Solution of the problem on the second diagram is: 1.Gh3! Gh4 2.Gh5 Gh6 3.Gh7 Gh8 4.Ge7 Gd7 5.Gc7 Gb7 6.Ga7+ Ga6 7.Ga5+ Ga4 8.Ga3#. 166 Grasshopper chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Grasshopper chess. Second and seventh ranks are occupied with grasshoppers. Grasshopper chess is a chess variant, in which the pawns are allowed to promote to a fairy piece grasshopper. Grasshopper (shown as an inverted queen) must hop over other pieces in order to move or capture. In some variations grasshoppers may also be present on the board in the opening position, in addition to the usual pieces. For example, pawns can be moved forward and grasshoppers put along the second and seventh ranks[1] as shown on the diagram at right. Another possibility is to replace queens with grasshoppers in initial position.[2] References [1] J. Boyer (1951). Les Jeux D'Echecs Non Orthodoxes. [2] Pritchard, D. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. External links • Grasshopper chess (http://www.chessvariants.org/dpieces.dir/grashopper.html) by Hans Bodlaender. Berolina chess 167 Berolina chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 On its first move, a Berolina pawn may move two steps forward. It may not change direction during its move. The black e4-pawn may capture the white f2-pawn en passant if the white pawn advances to d4 in one move. Berolina Chess is a chess variant using a popular fairy chess piece called the Berolina pawn (also called Berlin pawn or Anti-pawn). The Berolina pawn was invented by Edmund Hebermann in 1926. The rules of Berolina Chess are the same as in standard chess, including castling, except that all the pawns are replaced by Berolina pawns. Berolina pawn specifics The Berolina pawn moves, without capturing, one square diagonally forward. It captures one square straight forward. (So, it is the converse of a normal chess pawn, which moves straight forward and captures diagonally forward.) Like a normal chess pawn, the Berolina has the option to move two squares forward on its first move (so for the Berolina, two squares diagonally forward). En passant capturing is possible as well (see diagram). As in normal chess, the Berolina pawn promotes when reaching the last rank. Related pawns Two famous pawns used in problem compositions are the Berolina Plus and the Sergeant. • The Berolina Plus moves and captures like the Berolina pawn, but in addition may capture one square sideways. • The Sergeant combines the normal chess pawn and the Berolina pawn; that is, it can move to or capture on any of the three squares immediately in front. Further reading • Pritchard, D. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. Berolina Chess, p. 21–22. Berolina chess 168 External links • BrainKing.com [1] turn-based server for playing Berolina Chess • The Chess Variant Pages [2] article on Berolina Chess (specially "Recognized" by Chessvariants.org) References [1] http:/ / brainking. com/ en/ GameRules?tp=59 [2] http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ dpieces. dir/ berlin. html Maharajah and the Sepoys Maharajah and the Sepoys a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Starting position. White queen is a maharajah; it can move as queen or knight. Maharajah and the Sepoys, originally called Shatranj Diwana Shah, is a popular chess variant with different armies for white and black. It was first played in the 19th century in India. Black has a full, standard chess army ("sepoys") in the usual position. White is limited to a single piece, the maharajah, which can move as either a queen or as a knight on White's turn. Black's goal is to checkmate the maharajah, while white's is to checkmate black's king. There is no pawn promotion. The asymmetry of the game pits movement flexibility and agility against greater force in numbers. By perfect play black always wins in this game, at least on an 8x8 board. According to Hans Bodlaender [1], "A carefully playing black player should be able to win. However, this is not always easy, and in many cases, when the white 'Maharaja' breaks through the lines of black, he has good chances to win." However, the following algorithm can help the black to win: • Step 1: The Maharaja can only check the black King from squares that are attacked by black. • Step 2: All black pieces other than King are at protected by at least one other pieces, or if there are any unprotected black pieces, Maharaja can only attack them from squares attacked by black. • Step 3: All black moves are done only to squares that were attacked by black before that moves. Using such a sequece of moves, black can finally create a situation where every empty square of the board is attacked. Maharajah and the Sepoys 169 External links • The Maharaja and the Sepoys [1] by Hans L. Bodlaender. • Brainking Rules page [2] References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ unequal. dir/ maharaja. html [2] http:/ / brainking. com/ en/ GameRules?tp=21 Omega Chess Omega Chess is a commercial chess variant designed by Daniel MacDonald in Toronto. The game is played on a 10x10 board with an extra square in each of the extreme corners where the wizards are placed at the start of the game.[1] The game is laid out like regular chess with the addition of a "champion" in each corner and a "wizard" diagonally behind each champion (see diagram on the right). W1 W1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W3 W3 A B C D E F G H I J W4 A B C D E F G H I J 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W4 W2 W2 Omega Chess - start position Part of the reason for adding the new pieces was to equalize the number of jumping pieces with sliding pieces. The wizard was created specially to be a color-bound piece, a parallel to the bishop. Because of the symmetry and four additional corners, Omega Chess creates new tactical possibilities, including the possibility of checkmate with two knights. Omega Chess has garnered endorsements by grandmasters Michael Rohde[2] and Alex Sherzer. Omega Chess 170 Differences from standard chess The new pieces W1 W1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W3 W3 A B C D E F G H I J W4 A B C D E F G H I J 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W4 W2 W2 Wizard, Champion, Pawn's first move, En passant and Castling. • Champion: jumps 2 squares in any direction or slides 1 square orthogonally. White's King Champion can start the game by Ch2 or Cj2. In the position shown at the left, the black Champion's movement is indicated by an X, and it can't capture the white Knight. • Wizard: a colorbound piece, jumps {1,3} or {3,1} squares in any direction, or slides 1 square diagonally. White's King Wizard can start the game by Wj2. In the position shown at the left, the black Wizard's movement is indicated by a black dot, and it can capture the white Knight. Pawns • The Pawn may slide one, two or three squares in the forward direction, on its first move only. This is shown on files (a),(b) and (d) respectively. • Capture, promotion and movement (following the first move) are otherwise identical to the pawn in standard chess. • The en passant rule also applies. The d pawn may be captured en passant by either black pawn. The b pawn may be captured normally by the pawn at c4, and en passant by the pawn at c3 Omega Chess 171 Castling The normal rules of castling apply. Also, it is done exactly as in Chess, with the king moving two squares to either side: to h0 for white or h9 for black to castle king-side, and to d0 or d9 to castle queen-side. (See diagram.) W1 W1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W3 W3 A B C D E F G H I J W4 A B C D E F G H I J 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W4 W2 W2 Position before 42... b4! Sample games As seen in the diagrams, the ranks are numbered from 0-9, and the corner squares behind a0, j0, j9 and a9 are notated w1, w2, w3 and w4 respectively. It should be noted that these squares are part of the board, and all pieces (except rooks and pawns) can enter them. (See the problem at the end of the page. The solution of which starts with 1.Ww3+ .) GM Alex Sherzer v. GM Judit Polgár 1.f4 d5 2.Nd2 Ng7 3.Wa2 Cc7 4.Ng2 f7 5.Wj2 Wa7 6.e4 de4 7.Ne4 Bb4+ 8.Be1 Nd7 9.c3 Be7 10.Wi5 O-O 11.d4 Cc6 12.Bd3 b5 13.b4 Wd6 14.Cc2 Wj7 15.Ch2 Wi4 16.Nh4 Wh5 17.Wd1 We3 18.Kg0 c7 19.i4 Wg4 20.Be2 Wd5 21.Rc0 Bb7 22.Nc5 Black is aiming a lot of artillery at the White king. Perhaps White should follow suit and play this knight to g5 instead of c5. 22...Nc5 23.bc5 Qd8 24.Qh3 Wh4 25.Bh4 Either on this move or the next, recapturing with the Champion looks more promising. 25... Bh4 26.Wh4 Ch7 27.Wg2 Ce4 28.Ce4 We4 29.Qj3 j7 30.i5 i6 31.Wg7 hg7 32.Ri3 Ki8 33.Qj4 Rh9 34.Rj3 Ci7 35.Re0 Qf6 36.Bc0 e6 37.Bb1 Wf5 38.Wf5 ef5 39.Re8 Rh8 40.Rje3 g6 41.Qi3 Qg7 42.j4 b4! (see diagram) Black seizes the initiative. 43.R8e5 bc3 44.Rc3 Bh1 45.Kh1 Rb1 46.Ra3 Ch7 47.Ra8 Ch5 48.Ra9 Qh7 49.Ree9?? Cj3! 50.Qj3 Qh2+ 0-1[3] Omega Chess 172 The Scholar's mate and the Fool's mate 1.f4 f5, 2.Bc4 Bc5, 3.Qj5 Ng7?? (defending the pawn on f5) 4.Qxg8# 1.Wa2 Ng7, 2.Wb5 Ni5?? 3 We6# W1 W1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W3 W3 A B C D E F G H I J W4 A B C D E F G H I J 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W4 W2 W2 King & Rook vs. King Endgames The four corner squares in Omega Chess offer many endgame possibilities and peculiarities. For example, if you have two Rooks, a Bishop and a Wizard against a lone King, you cannot win if the Bishop and Wizard attack one color, with the enemy King being on a corner square of the other color. This leads to the inevitable question of what combinations of reduced material can deliver mate. Unlike in chess, a lone Queen (without the King's assistance) can force mate. As well, two Rooks find it easy to mate provided the enemy King is not in a Wizard or Champion starting square. In the position on the left, White is obliged to check the enemy King back to the edge of the board, since Black isn't going to go there voluntarily. 1.Rd8+ Ke9 2.Ke7 Kf9 3.Kf7 (The White King must pursue the enemy King because when Black gets to i9, the White King wants to be on h7, controlling i8 so the rook can check on d9, forcing the King to j8, followed by Re8 - Kj7, Rj8#) 3...Kg9 (Not 3...Ke8 because of 4.Rd6 Kf8 5.Rd8#) 4.Kg7 Kf9 it is safe for the Black King to double back. If the Rook was on e8, then it could just retreat along the file and deliver mate next move. Or if it was on any other rank, it could now move to the e-file, but as it is the Rook would be vulnerable to capture. Two Bishops can deliver mate fairly easily, as can two Knights, although in the latter case the task of herding the enemy king into a corner requires a lot of patience.[4] Omega Chess 173 W1 W1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W3 W3 A B C D E F G H I J A B C D E F G H I J W2 W2 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W4 W4 Puzzle by Benjamin Good: White to move and mate in three Two Champions mate easily and so do a Champion and a Knight. A Bishop with a Wizard on the opposite colour squares can also force mate although technique is involved since the enemy King has to be driven into the same coloured corner as the Bishop.[5] However two Wizards can't force mate. A Rook in combination with either a Knight or a Champion can force mate easily and, provided the enemy King is not on the wrong coloured Wizard's square, (or corresponding Champion's square) then both Rook and Bishop, and Rook and Wizard are also easy wins. In the remaining combinations of material, Bishop and Champion, Champion and Wizard, Bishop and Knight, and Knight and Wizard, the requirement for winning is that the enemy King should be kept out of the wrong coloured corner since the Knight alone, or the Champion alone cannot oust the king. Having met this requirement, the mating technique for Bishop and Champion, and Wizard and Champion are fairly straightforward, while the technique for Bishop and Knight is somewhat trickier.[6] As for Knight and Wizard, it is possible to set up positions in which the enemy King is corralled, leading to checkmate, but there doesn't seem to be a way of forcing these positions. Omega Chess Advanced W1 W1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 A B C D E F G H I J 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 W2 W2 Omega Chess 174 2 1 0 W3 W3 A B C D E F G H I J W4 2 1 0 W4 Omega Chess Advanced: The White Fool immobilizes Black Queen, The Black Fool - White Rook. Black dots show squares where the White fool may move to for freeing own Queen from immobilizing. Moves of White Templar Knight In 2008, the authors of Omega Chess developed an extension to the game called Omega Chess Advanced.[7] • A special move was introduced called Guarding. This move is equal to Castling but it is executed by Queen and Rook. For Guarding to be legal, both the Queen and Rook must never have made any previous moves, and there may not be any pieces between them.[8] A new piece is introduced called the Fool.[9] Each player owns exactly one. • The Fool has no starting position on the board. Instead, when a piece makes its first move in the game, its owner may choose to place the Fool at that piece's starting location. When Castling or Guarding, the Fool can be place on either of the two available squares. • The Fool moves and captures like the piece or pawn that the opponent last used. For example, if White moves a Queen, then Black's Fool may move or capture as a Queen. • The following two rules are optional parts of Omega Chess Advanced: • • The Fool may immobilize an opponent's piece on an orthogonally adjacent square, thus preventing it from moving. In the figure to the right, the white Fool has immobilized the black Queen, and the black Fool has immobilized the white Rook. An immobilized piece can move again if the Fool moves away or is captured. In addition, an immobilized piece can move if it is also orthogonally adjacent to a friendly Fool.[10] • A new piece can replace the ordinary Knight, called the Templar Knight. The Templar Knight moves like an ordinary Knight, but after it has made its move or capture, it may make an additional diagonal step in the same direction onto an empty square. In the diagram to the right, the white Templar Knight may move or capture to any of the squares marked with an X, and may make the additional step to any of the squares marked with a circle.[11] • Optional rules extensions were also introduced in Omega Chess Advanced. Solution to the Puzzle here [12]. References [1] Dylan Loeb McClain (2007-08-19). "Giraffes, Viziers and Wizards: Variations on the Old Game" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2007/ 08/ 19/ crosswords/ chess/ 19chess. html). New York Times. . Retrieved 2009-10-12. [2] Grandmaster reviews (http:/ / www. omegachess. com/ home. html?action=grandmaster-reviews). [3] Omega Chess sample game (http:/ / www. omegachess. com/ scripts/ ltpgnviewer. html?http:/ / www. omegachess. com/ scripts/ Alex_Sherzer_vs_Judit_Polgar. html& SetBGColor=EEEEEE& SetBorder=1) with the option to view the moves in a JavaScript viewer. [4] Checkmate with two knights in Omega chess (http:/ / www. omegachess. com/ scripts/ ltpgnviewer. html?http:/ / www. omegachess. com/ scripts/ King_+ _2_Knights_vs_King. html& SetBGColor=EEEEEE& SetBorder=1), animated example. [5] Checkmate with Bishop and Wizard in Omega chess (http:/ / www. omegachess. com/ scripts/ ltpgnviewer. html?http:/ / www. omegachess. com/ scripts/ King_+ _Bishop_+ _Wizard_vs_King. html& SetBGColor=EEEEEE& SetBorder=1), animated example. [6] Checkmate with Knight and Bishop in Omega chess (http:/ / www. omegachess. com/ scripts/ ltpgnviewer. html?http:/ / www. omegachess. com/ scripts/ King_+ _Knight_+ _Bishop_vs_King. html& SetBGColor=EEEEEE& SetBorder=1), animated example. [7] Omega Chess Advanced official web site (http:/ / www. omegachess. com/ home. html?action=advanced) [8] Definition of Guarding in Omega Chess Advanced (http:/ / www. omegachess. com/ home. html?action=advanced#guarding) [9] Description of the Fool piece (http:/ / www. omegachess. com/ home. html?action=advanced#fool) Omega Chess [10] Immobilization (http:/ / www. omegachess. com/ home. html?action=advanced#immobilization) [11] Templar Knight description (http:/ / www. omegachess. com/ home. html?action=advanced#templar) [12] http:/ / www. omegachess. com/ home. html?action=puzzle6 175 External links • • • • • • • • • Omega Chess - Official web site (http://www.omegachess.com/) Rules of Omega Chess (http://www.omegachess.com/home.html?action=board-setup) How pieces move (http://www.omegachess.com/home.html?action=how-pieces-move) Piece values (http://www.omegachess.com/home.html?action=piece-values) Omega Chess vs. Chess (http://www.omegachess.com/home.html?action=comparisons) Game Openings (http://www.omegachess.com/home.html?action=openings) Game Endings (http://www.omegachess.com/home.html?action=game-endings) Game Strategy (http://www.omegachess.com/home.html?action=strategy) Zillions of Games file. (http://www.chessvariants.org/programs.dir/zillions/omega.zip) Stealth Chess The fictional universe of the Discworld novels by Terry Pratchett features a number of invented games, some of which have gone on to spawn real-world variants. Stealth Chess Stealth Chess is a chess variant, played in the Ankh-Morpork Assassins' Guild, according to The Discworld Companion. It is similar to normal chess, with the exception of an extra piece and the widening of the board by two specially-colored fields (red and white are described, as opposed to the normal black and white) on either side, known as the Slurks. The extra piece is the Assassin (appearing on either side of the Rooks in the beginning of the game), the only piece to be able to move in the Slurk. The Assassin moves one square in any direction, and two to capture; however, on exiting the Slurks, the assassin may make as many moves as it has taken within the slurks and, optionally, a capture move. Stealth chess - opening position An example may clarify: If an Assassin enters the Slurks and takes five moves within them (in any direction, including back and forth), it may then appear in any square that is five moves from its original entry point into the Slurk. It is then still able to make a one-square move to capture. If an Assassin were to make fifteen moves (the minimum necessary to go from one corner of the normal board to the opposite corner), it could reappear anywhere on the board. The mechanism of moving the assassin up and down the Slurks is used in order to a) use up a move by the player and b) to keep count of how many spaces the assassin has moved. The Slurks are, in essence, a second, "invisible" board, through which only the Assassin may travel, and from which it may reemerge on the "visible" board at any time. The Assassin may take pieces of its own colour, should this give the player an advantage, but may not take opposing Assassins (professional courtesy). Many players consider the assassin to be moving "underneath" the actual board, ready to pop out when they have reached their intended destination. Stealth Chess This makes it a highly powerful piece and a very effective counter to certain strategies depending on specific pieces, and can quickly win the game if one manages to take control of the Slurks and access the King directly. The Discworld Companion notes, however, that players should also take care that they don't focus on the opponent's Assassin exclusively to the point that they lose track of what the opponent's other pieces are doing. The acknowledged master of the game in the books is Lord Havelock Vetinari, Provost of Assassins and Patrician of Ankh-Morpork. According to the Companion, some Discworld scholars believe that Stealth Chess is the original form of chess in their world; this belief is corroborated by the in-world discovery, in a tomb in Muntab, of a preserved corpse with an 8×10 board embedded in its skull and a pawn hammered up each nostril. 176 Cripple Mr Onion Cripple Mr Onion was originally a fictional card game played by characters in the novels Wyrd Sisters, Reaper Man, Witches Abroad and Lords and Ladies. A game called "Shibo Yancong-San" ("Cripple Mr Onion" in Japanese) appears in Interesting Times as a tile game played in the Agatean Empire. This was used by Dr Andrew Millard and Prof. Terry Tao as the basis for an actual card game. The complete rules and design of this game were posted on USENET around 1993 and were approved by Pratchett himself. It contains elements of blackjack and poker. The band "Cripple Mr Onion", a Progressive metal band, originally from Christchurch, New Zealand, was named after the game. The most notable aspect of the game is that it requires an eight-suited card deck, with suits representing the eight Minor Arcana suits of a Discworld Tarot, or "Caroc" deck: the staves, swords, cups, and coins of real-world Tarot plus four additional suits named for octograms, elephants, terrapins and crowns. For the purposes of flushes, each of the real-world suits is paired with one of the four discworld suits (a commercially available deck marketed for use in the game includes axes, tridents, roses and doves as suits to be paired, respectively, with the more traditional clubs, spades, hearts and diamonds). For real-world play, two distinctive but identically-backed "normal" decks are generally used, most frequently a traditional "French" deck and an identically-backed Latin-suited deck. Each player receives a hand of ten cards: five cards are dealt face-down to each player, and the player may then discard up to four of them, receiving new cards to replace them. Then a further five cards are dealt face-up to each player except the dealer, who receives his face-down. The first player begins by assembling his or her cards into one of the winning groupings described below, and displaying them. The next player must then create a more valuable grouping or fold. If the player is successful in creating a more valuable grouping, the original first player may try again to create an even more valuable grouping for himself, or fold. This process passes left around the table until only one player remains, who then wins the hand. The categories of winning group, in ascending order of value, are as follows. Number cards are worth their face value, picture cards are worth ten, and aces are worth one or eleven at the player's choice (a la Blackjack). • Bagel, two cards with values totalling 20; • Two-card Onion, two cards with values totalling 21; • Broken Flush, a set of three or more cards totalling between 16 and 21 inclusive, and with all but one in the same suit-pair; • Three-card Onion, three cards with values totalling 21; • Flush, as a broken flush but with all the cards being in the same suit-pair; • Four-card Onion, as two- and three-card Onion above; • Broken Royal, the combination 678 of any suit; • Five-card Onion; • Royal, the combination 777 of any suit; • Six-card Onion; Stealth Chess • • • • • • Wild Royal, the combination 888 in a hand when eights are wild (see below); Seven-card Onion; Double Onion, two picture cards and two aces; Triple Onion, three picture cards and three aces; Lesser Onion, four picture cards and four aces; Great Onion, five picture cards and five aces. 177 "Modifiers" may also be played to increase the value of a hand. Apart from the crippling rule, modifiers are optional rules, which may or may not be included in a game. The available modifiers (many of which are named after Discworld characters or concepts) are as follows: • Crippling Mr Onion: if a player displays a Great Onion, an opponent may display a nine-card running flush and instantly win the hand. If a player displays a Great or Lesser Onion, an opponent may display a ten-card running flush and instantly win the hand; a player with a ten-card running flush can also use it to steal the win from someone who has previously crippled Mr Onion with a nine-card running flush. (This is the only non-optional modifier.) • Null Eights: in a normal hand, eights may be played as if their value were zero (but can be still be played with value eight if the player wishes). Thus they can be included in an existing Onion in order to improve its size by one card. Whenever this is done, eights become wild cards in the following hand, and this modifier cannot be used in that hand. After one hand with eights as wild cards, they revert to normal, and this modifier becomes available again. • Wild Crippling: when eights are wild, you cannot Cripple Mr Onion if your running flush contains more wild eights than the Lesser or Great Onion you are trying to cripple. • Octavo: when eights are wild, the grouping 88888888 is considered a Lesser Onion, but beats any other Lesser Onion and is considered a Great Onion for the purpose of being crippled. • The Lady: a player may reveal the Queen of Spades for one of two effects: if eights are not wild in the hand, the player may draw two cards from the deck, then choose one of these cards to replace the queen in their hand. If eights are wild, the player can force every opponent to devalue one ace in their hand to value 1 (rather than 11). The opponent chooses which ace is devalued. • Fate: if the Lady has been played and replaced with another card from the deck as above, the King of Cups may be revealed and replaced in the same way, also rendering all Aces held by the player who played the Lady unplayable. If eights are wild, the King of Cups may be played to immediately cause them to cease being wild; but if played this way, any other (not the same!) player who holds the Queen of Spades may reveal it to cause their eights to remain wild. • Great A'Tuin: a player who reveals the Queen of Coins may subtract eight from the value of one of their cards and add it to the value of another. Card values must still range from 1 to 11. • The Elephants: a player who reveals a set of four cards, each either a nine or ten (or a wild eight), plus the Queen of Coins, may shift points of value between their cards to create a Double Onion, and may consider any other nines or tens in their hands as ones (not aces) and twos respectively. However, any other Double Onion beats this one. • The Sender of Eights: displaying a Jack of Diamonds when eights are not wild causes the aces of any other player who has used a Null Eight to become unplayable. When eights are wild, displaying a Jack of Diamonds makes all aces unplayable and bans wild eights from taking value 1 or 11. • Death: displaying a King of Swords "kills" one picture card in the hand of every player who has more than one in their hand. A "killed" picture card may not participate in a Double Onion, and if eights are wild may not participate in a Triple Onion either, but may still participate in other groupings. • The Archchancellor: When played, the Jack of Staves is wild in all hands. However, any player who plays a Jack of Staves must play all their eights as null eights. Further, any opponent may reveal a King of Swords after the Jack of Staves is revealed to cause the Jack of Staves to cease being wild and also cause all other players to reveal Stealth Chess a card they have not yet revealed. • The Fool: If the Jack of Clubs is declared by any player before the first player has played their first group of cards, Bagels and Onions switch places in score value. Thus, Double Bagels, Triple Bagels, etc. become the most valuable hands, with the exception that a Great Onion will still beat a Great Bagel. It also, of course, becomes possible for a player to Cripple Mr Bagel. 178 Thud Stealth Chess Players Setup time Playing time 2 under one minute About two hours Random chance None Skill(s) required Tactics, Strategy, Visual-Spatial reasoning Thud is a board game devised by Trevor Truran and first published in 2002, inspired by the Discworld novels rather than originating in them. It bears a strong resemblance to the ancient Norse games of Hnefatafl and Tablut but has been changed to be less one-sided. The two sides are dwarfs and trolls. In the game, the objective is to eliminate as many of the opposition's pieces as possible. The two antagonists are the trolls and the dwarfs, the trolls being few in number (but individually very powerful), while there are a large number of dwarfs, but each individual dwarf is very weak and requires support from nearby dwarfs to be of use against the trolls. As in fox games, the two sides have different pieces with different movement and attacking styles. Thud uses an unconventional, octagonal board divided into smaller squares, with only thirteen pieces allowed to occupy each square. Two players early in a game of Thud Fictional origins The game, supposedly called in Dwarfish "Hnaflbaflwhiflsnifltafl", represents the famous Battle of Koom Valley between dwarfs and trolls. The game was first directly referenced in Going Postal, being played by Vetinari, and became a central concept in the immediate sequel Thud!. The release of Thud! led to a special Koom Valley edition of the game. The pieces of the Koom Valley version are similar to the cover of the novel Thud! drawn by Paul Kidby. Terry Pratchett has devised a fictional history of how Thud was invented similar to the Shahnama theory of the origins of chess. In short, the clever dwarf who invented the game was asked by his king to name his reward. The Stealth Chess answer was that he wanted his board filled with gold: One small gold piece on the first square, two pieces on the second, four pieces on the third, etc. Needless to say, this is more than all the gold of the Disc combined. The king then got angry and threatened to kill the dwarf who was 'too drhg'hgin clever by half'. The inventor then hastily changed his reward to 'as much gold as he could carry', whereupon the king agreed and simply broke one of his arms. 179 Gameplay The octagonal playing area consists of a 15 by 15 square board from which a triangle of 15 squares in each corner has been removed. The Thudstone is placed on the centre square of the board, where it remains for the entire game and may not be moved onto or through. The eight trolls are placed onto the eight squares adjacent to the Thudstone and the thirty-two dwarfs are placed so as to occupy all the perimeter spaces except for the four in the same horizontal or vertical line as the Thudstone. One player takes control of the dwarfs, the other controls the trolls. The dwarfs move first.[1] On the dwarfs' turn, they may either move or hurl one dwarf: • Move: any one dwarf is moved like a chess queen, any number of squares in any orthogonal or diagonal direction, but not onto or through any other piece, whether Thudstone, dwarf, or troll; or A Thud game's initial positions. "d" represents the dwarfs, "T" represents the trolls, and "X" represents the Thudstone. • Hurl: anywhere there is a straight (orthogonal or diagonal) line of adjacent dwarfs on the board, they may hurl the front dwarf in the direction continuing the line, as long as the space between the lead dwarf and the troll is less than the number of dwarfs in the line. This is different from a normal move in that the dwarf is permitted to land on a square containing a troll, in which case the troll is removed from the board and the dwarf takes his place. This may only be done if the endmost dwarf can land on a troll by moving in the direction of the line at most as many spaces as there are dwarfs in the line. Since a single dwarf is a line of one in any direction, a dwarf may always move one space to capture a troll on an immediately adjacent square. On the trolls' turn, they may either move or shove one troll: • Move: one troll is moved like a chess king, one square in any orthogonal or diagonal direction onto an empty square. After the troll has been moved, any dwarfs on the eight squares adjacent to the moved troll may optionally [2] be immediately captured and removed from the board, at the troll player's discretion; or • Shove: anywhere there is a straight (orthogonal or diagonal) line of adjacent trolls on the board, they may shove the endmost troll in the direction continuing the line, up to as many spaces as there are trolls in the line. As in a normal move, the troll may not land on an occupied square, and any dwarfs in the eight squares adjacent to its final position may immediately be captured. Trolls may only make a shove if by doing so they capture at least one dwarf. Stealth Chess The battle is over when both players agree that no more captures can be made by continuing to play, or when one player has no more valid moves to make. At this point the players count score: the dwarfs score 1 point for each surviving dwarf, and the trolls score 4 for each remaining troll, with the difference being the 'final' score. The players should then swap sides to play another round, and the sum of their final scores for the two battles determines the overall victor. 180 Tactics The basic overall strategy for the dwarfs to form a large group and for the trolls to try and stop them.[3] It is normally better for the trolls to be widely spaced. A dwarf's strategy does widely depend on how the trolls are advancing on the dwarf block. A good tactic therefore is to be prepared to sacrifice a few dwarfs to get in the way and slow down any trolls that are advancing into dangerous positions.[3] A troll's strategy can also vary but at the start of a match getting into shoving lines is regarded as the best tactic. Koom Valley Thud For the 2005 rerelease of Thud, Truran devised a substantially different game that could be played with the same board and pieces, known as Koom Valley Thud. Unlike the original release, in which the publishers attempted to keep the game rules secret so that anyone wishing to play would have to buy the official set, the rules for Koom Valley Thud were posted on the official website [4] so that owners of the original edition would have access to the new rules. Objective For the dwarfs to win they must move the rock to the far side of the valley - onto any of the five squares on the opposite side of the board against which the dwarf commander is sitting. For the trolls to win they must capture the rock by placing three trolls adjacent to it (in any direction including diagonally). If neither side can achieve their objective the game is drawn. The board and initial positions for Thud: The Koom Valley. D for Dwarves, T for Trolls, X for Thudstone, dark gray - far side of the valley. Movement Movement is the same as Classic Thud except that Trolls may now move up to 3 spaces in any direction (horizontal, vertical or diagonal). Dwarfs may move the Rock instead of moving a dwarf piece. It may move only one square in any direction. To be moved it must be next to a dwarf and it must also be next to a dwarf at the end of its move. Captures A troll captures a dwarf by trampling over it. It moves in a straight line from a square next to the dwarf, through the square the dwarf is on and lands on the empty square immediately beyond. The trampled dwarf is removed from the board. Stealth Chess Several captures may be made in one move and a change of direction is allowed between captures. Dwarfs capture a troll by moving a dwarf so that the troll is trapped between two dwarfs in any straight line (including diagonally). The three pieces, two dwarfs and a troll, must all be in line. If the dwarf that has been moved also traps another troll between itself and another dwarf, that troll is also captured Captures are only made when the capturing side moves a piece. The rock may be moved and come to rest next to three trolls. It can only be captured when a troll is moved. 181 External links • The Fat Pack Playing Card Company [5] An eight suit pack of cards suitable for playing Cripple Mr Onion • The full rules. [6] • A play-against-your-computer version is available at http://www.davebudd.org.uk/cmo/index.html (Note from program author: 1. The program is embarrassingly poor, and 2. I've lost the source, so don't ask!) • Official site [7], including Pratchett's Story of Thud • Photograph of an official board [8] at BoardGameGeek. This illustrates both what the official game set looks like, and the initial positions. • Thud [9] at BoardGameGeek • ThudBoard [10] by Marc Boeren is software for playing Thud. References [1] Pratchett, Terry; Trevor Truran, Bernard Pearson (2006-09-29). "Rules for Classic Thud and Koom Valley Thud" (http:/ / www. thudgame. com/ rules). . Retrieved 2006-12-15. [2] Dewi Morgan (2006-08-08). "Masked Thudplayer challenge!" (http:/ / www. thudgame. com/ node/ 137). . Retrieved 2006-12-15. [3] Pratchett, Terry; Trevor Truran, Bernard Pearson (2006-09-29). "Rules for Classic Thud and Koom Valley Thud ("rules3")" (http:/ / www. thudgame. com/ rules). . Retrieved 2006-12-15. [4] http:/ / www. thudgame. com/ kvt [5] http:/ / www. fatpackcards. com [6] http:/ / cripplemronion. info/ [7] http:/ / www. thudgame. com [8] http:/ / www. boardgamegeek. com/ image/ 64064 [9] http:/ / www. boardgamegeek. com/ game/ 4532 [10] http:/ / www. million. nl/ thudboard Pocket mutation chess 182 Pocket mutation chess Pocket mutation chess is a chess variant invented by Mike Nelson in 2003.[1] In this game a player can take a piece from the board and put it into a pocket. The piece in the pocket can be put back on the board later. When placing the piece into the pocket the player can mutate the piece, i.e. change it to the different piece. The game is one of Recognized Chess Variants at Chess Variant Pages.[2] Rules The starting position in this game is the same as in standard chess. Players make moves as in standard chess. Instead of moving, a player can take one of their own pieces from the board and put it into the pocket, provided that the pocket is empty. If the piece is placed into the pocket from the last rank, it gets promoted to a piece of higher class. Otherwise the player has an option to mutate the piece into a different piece of the same class. The choice of mutating (or not) must be made at the time the piece is removed. White cannot use the pocket on the first move. The King cannot be placed into the pocket. As a players move, a piece in the pocket can be dropped on any empty position on the board, except the last rank. A pawn can make only a single step from the first rank, but can do a double step from the second one, even if dropped there or moved from the first rank. The en passant rule applies as in standard chess. Pawns that reach the last rank do not get promoted immediately. Instead, they can be placed into the pocket and promoted to a piece of higher class. There is no castling in this chess variant. The game is declared a draw if no capture or promotion was made for 50 consecutive moves. Classes of the pieces Besides usual pieces there are several fairy chess pieces in this game. All pieces are divided into the following classes. All pieces from the same class are of presumably the same (or close) value. Class Usual pieces pawn bishop rook cardinal (bishop+knight) queen chancellor (rook+knight) cardinal rider (bishop+nightrider) chancellor rider (rook+nightrider) amazon (queen+knight) knight nightrider super bishop (bishop+king) super rook (rook+king) Combined with knight Combined with nightrider Combined with king Combined with nightrider and king 1 2 3 4 5 super cardinal (bishop+knight+king) super chancellor (rook+knight+king) super cardinal rider (bishop+nightrider+king) super chancellor rider (rook+nightrider+king) 6 7 8 amazon rider (queen+nightrider) Pocket mutation chess 183 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Nightrider makes any number of knight moves in the same direction. References [1] Pritchard, D. (2007). The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. John Beasley. ISBN 978-0955516801., p. 164. [2] The Chess Variant Pages: Recognized Chess Variants (http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ rindex. html) External links • Pocket mutation chess (http://www.chessvariants.org/large.dir/pocketmutation.html) by Mike Nelson. Baroque chess 184 Baroque chess Baroque chess is a chess variant invented in 1962 by Robert Abbott. In 1963, at the suggestion of his publisher, he changed the name to Ultima, by which name it is also known. Abbott considers his invention flawed, and he has suggested amendments to the rules, but these suggestions - like the new name he attempted to give it - have been substantially ignored by the gaming community, which continues, for the most part, to play by the 1962 rules. Since the rules for Baroque were first laid down in 1962, some regional variation has arisen, causing the game to diverge from Ultima. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The opening setup Description Baroque chess is usually played on a standard 8×8 chessboard with the standard Staunton design of chess pieces. The rules that follow are widely found on the internet, but other variants exist. A variant popular among students at Cambridge University in 1974 is described on this webpage [1]. The initial setup of the pieces is the same as in standard Chess, except for two things that the players must first decide on - center counter symmetry, and corner counter symmetry. Establishing the degree of symmetry Center counter symmetry allows either player to decide whether to switch his King and Withdrawer ("Queen") around, and then corner counter symmetry requires each player to decide which of his "Rooks" will be turned upside down. (The one that remains upright is the Coordinator, and the one that is turned upside down is the Immobilizer.) After these two kinds of symmetries are determined, White moves first. For purposes of recording the moves that are played in the game, it is sufficient to employ an algebraic form of notation, as in Chess, and write the names of the pieces and the squares they are to be placed in. For instance, 1. Kd1 & We1, Ke8 & Wd8 (center counter symmetry), and 2. Ia1 & Ch1, Ih8 & Ca8 (corner counter symmetry). If the symmetry resolution phases that are usually found at the start of the game could somehow be put off for later, then one may readily see how similar they are to the castling maneuvers in Chess. They have the practical function of multiplying the number of games that are possible from the initial starting position. Baroque chess 185 Moving In Baroque, the King is the one piece alone that is limited to moving exactly one square at a time; it moves and takes just like the King in Chess. All of the remaining pieces on the first rank may move like the Queen, in all directions. They have this power as a matter of privilege, as they are all considered to be Noble pieces. This is a kind of privilege that attaches to them at birth, that is, at the outset of the game, and is never diminished; they retain this privilege no matter where they go, except when they find themselves next to an Immobilizer (see below). The pawns, on the other hand, move just like the Rook moves in Chess, unable to move diagonally. Just as in Chess, pawns are the peasants of this game. Unlike Chess, pawns are never promoted to another kind of piece. (There is no magic square to which pawns can be moved and then promoted.) Capturing All the pieces except for the King capture differently from their counterparts in chess, and all but the King have different names. The King is the only piece that captures, as chess pieces do, by moving into a square that is occupied by an enemy piece. All the other pieces capture enemy pieces in more complex ways. Friendly pieces are never allowed to capture other friendly pieces. Pieces The names of the pieces and rules for movement are as follows: • The King moves and captures like a standard chess King. The objective of the game is to capture the opposing king. Fast play with a chess clock usually makes declaration of checkmate a very rare thing to achieve in actual face to face play. • The pawns - or pincers, as it were - move like standard chess Rooks. A pawn captures any opposing piece horizontally or vertically between the square to which the pawn moved and a friendly piece (i.e. there may be no gaps between any of the three pieces). This is considered a custodial form of capture because it has been likened to two men coming up on the sides of the person to be seized, and taking hold of his arms to carry him off. Pawns never capture diagonally, only horizontally or vertically. The remaining pieces all move like standard chess queens, but have unique methods of capture. • The Withdrawer (or Retreater), represented by the Queen, captures by moving directly away from an adjacent piece. • The long-leapers, represented by the Knights, capture by jumping over an opposing piece in a straight line. A long-leaper may make multiple captures in the same line as long as each piece is jumped independently. Those variants of Baroque prohibiting multiple leaps call this piece the Leaper, and restrict it to capturing the first enemy piece it encounters, provided the next space is empty or open. It appears that the choice between a Long-Leaper and a Single-Leaper tends to affect game play by encouraging "hunkering down" and overdefending pieces, and allowing pieces to spread across the board more, with less attention to bulky blockades. • The Coordinator, represented by the unmarked Rook, captures any opposing piece that is on either of the two squares found at a) the intersection of its own file and the King's rank, and b) the intersection of the King's file and its own rank; these are found after the Coordinator has moved. • The Immobilizer, represented by the inverted Rook, does not capture anything, but immobilizes all adjacent enemy pieces. • The Imitators (or Chameleons), represented by the Bishops, capture any piece by moving as a piece of the type captured would have moved to capture. Also Imitators or Chameleons immobilize enemy Immobilizers to which they are adjacent. Imitators cannot capture Imitators. In order for an Imitator to capture an enemy King, it must Baroque chess begin its turn adjacent to it, and step into its square. This is because the King is the only piece on the board that steps one square at a time, and captures by 'occupation' and 'replacement' - stepping into the enemy's square to capture it. Diagrammed examples are indispensable to understanding the rules. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 186 The King's movement. King The white King moves c4-d5 delivering checkmate. Normally it would not be possible for the two kings to be adjacent, but here the black king is unable to move due to the white immobilizer on f4, thus the d5 square is not under attack by black, and the white king is not moving into check. Note that white could not play c4-d4, as that would place his own King in check from the black Withdrawer. Capturing the Withdrawer with c4-d3 would result in stalemate, as black would then have no legal moves. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The Pincer's movement. Baroque chess 187 Pawn/Pincer The white pawn (or Pincer) moves g4-d4, capturing the Black Immobilizer and black pawn. The Black Withdrawer on e5 is not captured because pawns capture only vertically and horizontally, not diagonally. The Black Imitator (Chameleon) on d3 is not captured, because there is no white piece on d2. Finally, the Black Long-leaper on g3 was safe because it moved between the two white pawns, rather than a white pawn moving to complete the custodial capture. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The Withdrawer's movement. Withdrawer The White Withdrawer moves g6-d3, capturing the black pawn on h7. The pawn on g7 and the Imitator (Chameleon) on h6 are unaffected because the Withdrawer did not move in their respective lines, but the Withdrawer could have captured either by a move in the g-file or sixth rank respectively. Note that the Withdrawer also gives check to the Black King by threatening to move away on the d-file. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The Long-Leaper's movement. Baroque chess 188 Long-Leaper The white Long-Leaper moves d2-d4-d6-d8, capturing three black pieces. It might instead have captured the Black Withdrawer with either d2-g5 or d2-h6. On the other hand, the black pawn on b2 and the Black Chameleon on d1 are safe from the Long Leaper because there is no square on the opposite side on which the Long Leaper could land. Also the black pawns on f2 and g2 cannot be captured by d2-h2, because there is no space in between the two pawns which would allow the Long Leaper to make two separate jumps. A move of d2-b4 would be illegal because long leapers may not jump over friendly pieces. Some variations of Baroque forbid multi-leaping, if only because it is felt that the game is more playable if the Leaper is less powerful. By requiring the Leaper to stop its movement immediately after capturing the first piece, that objective is met. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The Coordinator's movement. Coordinator The White Coordinator moves d4-f6, capturing black's Leaper on c6 and Immobilizer on f2. If White had played d4-d6 instead, he would have captured black's Leaper and pawn. The Coordinator threatens only pieces on the same rank or file as the friendly King. This kind of capture can be visualized by imagining an invisible cross emanating from the square the King is sitting on, and another invisible cross emanating from the square the Coordinator arrives at. The points where these two crosses intersect are the places where captures are possible. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Baroque chess The Immobilizer's movement. 189 Immobilizer The White Immobilizer moves f3-d5, immobilizing 5 black pieces. The black Leaper on g4, which had been immobilized, is now free to move again. An Immobilizer can never be captured by an Immobilizer, or Imitator (Chameleon). An Immobilizer can never be captured by a King or Withdrawer unless the variation popular in Cambridge is being played, in which case the Immobilizer itself must first be immobilized. When an Immobilizer comes into contact with an Enemy Chameleon or Immobilizer, the two pieces freeze each other, after which neither can move unless the other is captured. In the version played at Cambridge, the power of an enemy Immobilizer to arrest a friendly piece's movement is defeated when another friendly Immobilizer or Chameleon is brought up to it, effectively cancelling out each other's power to arrest movement. Some versions of Baroque allow an immobilized piece to commit suicide, i.e. be removed from the board, in lieu of the regular move of that player. There may be strategic reasons to open a line. For example, after the above diagrammed move, the Black Leaper on c5 may wish to commit suicide, so that the other Leaper can capture the White Immobilizer by jumping over it on the fifth rank. White cannot hinder this plan, because the Immobilizer is itself immobilized by the Black chameleon. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The Chameleon's movement. Chameleon/Imitator On the diagram on the right, the white chameleon moves g6-e6-c6, astoundingly capturing all seven black pieces except the king in one move and delivering check. • It captures the black withdrawer by moving away from it. • It captures the black long-leapers by jumping over them. • It captures three black pawns by surrounding them. (A chameleon can only capture pawns on a horizontal move or vertical move, not on a diagonal move.) • It captures the black coordinator by rank/file coordination with the white king. • It delivers check by moving adjacent to the black king. In the Cambridge rules, this capture is not possible. The move is legal, but it captures only the two leapers, because the move is not a legal move for any of the other target pieces. In the absence of the two black leapers, the same move would capture the other five pieces. Baroque chess 190 Variants Maxima Baroque played on a somewhat larger board that is mostly rectangular but for a couple extra squares that are outside the board, located at D0 and E0 just behind the King and Queen's squares. A matching pair of squares are also on the other side of the board, just beyond the Black King and Queen (D9 and E9). Although one objective of the game is to capture the King, an alternative objective allows depositing a piece in the pair of squares on the other side of the board. Unlike Baroque, the King in Maxima moves like the Knight in Chess, making for a game with much more fluid movement of pieces. Optima Baroque that is similar to Maxima with additional pieces and rules. Renaissance As Shogi is to Chess, Renaissance to Baroque—Pieces may be revived and reborn. Renaissance is played on a 9x9 board with a Swapper (or Resurrector or Ankh) that moves like a Queen for all ordinary purposes, but for swapping actions must move like a King, trading places with any adjacent piece (both friend or foe), never capturing it. Consistent with the concept of the Swapper (or Resurrector) being a piece wholly incapable of killing, it can also step into any adjacent empty square, and leave behind a previously captured piece resurrected by placing it in the square just vacated. Although, seen in that light, though the Swapper is like a piece of life, it can be transformed into a 1 square Bomb when captured and readmitted to the board - but capable only of death. Instead of moving, a Bomb need merely explode to effect the destruction of both friendly pieces and enemy pieces adjacent to itself, and suiciding in the process. The destruction of pieces in this way causes all effected to be unrevivable. There are also two more pieces that, like the Coordinator, are not capable of unassisted capture: the Pusher and the Puller. They can move like Queens for ordinary purposes, but for the purpose of exercising their special powers, they must be adjacent to the affected piece at the start of the turn. If they begin adjacent to a piece (regardless if friendly or foe), they can push or pull it by 1 square. For a Pusher, the empty square on the other side must be open (except for the unusual circumstance of driving a King into an enemy piece, or an Imitator into a King.) Although the Pushers and Pullers are not capable of capture, their pushing and pulling maneuvers can result in other pieces being forced to make captures, regardless of the captured one being a friendly or enemy piece. Rococo Rococo is a species of Baroque that is played on a 10x10 board for the purposes of captures, but on the inner 8x8 square just inside it for the purpose of movement. To put it another way, the outer perimeter of squares can only be entered as a result of a capturing maneuver. In addition to the traditional Baroque pieces, Rococo has an Advancer piece that moves like a Queen, but captures the enemy piece it has run up next to, stopping just short of the piece taken. As is usual for most pieces of the Baroque family, the Advancer will not enter into the space vacated by the captured piece, it merely runs up to it, and stops short by 1 square. Unlike the game of Renaissance described above, Rococo has a similarly named Swapper piece that moves like a Queen, but trades places with the enemy it runs up to, a full Queen's move away. The Rococo Swapper has the unusual property of self-destructing at will, in lieu of moving, provided it is not at the same time immobilized, with the effect of taking one enemy piece alongside it. What sets Rococo apart from Baroque the most is the way the pawns work; they are called cannonball pawns and move like a King, stepping 1 square in all directions, or leap over any adjacent piece (friend or foe). The only way that they can effect capture is by leaping, and landing on the enemy piece. They cannot capture like a King does. Apparently as compensation for their limited mobility, the cannonball pawns can be promoted into other pieces when they reach the other side of the board. Baroque chess The pawn formations unique to the parent game, Baroque, already significantly different from traditional chess, are not seen in Rococo. Instead, Rococo's cannonball pawns seem to hang away from enemy pieces by two or three squares, rarely coming into contact with each other without advance preparation. In both Chess and Baroque, however, fine nuances in maneuvering are made possible by locking positions together, made concrete by the establishment of well-defined pawn structures. This sort of thing is lacking in Rococo. 191 Further reading • Pritchard, D. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. Ultima, p. 329-330. • Pritchard, D. (2000). Popular Chess Variants. Bastford Chess Books. ISBN 0-7134-8578-7. Ch. 18 Ultima, p. 104-107. External links • Ultima [2] by Robert Abbott • Ultima [3] from the Chess Variant Pages • Rococo [4] from the Chess Variant Pages • An Illustrated Guide to Ultima Pieces [5] - Animated GIFs show how the pieces capture. • Ultima on Game Courier [6] - Play Ultima against others online References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. inference. phy. cam. ac. uk/ mackay/ ultima/ ultima. html http:/ / www. logicmazes. com/ games/ ultima. html http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ other. dir/ ultima. html http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ other. dir/ rococo. html http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ other. dir/ ultimapieces. html http:/ / play. chessvariants. org/ pbm/ presets/ ultima. html Chess with different armies 192 Chess with different armies Chess with different armies (or Betza chess[1] ) is a chess variant in which two sides use different sets of fairy pieces. There are several armies of equal strength to choose from, including standard FIDE army. In all armies kings and pawns are the same as in FIDE chess, but other pieces are different. Rules Before the game players choose their armies in a certain way, predefined by tournament rules. This can be done either randomly or secretly by both players. Each player has a choice of 4 armies[2] : the Fabulous FIDEs, where all pieces move as in standard chess, Colorbound Clobberers, Nutty Knights or Remarkable Rookies army. All armies are designed to be equal in strength, but have significantly different properties. kings and pawns move the same as in chess for all armies. Pawns can only promote to pieces available in either player's army at the start. The castling is done as in standard chess with exception of the case when rook replacement is a colorbound, like in colorbound clobberers army. In the latter case the king when castling long moves to b1 and rook replacement to c1. This is so colorbound pieces don't change square color. Fers. Alfil, can jump. Wazir. Dabbaba, can jump. Many pieces in the following armies are combination of standard chess pieces and 4 fairy pieces: fers, alfil, wazir and dabbaba (see their movement diagrams above). The game can be played with standard chess pieces and the following move diagrams use standard pieces as well (except queens). Colorbound Clobberers a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Cardinal. Moves as bishop or knight. Can jump for knight moves. Chess with different armies 193 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h FAD. Moves as fers, alfil or dabbaba (hence the name.) Can jump for all moves. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Bede. Moves as bishop or dabbaba. Can jump by orthogonal moves. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Waffle. Moves as wazir or alfil. Can jump by diagonal moves. Chess with different armies 194 Nutty Knights a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Colonel. Moves as king or as rook forward and sideways or as knight forward. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Charging knight. Moves as king backward and sideways and as knight forward. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Charging rook. Moves as king backwards or as rook forward and sideways. Chess with different armies 195 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Fibnif. Moves as fers or as a knight for its two longest forwards and backwards moves. Remarkable Rookies a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Chancellor. Moves as rook or knight. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Half duck. Moves as fers or dabbaba or jump 3 squares in orthogonal directions. Chess with different armies 196 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Short rook. Moves as rook, but not more than 4 spaces. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Woody rook. Moves as dabbaba or as wazir. Can jump for all moves. Other armies The four armies described above were play tested by Ralph Betza and selected as most balanced ones. There are other armies, invented by Betza and other people: • • • • • • • Amazon Army[3] (Ralph Betza); Cylindrical Cinders[4] (Ralph Betza); Fighting Fizzies[5] (Peter Aronson); Forward FIDEs[6] (Ralph Betza); Pizza Kings[7] (John Lawson); Meticulous Mashers[8] (Ralph Betza); Seeping Switchers[9] (Jörg Knappen). In initial version of the game there were 8 armies[1] and in these armies the king moved differently than the king in the standard chess. Instead of normal pawns, fairy pawns could be selected, for example berolina pawns. However, later Betza abandoned the idea of using fairy pieces for king and pawn[10] and reduced the number of armies to four. Chess with different armies 197 References [1] Pritchard, D. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. [2] Chess with different armies (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ unequal. dir/ cwda. html) by Ralph Betza. [3] The Amazon Army (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ d. betza/ chessvar/ cvda/ amazon. html) by Ralph Betza. [4] The Cylindrical Cinders (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ d. betza/ chessvar/ cvda/ cylind01. html) by Ralph Betza. [5] The Fighting Fizzies (http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ dpieces. dir/ fighting-fizzies. html) by Peter Aronson [6] The Forward FIDEs (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ d. betza/ chessvar/ dan/ forfid. html) by Ralph Betza. [7] The Pizza Kings (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ unequal. dir/ pizza-kings. html) by John Lawson. [8] The Meticulous Mashers (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ d. betza/ chessvar/ cda/ meticulous. html) by Ralph Betza. [9] The Seeping Switchers (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ unequal. dir/ seeping-switchers. html) by Jörg Knappen. [10] Different Kings and Pawns? (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ d. betza/ chessvar/ dan/ danx-70. html) by Ralph Betza Duell Duell is a two-player chess variant played with dice on a board of 9x8 squares. Players take turns moving one of their dice in order to capture their opponent's pieces, with the ultimate aim of capturing the opponent's king to win the game. Designed by Geoffrey Hayes, it was previously published in the UK as "Conquest" and "The George v Mildred Dice Game" and in Germany as "Tactix". Setup The board is placed between the two players such that the eight rows of nine squares run left to right. The pieces are placed so that from left to right the following numbers appear face up: 5 1 2 6 1 6 2 1 5, with the "key piece" (equivalent to the king in chess, which has a "1" on each face) appearing in the middle and the 3s facing towards the controlling player. To ensure true fairness, each die should be of the same chirality. Gameplay Players take it in turn to move one piece the number of squares shown on the outermost face (at the start of that move) by rolling it along the direction of travel such that the uppermost number changes with each square moved. A move may optionally include a single 90-degree change in direction. Moves may not pass though existing pieces of either color. Opposing pieces are captured by landing on the occupied square with the final move. Captures are not compulsory, and there is no penalty for not doing so when possible. The game finishes when one of the players captures their opponent's key piece; the capturing player wins, or when a players' key piece lands in the opponents "key space" (the square initially occupied by the key piece at the start of the game, in the center of the home row). Duell 198 References • Pritchard, D. B. (2007), The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants, John Beasley, ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1 External links • Duell rules [1] References [1] http:/ / aboardgamesdatabase. com/ rules/ duell/ duell. htm Gess Gess is a strategic board game for two players, involving a grid board and mutating pieces. The name was chosen as a conflation of "chess" and "go". It is pronounced with a hard "g" as in "go", and is thus homophonous with "guess". Gess was created by the Puzzles and Games Ring of The Archimedeans, and first published in 1994 in the society's magazine Eureka. It was popularized by Ian Stewart's Mathematical Recreations column in the November 1994 issue of Scientific American. Rules • Gess is played on a grid of 18 × 18 squares. The starting position of Gess. • Two players, "Black" and "White", each have 43 stones of their colour on the board in the starting configuration. • Starting with Black, players take turns moving a piece on the board. A move must always change the stone configuration on the board. There is no passing. • A piece consists of a 3 × 3 grid of squares, at least one of which must exist on the board. Only stones of one colour may be in the grid. There must be at least one stone on the eight squares around the central square. • A piece can only be moved by the player whose stones are inside the grid. • The 3 × 3 grid is termed the footprint of the piece. Each piece can move as determined by the stones in its footprint: • The central square determines the extent of the piece's movement. If the square is unoccupied, it may move up to three spaces; if it is occupied by a stone, it may move any number of spaces. • Each of the eight surrounding squares determines the directions the piece can move. If a square has a stone, the piece can move in the direction indicated by the square's location relative to the central square; if a square is unoccupied, the piece cannot move in that direction. • As a piece moves, all of the stones in its footprint move in unison. • When the footprint of a piece coincides with any other stones on the board, those stones are removed from the board and the move ends. Gess • If the footprint moves partially out of the board, the move ends. The stones of the piece which are on a square that has moved out of the board are removed. • A move also may end before any stone is removed. • A ring is any piece consisting of eight stones around an empty central square. • The game object is to be the only player with a ring piece on the board: when, at the end of any turn, a player has no ring pieces on the board, that player loses the game. If neither player has a ring piece, the player who has just moved loses. 199 Equipment A go set is one easy way to assemble the equipment needed for gess. The 19 × 19 line grid is simultaneously an 18 × 18 grid of squares, and the starting position needs only 43 each of the black and white stones. Influences The rules describe a highly variable set of pieces, which will often change every turn. In total there are 510 possible sets of a footprint; however, the starting position uses these rules to emulate chess pieces: king, queen, bishop, rook and pawn in this order R - B - Q - K - B - R in the last row (black's view) and 6 pawns in the next row. The game objective, to remove the opponent's "ring" (described as a piece that moves like a chess king) also mimics that of chess. Notation The rows are named 2 to 19 (1 and 20 being outside the grid), and the files are named b to s (a and t again being outside the grid). A move is notated by noting the place of the centre of the footprint at the beginning of a move and its place at the end of the move. External links • Gess the Game [1], original article at the online Eureka archive • GESS -- a New chess/go variant [2], Gess @ chessvariants.com with links to a java applet to play Gess References [1] http:/ / www. archim. org. uk/ eureka/ 53/ gess. html [2] http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ crossover. dir/ gess. html 200 Variants with bishop+knight and rook+knight compounds Seirawan chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Seirawan chess, position after 1. Nc3/Eb1. White moved his Queen Knight from b1 to c3 and placed the Elephant on b1. Seirawan chess is a chess variant invented by grandmaster Yasser Seirawan in 2007.[1] It is played on the standard 8x8 board and uses two new pieces, the hawk (which moves like a knight or a bishop) and the elephant (which moves like a knight or a rook). Yasser Seirawan has given simultaneous exhibitions for the game. The first ever event was a 12 board simultaneous exhibition held March 31, 2007 in Vancouver, Canada.[2] Rules The initial position is that of standard chess. Each side has additionally two pieces in hand (a hawk and an elephant): • The Elephant, moves as a rook or a knight; and • The Hawk, moves as a bishop or a knight. The elephant and the hawk are introduced to the game in the following way: whenever the player moves a piece (king, queen, knight, bishop or rook) from its starting position (that hasn't already been moved), one of the pieces in hand may be placed immediately on the square just vacated. One cannot use the placing of an elephant or hawk to block check. If the player moves all his pieces from the first rank without placing one or both in hand pieces, he forfeits the right to do so. After castling, the player may put one of the pieces in hand on either the king's or the rook's square, but he may not place both pieces in hand in the same turn. Pawns may promote to a hawk or an elephant in this game (in addition to the normal chess pieces). When notating games in algebraic notation, the letter E is used for the Elephant and H for the Hawk. If the player places one of the two pieces on the board, it's written after a slash. For example, 1. Nc3/Eb1 means that the player moved his knight from b1 to c3 and placed the elephant on b1 (see diagram). Seirawan chess 201 Name GM Seirawan has expressed dissatisfaction with the name Seirawan chess, noting that the variant was a joint development with friend Bruce Harper.[3] The name SHARPER Chess (a combination of the names Seirawan and Harper) has been suggested. References [1] Seirawan chess (http:/ / www. chessmastery. com/ seirawan-chess. html) [2] Seirawan chess simultaneous (http:/ / www. chessmastery. com/ seirawan-simul. html), photos and videos. [3] Grandmaster Yasser Seirawan explains Seirawan (http:/ / video. yahoo. com/ watch/ 1947363) External links • Seirawan chess, a conservative drop chess (http://hem.passagen.se/melki9/seirawanchess.htm) by M. Winther. • Seirawan chess videos (http://video.yahoo.com/?t=t&p=seirawan+chess) • Chessvariants.org entry on game (http://www.chessvariants.org/index/msdisplay. php?itemid=MLseirawanchess) Janus chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Janus Chess. The Janus (knight + bishop compound) is placed on the b-file and i-file, beside the rooks. Janus Chess is a chess variant played on a 10×8 board. It features a new piece, the Janus (also known as archbishop or cardinal), with the combined moves of a bishop and a knight. This piece is named after the Roman god Janus because this god was usually depicted with two faces looking in opposite directions. Janus Chess was invented in 1978 by Werner Schöndorf from Bildstock, Germany. The usual set of chess pieces is extended with two pawns and two Januses per player. Each Janus is placed between a rook and a knight. The relative position of the king and queen is reversed compared to chess. After castling the king is placed on either the b-file or i-file and a rook is placed on either the c-file or h-file, depending upon which side to castle is chosen. Note that the Janus is the only piece in this game which is able to checkmate the opponent's king without the assistance of any other piece, if the king is in a corner. Janus chess This chess variant is quite popular in Europe. Several chess grandmasters play this game including Viktor Korchnoi, Péter Lékó and Artur Yusupov. 202 External links • • • • Janus Chess [1] by Hans L. Bodlaender. Janusschach [2] - Janus Chess (in German). BrainKing.com [1] - a server which plays Janus Chess over the internet. ChessV [3] - a program which plays Janus Chess. References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ large. dir/ janus. html [2] http:/ / www. janusschach. de/ [3] http:/ / www. chessv. com Capablanca chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Capablanca chess. Archbishop is placed between knight and bishop on the queen's side, chancellor on the king's side. Capablanca chess (or Capablanca's chess) is a chess variant invented in the 1920s by former World Chess Champion José Raúl Capablanca. It incorporates two new pieces and is played on a 10×8 board. Capablanca proposed the variant while World Champion, and not as a "sour grapes" rationalization after losing his title as some critics have asserted.[1] He believed that chess would be played out in a few decades and games between grandmasters would always end in draws. The threat of "draw death" for chess was his main motivation for creating a more complex and richer version of the game. • The chancellor combines powers of a rook and a knight. • The archbishop combines powers of a bishop and a knight. The new pieces have properties that enrich the game. For example, the archbishop by itself can checkmate a lone king (king in a corner, archbishop placed diagonally with one square in between). Capablanca chess 203 Setup of the pieces Capablanca proposed two opening setups for Capablanca Chess. In one opening setup, he proposed that the archbishop be placed between the bishop and the queen and that the chancellor be placed between the king and the king's bishop. This setup has the flaw that it leaves the pawn in front of the king's bishop undefended, allowing white to threaten mate on the first move. He subsequently revised the opening setup so that the archbishop was between the queen's knight and bishop, and the chancellor was between the king's knight and bishop. He also experimented with 10×10 board sizes, where the pawns could move up to three squares on the initial move. In his book, The Adventure of Chess, Edward Lasker writes (p. 39): ...I played many test games with Capablanca, and they rarely lasted more than twenty or twenty-five moves. We tried boards of 10×10 squares and 10×8 squares, and we concluded that the latter was preferable because hand-to-hand fights start earlier on it. Lasker was one of the few supporters. Hungarian grandmaster Géza Maróczy also played some games with Capablanca (who got the better of him). One of the few rational critics, British champion William Winter, thought that there were too many strong pieces, making the minor pieces less relevant. The names for new pieces, Archbishop and Chancellor, were introduced by Capablanca himself. These names are still used in most modern variants of Capablanca Chess. Variants that predate Capablanca Chess Capablanca was not the first person to add the Chancellor and the Archbishop to the normal Chess set, though he is the most famous. Other attempts mostly differ only by the arrangement of pieces and the castling rules. In 1617, Pietro Carrera published a book Il Gioco degli Scacchi, which contained a description of a chess variant played on 8×10 board. He placed new pieces between a rook and a knight. Chancellor was on the king's side and archbishop on the queen's side. Carrera used names champion instead of chancellor and centaur instead of archbishop. The game was largely forgotten after the death of the inventor. In 1874, Henry Bird proposed a chess variant similar to Carrera's variant. The only significant difference was the opening setup. The chancellor was placed between the queen's bishop and queen and the archbishop was placed between the king's bishop and king. Bird used names guard instead of chancellor and equerry instead of archbishop. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Carrera Chess. Earliest chess variant on 8×10 board with archbishop and chancellor. Capablanca chess 204 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h i j Bird's chess. Another predecessor of Capablanca chess. Variants that postdate Capablanca Chess Capablanca Chess has inspired a number of chess variants; • • • • • • • • • • Aberg's variation [2] (2003) by Hans Aberg. Grotesque Chess [3] (2004) by Fergus Duniho. Univers Chess [4] (2006) by Fergus Duniho. Ladorean Chess [5] (2005) by Bernhard U. Hermes. Grand Chess (1984) by Christian Freeling. Embassy Chess (2005) by Kevin Hill. Gothic Chess (2002) by Ed Trice. Schoolbook Chess [6] (2006) by Sam Trenholme. Paulovich's variation [7] (2004) by David Paulovich. Modern Capablanca Random Chess [8] (2008) by José Carrillo. It is noteworthy that Embassy Chess uses a starting position identical to Grand Chess adapted to a 10×8 board. Another interesting recent development is Capablanca Random Chess, invented in 2004 by Reinhard Scharnagl. This game combines ideas of Fischer Random Chess and Capablanca Chess. It also applies the sound principle which demands that in the starting position, all pawns are protected by at least one piece. Variants which use a different board There are also variants of Capablanca Chess that do not use the standard 10×8 board. Grand chess is a popular chess variant invented by Dutch game designer Christian Freeling in 1984. It uses Capablanca Chess pieces upon a larger, 10×10 board. In 2007 Grandmaster Yasser Seirawan devised a variant (called Seirawan chess), which adds the two pieces to the standard game in a different manner. The player, after moving a piece (for example, a bishop) from the first rank, may immediately place either of the two pieces on the bishop's square. If the player moves all his eight officers without placing the Hawk or the Elephant (Seirawan's names for the Archbishop and the Chancellor, respectively), he forfeits his right to do so. Capablanca chess 205 a 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h i j Grand Chess. The chancellor and archbishop are at right of the king. W1 W1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W3 W3 A B C D E F G H I J W4 A B C D E F G H I J 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W4 W2 W2 Omega Chess - start position Capablanca chess has inspired many chess variants, including grand chess and omega chess. Capablanca chess 206 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] "In Moscow" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,721501,00. html). Time. 1925-12-07. . http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ large. dir/ capablancavariation. html http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ large. dir/ grotesque. html http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ large. dir/ univers. html http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ large. dir/ ladorean_chess. html http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ index/ msdisplay. php?itemid=MSschoolbook http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ index/ displaycomment. php?commentid=7258 http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ index/ msdisplay. php?itemid=MPmoderncapablan • D.B. Pritchard (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. • Edward Lasker (1959). The Adventure of Chess. ISBN 0-486-20510-X. External links • Capablanca Chess (http://www.chessvariants.org/large.dir/capablanca.html) by Hans L. Bodlaender • Capablanca Chess | material values of pieces (http://www.symmetryperfect.com/shots/texts/values-capa.pdf) Capablanca random chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Capablanca Random Chess. One of the 12118 possible starting positions. Capablanca Random Chess (CRC) is a chess variant invented by Reinhard Scharnagl in 2004. It combines the piece set and 10x8 board from Capablanca Chess with the permutation idea of Fischer Random Chess. This game won a contest in 2005 held at The Chess Variant Pages to design a chess variant based upon the theme of the number 10.[1] Capablanca random chess 207 Rules The rules are the same as in Capablanca chess but initial setup is randomized. White and black pieces are set up in symmetrical position. The pieces on the first rank are placed in a random way with the following restrictions: • Bishops must be on opposite colored spaces. • The queen and the archbishop (which are composite pieces possessing, in part, the movement powers of bishops) must also be on opposite colored spaces. • The king must be between the rooks. • All pawns must be protected in initial setup. • The starting position must be different from that of Gothic Chess. • Starting positions with neighbouring bishops must be avoided. The first restriction is taken from Fischer Random Chess for the purpose of balancing the power of colorbound bishops. The second restriction is based upon the first restriction but extrapolated to the unique piece set used within CRC. The third restriction is taken from Fischer Random Chess to preserve castling ability. The fourth restriction helps to minimize the advantage held by white in having the first move of the game. The fifth restriction is to avoid possible legal issues in America with Gothic Chess, which was formerly protected by a US patent. The sixth restriction was introduced later upon discovery by Reinhard Scharnagl that such positions might increase the first move of the game advantage for white. Together, these six rules restrict the opening setup to 12,118 starting positions. Extended FEN Encoding Within Capablanca Random Chess, X-FEN is used (to represent positions). References [1] "Contest to design a 10-chess variant" (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ contests/ 10/ index. html). The Chess Variant Pages. 2005-12-25. . Retrieved 2007-08-19. External links • Capablanca Random Chess | material values of pieces (http://www.symmetryperfect.com/shots/texts/ values-capa.pdf) Gothic Chess 208 Gothic Chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Gothic Chess, starting position Gothic Chess is a chess variant derived from Capablanca Chess by Ed Trice. It was patented in 2002, but the patent expired in 2006.[1] [2] [3] It is played on the same 10×8 board and additional pieces as in Capablanca Chess. The only difference is the starting position, which is shown right. Tournaments In 2004, Trice organized the Gothic Chess Computer World Championship, which was won by his own Gothic Vortex computer program.[4] References [1] Chessvariants.org page on Gothic Chess (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ index/ displayitem. php?itemid=GothicChess) retrieved August 11, 2009 [2] United States Patent 6,481,716 (http:/ / patft. uspto. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1& Sect2=HITOFF& d=PALL& p=1& u=/ netahtml/ PTO/ srchnum. htm& r=1& f=G& l=50& s1=6481716. PN. & OS=PN/ 6481716& RS=PN/ 6481716) Method of playing a variant of chess [3] Notice of Expiration of Patents Due to Failure to Pay Maintenance Fee (http:/ / www. uspto. gov/ web/ offices/ com/ sol/ og/ 2007/ week03/ patexpi. htm) Patent 6,481,716 expired on November 19, 2006 [4] Trice E (Dec 2004). "The 2004 Gothic Chess Computer World Championship". ICGA Journal 27 (4): 249–254. External links • Play Gothic Chess online (http://grandgames.net/) • The Gothic Chess Federation (http://www.gothicchess.com) • CRC | material values of pieces (http://www.symmetryperfect.com/shots/texts/values-capa.pdf) Embassy Chess 209 Embassy Chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Embassy chess, starting position Embassy chess is a chess variant created in 2005 by Kevin Hill. It borrows the opening setup from Grand chess by Christian Freeling and adapts it to the 10x8 board. Embassy chess is a free, non-commercial Capablanca random chess variant that is played on a 10x8 board with two additional pawns per side and two fairy chess pieces: the marshall and the cardinal.[1] • The marshall moves as both a rook and a knight. • The cardinal moves as both a bishop and a knight. The castling in this chess variant is done by king moving 3 spaces in rook direction, see diagram at right. All other rules, like en passant are the same as in chess. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Castling in Embassy chess. White castled king-side, black queen-side. Embassy Chess 210 Computer implementations Embassy chess is supported by at least three multi-variant programs available in the chess variant world. It was selected as one out of seven 10x8 board games featured in SMIRF (developed by Reinhard Scharnagl). It was selected as one out of eleven 8x10 board games featured in ChessV (developed by Gregory Strong). In both programs, its opening setup can conveniently, automatically be loaded for play against a computer opponent. It is also possible to play Embassy chess in Zillions of Games using a third-party rules file, such as this one [2]. References [1] Embassy chess rules (http:/ / brainking. com/ en/ GameRules?tp=41) by Filip Rachunek. [2] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ index/ zillions. php?itemid=zLargeChess External links • Game Courier | Embassy Chess (http://play.chessvariants.org/pbm/play.php?game=Embassy+Chess& settings=default) • ChessV (http://samiam.org/chessv/) • BrainKing (http://www.brainking.com) - a server where you can play Embassy Chess. • CRC | material values of pieces (http://www.symmetryperfect.com/shots/texts/values-capa.pdf) Modern chess a 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i b c d e f g h i 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Modern chess. Prime Minister is placed to the left of the King. Modern chess is a chess variant played on a 9x9 board. The game was invented by Gabriel Vicente Maura in 1968. Besides the usual set of chess pieces, each player has an additional piece with a corresponding pawn: • a Prime Minister that moves as both a bishop and a knight. Otherwise, the standard rules of chess still apply, with the objective being to checkmate the opponent's king. The king piece must be moved out of check when it is placed in check. If escape is not possible, the game is lost. A player still may resign at any point in the game, and en passant is legal. Modern chess 211 External links • Modern chess [1] by Hans Bodlaender References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ large. dir/ modern. html Grand chess a 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Grand chess initial position. The marshall and cardinal are at the right of the king. Grand chess is a popular[1] large-board chess variant invented by Dutch games designer Christian Freeling in 1984.[2] It is played on a 10×10 board, with each side having two additional pawns and two new pieces: the marshall and the cardinal. • The marshall combines powers of a rook and a knight. • The cardinal combines powers of a bishop and a knight. A superficial similarity exists between Grand chess and an early version of the historic chess variant Capablanca chess because the same pieces and game board are used. But differences in initial start position, rules governing pawn moves and promotion, and castling make them significantly different games. A series of Grand chess Cyber World Championship matches was sponsored by the Dutch game site Mindsports. Past title holders included R. Wayne Schmittberger (1998, 1999) and John Vehre (2001). Grand chess tournaments were held annually beginning in 1998 by the (now defunct) correspondence game club kNights Of the Square Table (NOST).[3] Grand chess 212 Rules a 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 White's major pieces are set up on the first and second ranks as shown in the diagram. White's pawns are set up on the third rank. The white rooks alone are positioned on the first rank, which makes it easier for them to activate earlier in the game since they are not blocked by the other pieces as they are in standard chess. The black rooks are placed the same, for the same advantage. Black's major pieces are set up on the ninth and tenth ranks, and Black's pawns are set up on the eighth rank. A white pawn may elect to either promote or remain a pawn upon reaching the eighth and ninth ranks, but must promote upon reaching the tenth rank. Unlike standard chess, a pawn may be promoted only to a previously captured piece of the same color. (So, it is illegal for either side to have two queens, or two marshalls, or three rooks, etc.) If no captured piece is available for promoting a white pawn about to reach the tenth rank, the pawn must stay on the ninth rank, but it can still give check. Similarly, a black pawn promotes optionally upon reaching the third and second ranks, but must promote in order to move to the first rank. It can still give check from the second rank to a white king on the first rank, even if it can't yet legally move to the first rank. As in standard chess, pawns can move one or two squares on their first move, and they may also capture en passant. As in chess, checkmate is a win and stalemate is a draw. But there is no castling in Grand chess.[4] Notes [1] Hans Bodlaender and John William Brown. "Christian Freeling's Grand Chess" (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ large. dir/ freeling. html). The Chess Variants server. . Retrieved 2008-12-13. [2] Dylan Loeb McClain (2007-08-19). "Giraffes, Viziers and Wizards: Variations on the Old Game" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2007/ 08/ 19/ crosswords/ chess/ 19chess. html). New York Times. . Retrieved 2008-12-07. [3] Formed in 1960 by Bob Lauzon and Jim France, NOST held an annual convention and enjoyed several hundred active members (Pritchard 1994:210). [4] "We're so used to castling that we tend to forget that it is the weirdest move in Chess, implemented specifically to solve a problem. Chess turned out a great game despite its problem, but it needed an ad hoc fix to do so. In Grand Chess, pawns retain their usual distance and rooks are free from the onset, so the problem doesn't exist in the first place." (Freeling) Grand chess 213 References • R. Wayne Schmittberger (1992). New Rules for Classic Games. Wiley. ISBN 978-0471536215. • Pritchard, David (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. • Hochberg, Burt (August 1997). "Don't be Scared, It's Still Chess". Chess Life. External links • Christian Freeling's Grand chess (http://www.chessvariants.org/large.dir/freeling.html) by Hans L. Bodlaender • Grand chess introduction (http://www.mindsports.nl/Arena/GrandChess/) official Mindsports website contains rules, problems, example games • 2001 Cyber World Championship game (http://www.samiam.org/grandchess/2001-VS.html) annotated by John Vehre—2001 Grand chess World Champion • Grand chess, The Yerevan Games (http://www.bcvs.ukf.net/grand.htm) by Malcolm Horne (Variant Chess, Volume 3, Issue 24, Summer 1997, pages 71–72) 214 Games inspired by chess Arimaa Arimaa An Arimaa Elephant Designer(s) Publisher(s) Players Setup time Playing time Omar Syed and Aamir Syed Z-Man Games 2 < 1 minute 15 minutes - 2 hours Random chance None Skill(s) required Tactics, Strategy Arimaa is a two-player abstract strategy board game that can be played using the same equipment as chess. Arimaa was devised to be more difficult for artificial intelligences to play than chess. History Arimaa was invented by Omar Syed, an Indian American computer engineer trained in artificial intelligence. Syed was inspired by Garry Kasparov's defeat at the hands of the chess computer Deep Blue to design a new game which could be played with a standard chess set, would be difficult for computers to play well, but would have rules simple enough for his then four-year-old son Aamir to understand. ("Arimaa" is "Aamir" spelled backwards plus an initial "a"). In 2002 Syed published the rules to Arimaa and announced a $10,000 prize, available annually until 2020, for the first computer program (running on standard, off-the-shelf hardware) able to defeat each of three top-ranked human players in a three game series.[1] Rules Arimaa is played on a chessboard with four squares distinguished as trap squares, namely c3, f3, c6, and f6 in algebraic chess notation. The two players, Gold and Silver, each control sixteen pieces. These are, in order from strongest to weakest, one elephant ( ), one camel ( ), two horses ( ), two dogs ( ), two cats ( ), and eight rabbits ( ). These may be represented by the king, queen, rooks, bishops, knights, and pawns respectively when one plays on a chess board. Arimaa 215 The players begin by setting up their pieces however they choose on their home rows. The objective of the game is to move a rabbit of one's own color onto the home rank of the opponent. Thus Gold wins by moving a gold rabbit to the eighth rank, and Silver wins by moving a silver rabbit to the first rank. However, because it is difficult to usher a rabbit to the goal line while the board is full of pieces, an intermediate objective is to capture opposing pieces by pushing or pulling them into the trap squares. The game begins with an empty board. Gold places the sixteen gold pieces in any configuration on the first and second ranks. Silver then places the sixteen silver pieces in any configuration on seventh and eighth ranks. The diagram at right shows one possible initial placement. Arimaa 216 After the pieces are placed on the board, the players alternate turns, starting with Gold. A turn consists of making one to four steps. With each step a friendly piece may move into an unoccupied square one space left, right, forward, or backward, except that rabbits may not step backward. The steps of a turn may be made by a single piece or distributed between several pieces in any order. A turn must make a net change to the position. Thus one may not, for example, take one step forward and one step back with the same piece, effectively passing the turn. Furthermore, one's turn may not create the same position with the same player to move as has been created twice before. This rule is similar to the situational super ko rule in the game of Go, which prevents endless loops, and is in contrast to chess where endless loops are considered draws. The prohibitions on passing and repetition make Arimaa a drawless game. The second diagram, from the same game movement. [2] as the initial position above, helps illustrate the remaining rules of A player may use two consecutive steps of a turn to dislodge an opposing piece with a stronger friendly piece which is adjacent (in one of the four cardinal directions). For example, a friendly dog may dislodge an opposing rabbit or cat, but not a dog, horse, camel, or elephant. The stronger piece may pull or push the adjacent weaker piece. When pulling, the stronger piece steps into an empty square, and the square it came from is occupied by the weaker piece. The silver elephant on d5 could step to d4 (or c5 or e5) and pull the gold horse from d6 to d5. When pushing, the weaker piece is moved to an adjacent empty square, and the square it came from is occupied by the stronger piece. The gold elephant on d3 could push the silver rabbit on d2 to e2 and then occupy d2. Note that the rabbit on d2 can't be pushed to d1, c2, or d3, because those squares are not empty. Friendly pieces may not be dislodged. Also, a piece may not push and pull simultaneously. For example the gold elephant on d3 could not simultaneously push the silver rabbit on d2 to e2 and pull the silver rabbit from c3 to d3. An elephant can never be dislodged, since there is nothing stronger. A piece which is adjacent (in any cardinal direction) to a stronger opposing piece is frozen, unless it is also adjacent to a friendly piece. Frozen pieces may not be moved by the owner, but may be dislodged by the opponent. A frozen piece can freeze another still weaker piece. The silver rabbit on a7 is frozen, but the one on d2 is able to move because it is adjacent to a silver piece. Similarly the gold rabbit on b7 is frozen, but the gold cat on c1 is not. The dogs on a6 and b6 do not freeze each other because they are of equal strength. An elephant cannot be frozen, since there is nothing stronger, but an elephant can be blockaded. A piece which enters a trap square is captured and removed from the game unless there is a friendly piece adjacent. Silver could move to capture the gold horse on d6 by pushing it to c6 with the elephant on d5. Also a piece on a trap square is captured if all adjacent friendly pieces move away. Thus if the silver rabbit on c4 and the silver horse on c2 move away, voluntarily or by being dislodged, the silver rabbit on c3 will be captured. Arimaa Note that a piece may voluntarily step into a trap square, even if it is captured thereby. Also, the second step of a pulling maneuver may be completed, even if the piece doing the pulling is captured on the first step. For example, Silver to move could step the silver rabbit from f4 to g4, step the silver horse from f2 to f3, which captures the horse, and still pull the gold rabbit from f1 to f2 as part of the horse's move. In the diagrammed position, if it were Gold's turn to move, Gold could win in three steps: The dog on a6 can push the rabbit on a7 to a8, and when the dog is on a7, it unfreezes the rabbit on b7, which can step to b8 for the victory. Although almost all games end with a rabbit reaching goal,[3] there are two other ways for the game to end. • If a player has no legal move, either because all friendly pieces are frozen or blockaded, or because the only moves by mobile pieces are illegal due to repetition of position, the player whose turn it is loses. • A player wins by capturing all eight opposing rabbits, even if he sacrifices his last rabbit in the same turn in which he captures the last opposing rabbit. (Originally Arimaa was drawn if all sixteen rabbits were captured, but on July 1, 2008, Syed changed the rules of Arimaa to eliminate the possibility of draws. This change was essentially cosmetic, as there had never been a draw in thousands of human games anyway.) Finally, if an opposing rabbit is dislodged onto its goal line and dislodged off within the same turn, the game continues. 217 Strategy and tactics For beginning insights into good play, see the Arimaa Wikibook articles on tactics and strategy. Computer performance Several aspects of Arimaa make it difficult for computer programs to beat good human players. Because so much effort has gone into the development of strong chess-playing software, it is particularly relevant to understand why techniques applicable to chess are less effective for Arimaa. Top chess programs use brute-force searching coupled with static position evaluation dominated by material considerations. Chess programs examine many, many possible moves, but they are not good (compared to humans) at determining who is winning at the end of a series of moves unless one side has more pieces than the other. The same is true for Arimaa programs, but their results are not as good in practice. When brute-force searching is applied to Arimaa, the depth of the search is limited by the huge number of options each player has on each turn. Computationally, the number of options a player has available to them governs the number of different paths play can go down. This is known as the branching factor. The average branching factor in a game of Chess is about 35,[4] whereas in Arimaa it is about 17,281.[5] These differing branching factors imply that a computer which can search to a depth of eight turns for each player in chess, can only search about three turns deep for each player in Arimaa: Brute force search depth, for chess software, is nearly doubled by alpha-beta pruning, which allows the software to conclude that one move is better than another without examining every possible continuation of the weaker move. If the opponent can crush a certain move with one reply, it isn't necessary to examine other replies, which dramatically increases search speed. In Arimaa, however, the side to move switches only every four steps, which reduces the number of available cutoffs in a step-based search. Furthermore, the usefulness of alpha-beta pruning is heavily dependent on the order in which moves are considered. Good moves must be considered before bad ones in order for the bad ones to be neglected. In particular, checking and capturing moves are key for pruning, because they are often much better than other moves. In Arimaa software the speedup provided by alpha-beta pruning is less, because captures are rarer. In rated games played on arimaa.com, Arimaa only 3% of steps result in capture, compared to about 19% of chess moves that result in capture. In most Arimaa positions, particularly toward the beginning of the game when the board is still crowded, a competent player can avoid losing any pieces within the next two turns. Compared to chess, Arimaa allows either player to delay captures for longer. Indeed, the median move number of the first capture in chess is turn 6, whereas in Arimaa it is turn 12. The struggle is initially more positional in Arimaa, and revolves around making captures unavoidable at some point in the future. This magnifies the importance of correctly judging who is gaining ground in non-material ways. Thus the strength of computer programs (examining millions of positions) is not as significant as their weakness (judging the position apart from who has more pieces). The weakness of Arimaa programs in the opening phases is further magnified by the setup phase. In chess every game starts from the same position. By compiling before the game a list of stock replies to all standard opening moves, chess programs may often make a dozen or more excellent moves before starting to "think". Humans do the same, but have a smaller and less reliable memory of openings, which puts humans at a relative disadvantage in chess. Arimaa, in contrast, has millions of possible ways to set up the pieces even before the first piece moves. This prevents programs from having any meaningful opening book. As the game progresses, exchanges and the advancement of rabbits tend to make the position more open and tactical. Arimaa programs typically play better in this sort of position, because they see tactical shots which humans overlook. However, it is usually possible for humans to avoid wide-open positions by conservative play, and to angle for strategic positions in which computers fare worse. Against a conservative opponent it is almost impossible to bust open the position in Arimaa, whereas in chess it is merely difficult. One must beat defensive play by the accumulation of small, long-term advantages, which programs do not do very well. One additional technique from computer chess which does not apply to Arimaa is endgame tablebases. Master-level chess games sometimes trade down into unclear endgames with only a few pieces, for example king and knight vs. king and rook. It is possible to build, by retrograde analysis, an exhaustive table of the correct move in all such positions. Programs have only to consult a pre-generated table in such positions, rather than "thinking" afresh, which gives them a relative advantage over humans. Arimaa, in contrast, seldom comes to an endgame. Equal exchanges of pieces are less common than in chess, so it is rare for a game of Arimaa to "trade down" and still be unclear. An average game of Arimaa has only eight captures (compared to seventeen for chess), and top humans can often defeat top programs in Arimaa without losing a single piece, for example the second game of the 2011 challenge match [6]. In the 2007 Postal Championship, the game between the top two [7] finishers featured only one capture, a goal-forcing sacrifice. Omar Syed hopes that, because traditional computer game-playing techniques are only moderately effective for Arimaa, programmers will be forced to use artificial intelligence techniques to create a strong Arimaa-playing program. The successful quest to build a world-championship-caliber chess program has produced many techniques to successfully play games, but has contributed essentially nothing to more general reasoning; in fact, the techniques of chess playing programs have been excluded from some definitions of artificial intelligence; a goal for Arimaa is that the techniques involved in playing it will help the larger goals of artificial intelligence. The structure of Syed's man-against-machine challenge is focused on rewarding advances in AI software and not advances in hardware. In the annual challenge, programs are run on machines chosen and provided by Syed himself, under the criterion that it be a typical, inexpensive, off-the-shelf home computer. The challenge would not be open to anyone requiring expensive multi-processor machines such as those used to challenge top-level chess players, much less something like the custom-built supercomputer Deep Blue, even though it was the success of this hardware-intensive approach which inspired Arimaa's invention. Syed believes that even the computer used in the 2004 challenge match (a Pentium 4 2.4 GHz system with 512 MB of RAM) had sufficient hardware to win the challenge prize if only it was running the proper software. Supercomputers might already have the power to conquer Arimaa by brute force using conventional AI software, and eventually personal computers will too, if hardware continues to advance at the current rate. This is why the Arimaa challenge prize is offered only until the year 2020. 218 Arimaa 219 Challenge history Year Prize[8] Challenger / Developer Result Human Defender [9] [10] (Human Rank) Omar Syed (1) 0–8 Notes 2004 $10,000 Bomb / David Fotland 2005 $10,000 Bomb / David Fotland 2006 $17,500 Bomb / David Fotland Syed gave a rabbit handicap in the last game and won. Frank Heinemann (5) 1–7 No handicap games Karl Juhnke (1) Greg Magne (2) Paul Mertens (5) Karl Juhnke (1) Omar Syed (9) Brendan M (12) N Siddiqui (23) Jean Daligault (2) Greg Magne (3) Mark Mistretta (20) Omar Syed (24) Jean Daligault (1) Karl Juhnke (2) Jan Macura (14) Omar Syed (18) 0–3 0–3 1–2 0–3 0–3 0–2 1–0 0–3 0–3 0–1 0–2 0–2 1–2 1–2 0–1 Mertens gave a camel handicap in his last game and lost. 2007 $17,100 Bomb / David Fotland Juhnke gave handicaps of a dog, a horse, and a camel respectively, and won all three. Syed gave a cat handicap in his last game and won. Siddiqui substituted for Brendan's second game. 2008 $17,000 Bomb / David Fotland No handicap games. Syed substituted for Mistretta's final two games. 2009 $16,500 Clueless / Jeff Bacher Juhnke gave a dog handicap in his second game and lost. Daligault gave a horse handicap in his last game and won. Syed substituted for Daligault's first game. 2010 $16,250 Marwin / Mattias Hultgren 2011 $11,000 Marwin / Mattias Hultgren Greg Magne (3) 0–3 Louis-Daniel Scott (10) 1–2 Patrick Dudek (23) 2–1 Karl Juhnke (3) Gregory Clark (7) Toby Hudson (14) 1–2 0–3 0–3 Scott gave a dog handicap in his second game and lost. Juhnke gave a cat handicap in his last game and lost The Arimaa Challenge has been held eight times so far. Prior to the third match, Syed changed the format to require the software to win two out of three games against each of three players, to reduce the psychological pressure on individual volunteer defenders. Also Syed called for outside sponsorship of the Arimaa Challenge to build a bigger prize fund. In the first five challenge cycles, David Fotland, renowned for his program Many Faces of Go [11], won the Arimaa Computer Championship [12] and the right to play for the prize money, only to see his program beaten decisively each year. In 2009 Fotland's program was surpassed by several new programs in the same year, the strongest of which was Clueless by Jeff Bacher. Humanity's margin of dominance over computers appeared to widen each year from 2004 to 2008 as the best human players improved, but the 2009 Arimaa Challenge was more competitive. Clueless became the first bot to win two games of a Challenge match. In 2010, Mattias Hultgren's bot Marwin edged out Clueless in the computer championship. In the Challenge match Marwin became the first bot to win two out of three games against a single human defender, and also the first bot to win three of the nine games overall. In 2011, however, Marwin won only one of the nine games, and that having received a material handicap. The material handicaps given in the Challenge games can be roughly equated to chess handicaps as a proportion of the total material on the board in each game. Arimaa handicaps of rabbit, dog, horse, and camel are roughly equivalent to chess handicaps of pawn, two pawns, knight, and rook respectively. Arimaa 220 Comparing Arimaa challenge to chess challenges It has been argued that a computer has beaten the world chess champion but not beaten the human in the Arimaa challenge because of six reasons: 1. Arimaa is a new game. Therefore, the number of programmers and amount of time devoted to computer Arimaa is much less than for computer chess. Computer chess had thousands more programmers and 40 more years than computer Arimaa. The later and smaller effort resulted in less and slower progress in computer Arimaa. 2. The rules for the Arimaa challenge required the computer to show a higher playing ability than the rules for the chess matches. In the Arimaa challenge, the computer must beat three human players in three matches. In the chess matches, the computer must win one match against one human player. 3. In the Arimaa challenge, the computer needs to score 2/3 of the total points to win. In chess matches, the computer needs to score more than 1/2 of the total points to win. 4. In the Arimaa challenge, the computer needs to win a qualification match. Then the human studied the computer games to find the computer’s weakness. In chess, there was no qualification match. 5. In the Arimaa challenge, the computer cannot be improved between games. In chess, the computer was improved between games. 6. In the Arimaa challenge, the rules reject powerful or custom made computers priced over $1,000. However, a powerful custom made computer beat the world chess champion. However, the Arimaa community disputes this argument point by point. To the first point, Arimaa is a new game, so the playing community is still small and even the best players are not professional players and have only been playing the game for a few years. Thus the human players in the Arimaa challenge are much weaker than the human players in the chess challenge. The weakness of humans players should make the Arimaa Challenge easier to conquer than chess, which compensates developers for having studied the problem for a shorter time. The remaining five points compare the Arimaa Challenge only to Kasparov vs. Deep Blue, ignoring all other man vs. machine chess matches in which computers have prevailed. The chess match which can most closely be compared to the Arimaa challenge match is the Man vs Machine World Team Championship. In 2004 and 2005 a team of humans played against a team of computer opponents. In both years the computers won by wide margin. In 2005 all three humans lost, the computers won 2/3 of the total points, the chess engines were commercially available for the humans to study, and the machine hardware used was not a supercomputer, but rather comparable to hardware used in the Arimaa Challenge. Man-vs.-machine chess matches since 2005 have shown increasing computer dominance. For example, the 2006 Deep Fritz vs. Vladimir Kramnik and 2007 Rybka vs. Jaan Ehlvest matches gave additional advantages to the human player, but the computers (running on commodity hardware) prevailed anyway. World Championship Each year since 2004 the Arimaa community has held a World Championship [13] tournament. The tournament is played over the Internet and is open to everyone. Past world champion title holders are: • • • • • • • 2011 – Jean Daligault of France 2010 – Jean Daligault of France 2009 – Jean Daligault of France 2008 – Karl Juhnke of USA 2007 – Jean Daligault of France 2006 – Till Wiechers of Germany 2005 – Karl Juhnke of USA • 2004 – Frank Heinemann of Germany Arimaa 221 Computer World Championship Each year since 2004 the Arimaa community has held a Computer World Championship [13] tournament. The tournament is played over the Internet and is open to everyone. Past computer world champion title holders are: • • • • • • • • 2011 – bot_sharp developed by David Wu of USA 2010 – bot_marwin developed by Mattias Hultgren of Sweden 2009 – bot_clueless developed by Jeff Bacher of Canada 2008 – bot_Bomb developed by David Fotland of USA 2007 – bot_Bomb developed by David Fotland of USA 2006 – bot_Bomb developed by David Fotland of USA 2005 – bot_Bomb developed by David Fotland of USA 2004 – bot_Bomb developed by David Fotland of USA Patent and trademark US PAT No. 6,981,700 [14] was filed on 3 October 2003, and granted on 3 January 2006. Omar Syed also holds a trademark on the name "Arimaa". Syed has stated that he does not intend to restrict noncommercial use and has released a license called "The Arimaa Public License" [15] with the declared intent to "make Arimaa as much of a public domain game as possible while still protecting its commercial usage". Items covered by the license are the patent and the trademark. Footnotes [1] Syed, Omar; Syed, Aamir (2003). "Arimaa – a New Game Designed to be Difficult for Computers". International Computer Games Association Journal 26: 138–139. [2] http:/ / arimaa. com/ arimaa/ gameroom/ replayFlash. cgi?gid=5641& s=w [3] The Arimaa server game archive (http:/ / arimaa. com/ arimaa/ download/ gameData/ ) as of December 2006 showed the following number of rated human versus human games: 1653 ending in goal, 38 ending in immobilization, 4 ending by repetition of position, and 0 ending in a draw. [4] François Dominic Laramée. "Chess Programming Part IV: Basic Search" (http:/ / www. gamedev. net/ reference/ articles/ article1171. asp). GameDev.net. . Retrieved 2007-05-01. [5] Brian "Janzert" Haskin. "A Look at the Arimaa Branching Factor" (http:/ / arimaa. janzert. com/ bf_study/ ). http:/ / janzert. com/ . . Retrieved 2009-11-25. [6] http:/ / arimaa. com/ arimaa/ games/ jsShowGame. cgi?gid=179122& s=w [7] http:/ / arimaa. com/ arimaa/ games/ jsShowGame. cgi?gid=57508& s=w [8] The history of prize fund pledges is as follows: In 2002 Omar Syed pledged $10,000 until 2020; Prior to 2006 Omar Syed pledged an additional $5,000 until 2010; Prior to 2006 Paul Mertens pledged $2,000 for 2006, $1,500 for 2007, $1,000 for 2008, $500 for 2009, and $250 for 2010; Prior to 2006 Karl Juhnke pledged $500 for 2006; Prior to 2007 Karl Juhnke pledged $600 for 2007; Prior to 2008 Karl Juhnke pledged $1,000 for 2008; Prior to 2009 Karl Juhnke pledged $1,000 for 2009; Prior to 2010 Karl Juhnke pledged $1,000 for 2010; Prior to 2011 Karl Juhnke pledged $1,000 for 2011 [9] The Arimaa Forum (http:/ / arimaa. com/ arimaa/ forum/ cgi/ YaBB. cgi?board=talk;action=display;num=1207699394;start=45#45) The rank of human players was calculated from human games only, and does not necessarily reflect anti-computer expertise or lack thereof. [10] The listed ranks include inactive players. Among active players only, the 2010 ranks were Magne(3), Scott(9), Dudek(16), and the 2011 ranks were Juhnke(3), Clark(5), Hudson(10). [11] http:/ / www. smart-games. com/ manyfaces. html [12] http:/ / www. arimaa. com/ arimaa/ wc/ [13] http:/ / arimaa. com/ arimaa/ wc/ [14] http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?vid=6981700 [15] http:/ / arimaa. com/ arimaa/ license/ Arimaa 222 References • Syed, Omar; Syed, Aamir (2003), Arimaa – a New Game Designed to be Difficult for Computers, International Computer Games Association Journal 26: 138–139 • Juhnke, Fritz (2009). Beginning Arimaa: Chess Reborn Beyond Computer Comprehension. Flying Camel Publications. ISBN 0-9824-2740-9 External links • Official Arimaa Website (http://arimaa.com/arimaa/) • First Official Hand-Crafted Arimaa Set (http://www.newforestearth.org/index.php?option=com_content& view=category&layout=blog&id=24&Itemid=115&lang=en/) • Academic Papers and Presentations (http://arimaa.com/arimaa/papers/) • David Fotland's Arimaa Program (http://www.smart-games.com/arimaa.html) • The Arimaa Public License (http://www.arimaa.com/arimaa/license/current.txt) • Arimaa Strategy (wikibook) • Arimaa Videos (http://youtube.com/arimaa2) • Play Arimaa game on the iGoogle homepage (http://www.iggamecenter.com/) • Play Arimaa game online at [[boardspace.net (http://boardspace.net/)] • Arimaa articles @ Rajmahendra.com (http://www.rajmahendra.com/category/arimaa/) Icehouse pieces Icehouse pieces are pyramid-shaped gaming pieces invented by Andrew Looney and John Cooper in 1987, originally for use in the game of Icehouse. Description Each stash or set of Icehouse pieces consists of fifteen pyramids (variously called pieces, pyramids, or minions) of the same color in three different point (or pip) values: five large 3-point pyramids (called Various Icehouse pieces. queens in some games), five medium 2-point pyramids (sometimes called drones), and five small 1-point pyramids (or pawns). The commercially produced plastic sets are hollow and can be stacked and nested; this feature isn't used in the original Icehouse game, but is taken advantage of in some of the other Icehouse-based games listed below. Icehouse pieces were, for many years, sold as tubes containing one stash of durable crystal-look plastic pieces in one of ten available colors (though cyan was only available through their promotional program or as part of the Ice Towers set). There was also a less expensive starter set called Origami Icehouse (later called Paper Icehouse), made of cardstock in four colors, which one punched out and folded into the pyramid shapes. In 2006, Looney Labs began selling Icehouse pieces as Treehouse sets, which are multicolored sets of 15 pyramids: five colors, each color having one each of the three sizes. Looney Labs has also sold boxed sets for Zendo and IceTowers; the latter contained cyan pieces. The Icehouse website also has instructions for making your own pieces. Looney Labs has licenced Crystal Caste LLC to make regulation-sized Icehouse pieces out of semiprecious stone[1]. In 2001, Icehouse: The Martian Chess Set won the Origins Award for Best Abstract Board Game of 2000. In 2004, the Zendo boxed set won Best Abstract Board Game of 2003. In 2006, Treehouse won the Origins Award for Best Board Game of 2006. Icehouse pieces 223 Games Icehouse pieces can be used to play many different abstract strategy games. Most games need at least two colors, and some require other readily-available equipment such as glass stones or a checkerboard. Rules for these games can be found on the Icehouse website. Some are also available in Playing with Pyramids, published by Looney Labs. Games that use Icehouse pieces include: • Alien City • Armada • Blam! • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Branches & Twigs & Thorns(a Go inspired game) CrackeD Ice DNA Focus Gnostica Gridlock Hailstorm Hextrix Homeworlds Icehouse IceSickle IceTowers IceTraders Igloo Martian Backgammon Martian Chess Martian Coasters Martian Mud Wrestling Martian Shogi Pantopia Pikemen RAMbots Rotationary Sprawl Thin Ice Torpedo Tic Tac Doh! Treehouse Trice Undercut Volcano World War 5 Zagami (game) Zarcana Zark City Icehouse pieces in paper and plastic Icehouse pieces • Zendo 224 Score-keeping Icehouse pieces can also be used as a score-keeping device or counter for non-icehouse games. For example, when scoring a Cosmic Wimpout game, a small pyramid would be worth five points, a medium pyramid worth twenty-five points, and a large pyramid one-hundred; the goal being to collect five of the large pieces (for the 500 point standard game). They could be use instead of poker chips, the denominations would be determined by size rather than color (smalls are worth one, mediums worth five, and larges valued at twenty-five, for example). External links • Icehouse official website [2] • Fan-run community website and comprehensive wiki [3] • Icehouse pieces [4] at BoardGameGeek References [1] http:/ / www. crystalcaste. com/ mm5/ merchant. mvc?Screen=CTGY& Store_Code=CC& Category_Code=PY [2] http:/ / www. icehousegames. com [3] http:/ / www. icehousegames. org [4] http:/ / www. boardgamegeek. com/ game/ 225 Martian chess See Jetan for a discussion of Edgar Rice Burroughs' Martian chess. Martian Chess is an abstract strategy game for two to six players invented by Andrew Looney. It is played with Icehouse pieces on a chessboard or checkerboard; to play with a number of players other than two or four, a small, Non-Euclidean board is available [1] which can be tiled to produce a board of the required size, allowing up to six players. Martian chess 225 Rules Initial setup Each player starts with nine pieces: three small, three medium, and three large. The color of the pieces is irrelevant; for reasons given below, a mix of colors should be used. In a two-player game, only half the board is used; a folding checkerboard is useful. The pieces are placed in the corners of the board as shown: The players decide who moves first by a random method or by agreement. Play passes to the left after each move. Movement and capturing The red lines in the diagrams indicate notional canals that divide the board into territories. At any given time a player controls only those pieces that are in his or her territory. The pieces may be moved as follows: • small pieces (pawns) move one space diagonally (unlike chess pawns, they may move backwards) • medium pieces (drones) move one or two spaces horizontally or vertically • large pieces (queens) move any distance horizontally, vertically or diagonally, just like a chess queen A piece is captured when an enemy piece lands on the square it occupies. The person who moved takes the piece and puts it aside for later scoring. Since a piece is always owned according to the territory it is in, a player whose piece is captured immediately gains control of the capturing piece. It is easy to forget this if each player's starting pieces are all the same color, as if that determined whose it was, so it is better to start with a mix of colors instead (unless you have enough pieces that everyone can use the same color). Pieces may not jump over other pieces, nor may they end a move on an occupied square except to capture. The No Rejections rule: in the two-player game, you may not immediately reverse your opponent's last move. Martian chess 226 End of game and scoring The game ends when one player runs out of pieces (i.e., their territory becomes empty). Players then compute their scores by adding up the pips on their captured pieces: 3 per queen, 2 per drone, and 1 per pawn. The player or players with the highest total win. In a variation of the four-player game, the players form two teams who play for a combined score. Teammates sit at opposite corners. Aside from strategic differences, play is unaffected; it is legal (and sometimes good strategy) to capture your teammate's pieces. Strategy Capturing with a queen often allows the opponent to immediately recapture, leading to a back-and-forth battle until one player runs out of pieces in the line(s) of capture. This is more common in two-player games, since other players may interfere in the four-player version. The net point difference is usually minor with two players, but can give the players involved a significant lead over the others in a four-player game. More generally, any piece used to capture becomes the opponent's. Moving a pawn or drone into enemy territory can be a good move for several reasons: • it can prevent an opponent from capturing the piece from you • it can ensure that you capture that piece or another piece from an opponent • it can block an attack from an opposing queen or drone External links • Rules of Martian Chess [2] by Looney Labs References [1] http:/ / ee0r. com/ tri-chess/ [2] http:/ / www. wunderland. com/ icehouse/ MartianChess. html 227 Historical variants History of chess For the book by H. J. R. Murray, see A History of Chess. The history of chess spans some 1500 years. The earliest predecessors of the game originated in India, before the 6th century AD. From India, the game spread to Persia. When the Arabs conquered Persia, chess was taken up by the Muslim world and subsequently spread to Southern Europe. In Europe, chess evolved into its current form in the 15th century. In the second half of the 19th century, modern chess tournament play began, and the first world Chess Championship was held in 1886. The 20th century saw great leaps forward in chess theory and the establishment of the World Chess Federation (FIDE). Developments in the 21st century include use of computers for analysis, which originated in the 1970s with the first programmed chess games on the market. Online gaming appeared in the mid 1990's. Photographs of real-size resin reproductions of the 12th century Lewis chessmen. The top row shows king, queen, and bishop. The bottom row shows knight, rook, and pawn. Origin a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Chaturanga: The position of the pieces at the start of a game.[1] Note that the Ràjas do not face each other; the white Ràja starts on e1 and the black Ràja on d8. History of chess The precursors of chess probably originated in India during the Gupta empire,[2] [3] [4] [5] where its early form in the 6th century was known as chaturaṅga, which translates as "four divisions (of the military)": infantry, cavalry, elephantry, and chariotry, represented by the pieces that would evolve into the modern pawn, knight, bishop, and rook, respectively.[6] Chess was introduced to Persia from India and became a part of the princely or courtly education of Persian nobility.[7] In Sassanid Persia around 600 the name became chatrang, which subsequently evolved to shatranj, and the rules were developed further. Players started calling "Shāh!" (Persian for "King!") when attacking the opponent's king, and "Shāh Māt!" (Persian for "the king is helpless" – see checkmate) when the king was attacked and could not escape from attack. These exclamations persisted in chess as it traveled to other lands. The game was taken up by the Muslim world after the Islamic conquest of Persia, with the pieces largely keeping their Persian names. The Moors of North Africa rendered Persian "shatranj" as shaṭerej, which gave rise to the Spanish acedrex, axedrez and ajedrez; in Portuguese it became xadrez, and in Greek zatrikion, but in the rest of Europe it was replaced by versions of the Persian shāh ("king"). Thus, the game came to be called ludus scacchorum or scacc(h)i in Latin, scacchi in Italian, escacs in Catalan, échecs in French (Old French eschecs); schaken in Dutch, Schach in German, szachy in Polish, šahs in Latvian, skak in Danish, sjakk in Norwegian, schack in Swedish, šakki in Finnish, šah in Slovene, sakk in Hungarian and şah in Romanian; there are two theories about why this change happened: 1. From the exclamation "check" or "checkmate" as it was pronounced in various languages. 2. From the first chessmen known of in Western Europe (except Iberia and Greece) being ornamental chess kings brought in as curios by Muslim traders. The Mongols call the game shatar, and in Ethiopia it is called senterej, both evidently derived from shatranj. Chess spread directly from the Middle East to Russia, where chess became known as шахматы (shakhmaty, treated as a plural). The game reached Western Europe and Russia by at least three routes, the earliest being in the 9th century. By the year 1000 it had spread throughout Europe.[8] Introduced into the Iberian Peninsula by the Moors in the 10th century, it was described in a famous 13th century manuscript covering shatranj and backgammon and dice named the Libro de los juegos. Chess spread throughout the world and many variants of the game soon began taking shape.[9] Buddhist pilgrims, Silk Road traders and others carried it to the Far East where it was transformed and assimilated into a game often played on the intersection of the lines of the board rather than within the squares.[9] [10] Chaturanga reached Europe through Persia, the Byzantine empire and the expanding Arabian empire.[11] Muslims carried chess to North Africa, Sicily, and Iberia by the 10th century.[9] The game was developed extensively in Europe, and by the late 15th century, it had survived a series of prohibitions and Christian Church sanctions to almost take the shape of the modern game.[12] Modern history saw reliable reference works,[13] competitive chess tournaments[14] and exciting new variants which added to the game's popularity,[14] further bolstered by reliable timing mechanisms (first introduced in 1861), effective rules[14] and charismatic players.[15] 228 History of chess 229 India The earliest precursor of modern chess is a game called chaturanga, which flourished in India by the 6th century, and is the earliest known game to have two essential features found in all later chess variations — different pieces having different powers (which was not the case with checkers and go), and victory depending on the fate of one piece, the king of modern chess.[9] Other game pieces (speculatively called "chess pieces") uncovered in archaeological findings are considered as coming from other, distantly related, board games, which may have had boards of 100 squares or more.[9] Findings in the Mohenjo-daro and Harappa (2600–1500 BCE) sites of the Indus Valley Civilization show a prevalence of a board game that resembles chess.[16] Krishna and Radha playing chaturanga on an 8x8 Ashtāpada. Chess was designed for an ashtāpada (Sanskrit for "having eight feet", i.e. an 8x8 squared board), which may have been used earlier for a backgammon-type race game (perhaps related to a dice-driven race game still played in south India where the track starts at the middle of a side and spirals in to the center).[17] Ashtāpada, the uncheckered 8×8 board served as the main board for playing Chaturanga.[18] Other Indian boards included the 10×10 Dasapada and the 9×9 Saturankam.[18] Traditional Indian chessboards often have X markings on some or all of squares a1 a4 a5 a8 d1 d4 d5 d8 e1 e4 e5 e8 h1 h4 h5 h8: these may have been "safe squares" where capturing was not allowed in a dice-driven backgammon-type race game played on the ashtāpada before chess was invented.[17] The Cox-Forbes theory, started in the late 19th century, mainly from the works of Captain Hiram Cox and Duncan Forbes, proposed that the four-handed game chaturaji was the original form of chaturanga.[19] Other scholars dispute this and say that the two-handed form was the first.[20] In Sanskrit, "chaturanga" (चतुरङ्ग) literally means "having four limbs (or parts)" and in epic poetry often means "army" (the four parts are elephants, chariots, horsemen, foot soldiers).[7] The name came from a battle formation mentioned in the Indian epic Mahabharata.[9] The game Chaturanga was a battle simulation game[7] which rendered Indian military strategy of the time.[21] Some people formerly played chess using a die to decide which piece to move. There was an unproven theory that chess started as this dice-chess and that the gambling and dice aspects of the game were removed because of Hindu religious objections.[22] Scholars in areas to which the game subsequently spread, for example the Arab Abu al-Hasan 'Alī al-Mas'ūdī, detailed the Indian use of chess as a tool for military strategy, mathematics, gambling and even its vague association with astronomy.[23] Mas'ūdī notes that ivory in India was chiefly used for the production of chess and backgammon pieces, and asserts that the game was introduced to Persia from India, along with the book Kelileh va Demneh, during the reign of emperor Nushirwan.[23] In some variants, a win was by checkmate, or by stalemate, or by "bare king" (taking all of an opponent's pieces except the king). In some parts of India the pieces in the places of the Rook and Knight and Bishop were renamed by words meaning (in this order) Boat, Horse, Elephant, or Elephant, Horse, Camel, but keeping the same moves.[17] In early chess the moves of the pieces were: • King: as now. • Queen: one square diagonally, only. • Bishop: • In the version that went into Persia: two squares diagonally (no more or less), but could jump over a piece between History of chess • In a version sometimes found in India in former times: two squares sideways or front-and-back (no more or less), but could jump over a piece between. • In versions found in Southeast Asia: one square diagonally, or one square forwards. • Knight: as now. • Rook: as now. • Pawn: one square forwards (not two), capturing one square diagonally forward; promoted to queen only. Two Arab travelers each recorded a severe Indian chess rule against stalemate[24] : • A stalemated player thereby at once wins. • A stalemated king can take one of the enemy pieces that would check the king if the king moves. 230 Iran (Persia) Iranian shatranj set, glazed fritware, 12th century. New York Metropolitan [25] Museum of Art. Persian manuscript from the 14th century describing how an ambassador from India brought chess to the Persian court. Shams-e-Tabrīzī as portrayed in a 1500 painting in a page of a copy of Rumi's poem dedicated to Shams. The Karnamak-i Ardeshir-i Papakan, a Pahlavi epical treatise about the founder of the Sassanid Persian Empire, mentions the game of chatrang as one of the accomplishments of the legendary hero, Ardashir I, founder of the Empire.[26] The oldest recorded game in chess history is a 10th century game played between a historian from Baghdad and a pupil.[11] A manuscript explaining the rules of the game called "Matikan-i-chatrang" (the book of chess) in Middle Persian or Pahlavi still exists. In the 11th century Shahnameh, Ferdowsi describes a Raja visiting from India who re-enacts the past battles on the chessboard.[23] A translation in English, based on the manuscripts in the British Museum, is given below:[26] One day an ambassador from the king of Hind arrived at the Persian court of Chosroes, and after an oriental exchange of courtesies, the ambassador produced rich presents from his sovereign and amongst them was an elaborate board with curiously carved pieces of ebony and ivory. He then issued a challenge: "Oh great king, fetch your wise men and let them solve the mysteries of this game. If they succeed my master the king of Hind will pay tribute as an overlord, but if they fail it will be proof that the Persians are of lower intellect and we shall demand tribute from Iran." The courtiers were shown the board, and after a day and a night in deep thought one of them, Bozorgmehr, solved the mystery and was richly rewarded by his delighted sovereign. (Edward Lasker suggested that Bozorgmehr likely found the rules by bribing the Indian envoys.) The Shahnameh goes on to offer an apocryphal account of the origins of the game of chess in the story of Talhand and Gav, two half-brothers who vie for the throne of Hind (India). They meet in battle and Talhand dies on his elephant without a wound. Believing that Gav had killed Talhand, their mother is distraught. Gav tells his mother that Talhand did not die by the hands of him or his men, but she does not understand how this could be. So the sages History of chess of the court invent the game of chess, detailing the pieces and how they move, to show the mother of the princes how the battle unfolded and how Talhand died of fatigue when surrounded by his enemies.[27] The poem uses the Persian term "Shāh māt" (check mate) to describe the fate of Talhand.[28] The appearance of the chess pieces had altered greatly since the times of chaturanga, with ornate pieces and chess pieces depicting animals giving way to abstract shapes.[29] The Islamic sets of later centuries followed a pattern which assigned names and abstract shapes to the chess pieces, as Islam forbids depiction of animals and human beings in art.[29] These pieces were usually made of simple clay and carved stone.[29] 231 East Asia China As a strategy board game played in China, chess is believed to have been derived from the Indian Chaturanga.[30] Chaturanga was transformed and assimilated into the game xiangqi where the pieces are placed on the intersection of the lines of the board rather than within the squares.[9] The object of the Chinese variation is similar to Chaturanga, i.e. to render helpless the opponent's king, sometimes known as general.[30] Chinese chess also borrows elements from the game of Go, which was played in China since at least the 6th century BC.[30] Owing to the influence of Go, Chinese chess is played on the intersections of the lines on the board, rather than in the squares.[30] Chinese chess pieces are usually flat and resemble those used in checkers, with pieces differentiated by writing their names on the flat surface.[30] An alternative origin theory contends that chess arose from Xiangqi or a predecessor thereof, existing in China since the 2nd century BC.[31] David H. Li, a retired accountant, professor of accounting and translator of ancient Chinese texts, hypothesizes that general Han Xin drew on the earlier game of Liubo to develop an early form of Chinese chess in the winter of 204–203 BC.[31] The German chess historian Peter Banaschak, however, points out that Li's main hypothesis "is based on virtually nothing". He notes that the "Xuanguai lu," authored by the Tang Dynasty minister Niu Sengru (779–847), remains the first real source on the Chinese chess variant xiangqi.[32] Japan A prominent variant of chess in East Asia is the game of Shogi, transmitted from India to China and Korea before finally reaching Japan.[33] The two distinguishing features of Shogi are: 1) The captured pieces may be reused by the captor and played as a part of the captor's forces, and 2) Pawns capture as they move, one square straight ahead.[33] Mongolia Chess is recorded from Mongolian-inhabited areas, where the pieces are now called: • • • • • • King: - Noyon - Ноён - lord Queen - Bers / Nohoi - Бэрс / Нохой - dog (to guard the livestock) Bishop: - Temē - Тэмээ - camel Knight- Morĭ - Морь - horse Rook - Tereg - Тэрэг - cart Pawn - Hū - Хүү - boy (the piece often showed a puppy) Names recorded from the 1880s by Russian sources, quoted in Murray,[17] among the Soyot people (who at the time spoke the Soyot Turkic language) include: merzé (dog), täbä (camel), ot (horse), ōl (child) and Mongolian names for the other pieces. The change with the Queen is likely due to the Arabic word firzān or Persian word farzīn (= "vizier") being confused with Turkic or Mongolian native words (merzé = "mastiff", bar or bars = "tiger", arslan = "lion").[17] Chess in Mongolia is now played following the usual international rules. History of chess 232 East Siberia Chess was also recorded from the Yakuts, Tunguses, and Yukaghirs; but only as a children's game among the Chukchi. Chessmen have been collected from the Yakutat people in Alaska, having no resemblance to European chessmen, and thus likely part of a chess tradition coming from Siberia.[17] Arab world Chess passed from Persia to the Arab world, where its name changed to Arabic shatranj. From there it passed to Western Europe, probably via Spain. Over the centuries, features of European chess (e.g. the modern moves of Queen and Bishop, and castling) found their way via trade into Islamic areas. Murray's[17] sources found the old moves of Queen and Bishop still current in Ethiopia. Europe Early history Shatranj made its way via the expanding Islamic Arabian empire to Europe and the Byzantine empire.[11] Chess appeared in Southern Europe during the end of the first millennium, often introduced to new lands by conquering armies, such as the Norman Conquest of England.[12] Chess remained largely unpopular in Northern Europe but started gaining popularity as soon as figure pieces were introduced.[12] The sides are conventionally called White and Black. But, in earlier Knights Templar playing chess, Libro de los European chess writings, the sides were often called Red and Black juegos, 1283 because those were the commonly available colors of ink when handwriting drawing a chess game layout. In such layouts, each piece was represented by its name, often abbreviated (e.g. "ch'r" for French "chevalier" = "knight"). The social value attached to the game – seen as a prestigious pastime associated with nobility and high culture – is clear from the expensive and exquisitely made chessboards of the medieval era.[34] The popularity of chess in the Western courtly society peaked between the 12th and the 15th centuries.[35] The game found mention in the vernacular and Latin language literature throughout Europe, and many works were written on or about chess between the 12th and the 15th centuries.[35] Harold James Ruthven Murray divides the works into three distinct parts: the didactic works e.g. Alexander of Neckham's De scaccis (approx. 1180); works of morality like Liber de moribus hominum et officiis nobilium sive super ludo scacchorum (Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles or the Book of Chess), written by Jacobus de Cessolis; and the works related to various chess problems, written largely after 1205.[35] Chess terms, like check, were used by authors as a metaphor for various situations.[36] Chess was soon incorporated into the knightly style of life in Europe.[37] Peter Alfonsi, in his work Disciplina Clericalis, listed chess among the seven skills that a good knight must acquire.[37] Chess also became a subject of art during this period, with caskets and pendants decorated in various chess forms.[38] Queen Margaret of England's green and red chess sets – made of jasper and crystal – symbolized chess's position in royal art treasures.[36] Kings Henry I, Henry II and Richard I of England were chess patrons.[9] Other monarchs who gained similar status were Alfonso X of Castile and Ivan IV of Russia.[9] Saint Peter Damian denounced the bishop of Florence in 1061 for playing chess even when aware of its evil effects on the society.[12] The bishop of Florence defended himself by declaring that chess involved skill and was therefore "unlike other games," and similar arguments followed in the coming centuries.[12] Two separate incidents in 13th century London involving men of Essex resorting to violence resulting in death as an outcome of playing chess History of chess further caused sensation and alarm.[12] The growing popularity of the game – now associated with revelry and violence – alarmed the Church.[12] The practice of playing chess for money became so widespread during the 13th century that Louis IX of France issued an ordinance against gambling in 1254.[34] This ordinance turned out to be unenforceable and was largely neglected by the common public, and even the courtly society, which continued to enjoy the now prohibited chess tournaments uninterrupted.[34] By the mid-12th century, the pieces of the chess set were depicted as kings, queens, bishops, knights and men at arms.[39] Chessmen made of ivory began to appear in North-West Europe, and ornate pieces of traditional knight warriors were used as early as the mid 13th century.[40] The initially nondescript pawn had now found association with the pedes, pedinus, or the footman, which symbolized both infantry and loyal domestic service.[39] The following table provides a glimpse of the changes in names and character of chess pieces as they transitioned from India through Persia to Europe:[41] [42] 233 A comparison of the terms for chessmen in Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, Latin, English, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French, and Catalan Sanskrit Persian Arabic Latin English Spanish Portuguese Italian French Catalan Raja (King) Mantri (Minister) Shah Vazīr (Vizir) Pil Malik Wazīr/Firz Rex Regina King Queen Rey Dama Rei Rainha Re Regina Roi Reine Rei Dama/Reina Gajah (war elephant) Ashva (horse) Ratha (chariot) Al-Fīl Episcopus/Comes/Calvus Bishop/Count/Councillor Alfil/Obispo Bispo Alfiere Fou Alfil Asp Rokh Fars/Hisan Miles/Eques Knight Rook/Margrave Pawn Caballo Cavalo Cavallo Torre/Rocco Chevalier Cavall Tour Torre Peó Qal`a/Rukhkh Rochus/Marchio Baidaq/Jondi Pedes/Pedinus Torre/Roque Torre Peón Peão Padati Piadeh (footman/footsoldier) Pedone/Pedina Pion The game, as played during the early Middle Ages, was slow, with many games lasting for days.[12] Some variations in rules began to change the shape of the game by 1300 AD.[43] A notable, but initially unpopular, change was the ability of the pawn to move two places in the first move instead of one.[43] In Europe some of the pieces gradually got new names: • Fers: "queen", because it starts beside the King. • Aufin: "bishop", because its two points looked like a bishop's mitre; In French fou; and others. Its Latin name alfinus was reinterpreted many ways. History of chess 234 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Check by pinned piece • Queen once moving two squares with jump, diagonally or straight. This right was sometimes extended to a new queen made by promoting a pawn. • The short assize. ("assize" = "sitting".) Here the pawns started on the third rank; the queens started on d3 and d6 along with the queens' pawns; the players arranged their other pieces as they wished behind their pawns at the start of the game. This idea did not endure.[17] Attempts to make the start of the game run faster to get the opposing pieces in contact sooner included: • Pawn moving two squares in its first move. This led to the en passant rule: a pawn placed so that it could have captured the enemy pawn if it had moved one square forward was allowed to capture it on the passed square. In Italy, the contrary rule (passar battaglia = "to pass battle") applied: a pawn that moved two squares forward had passed the danger of attack on the intermediate square. It was sometimes not allowed to do this to cover check.[44] • King jumping once, to make it quicker to put the king safe in a corner. (This eventually led to castling.) Other sporadic variations in the rules of chess included: • Ignoring check from a piece which was covering check, as some said that in theory (in the diagram on the right), B x K would allow R x K in reply.[17] Origins of the modern game The queen and bishop remained relatively weak until[12] between 1475 AD and 1500 AD, in either Spain, Portugal, France or Italy, the queen's and bishop's modern moves started and spread, making chess close to its modern form. This form of chess got such names as "Queen's Chess" or "Mad Queen Chess" (Italian alla rabiosa = "with the madwoman").[45] This led to much more value being attached to the previously minor tactic of pawn promotion.[17] Checkmate became easier and games could now be won in fewer moves.[43] [46] These new rules quickly spread throughout Western Europe and in Spain,[47] [48] with the exception of the rules about stalemate, which were finalized in the early 19th century.[49] In some areas (e.g. Russia), the queen could also move like a knight. A poem Caïssa published in 1527 led to the chess rook being often renamed as "castle", and the modern shape of the Rook chess piece; see Vida's poem for more information. An Italian player, Gioacchino Greco, regarded as one of the first true professionals of the game, authored an analysis of a number of composed games that illustrated two differing approaches to chess.[13] This influential work went to some extent in popularizing chess and demonstrated the many theories regarding game play and tactics.[13] History of chess The first full work dealing with the various winning combinations was written by François-André Danican Philidor of France, regarded as the best chess player in the world for nearly 50 years, and published in the 18th century.[13] He wrote and published L'Analyse des échecs (The Analysis of Chess), an influential work which appeared in more than 100 editions.[13] 235 A woodcut drawn from Caxton's chess book printed in England in 1474 A tactical puzzle from Lucena's 1497 book "Marguerite d'Alençon et son frère François d'Angoulême jouant aux échecs" from the book Échecs amoureux, 16th century Portrait of François-André Danican Philidor from L’analyse des échecs. London, second edition, 1777 Original Staunton chess pieces by Nathaniel Cook from 1849 Writings about the theory of how to play chess began to appear in the 15th century. The oldest surviving printed chess book, Repetición de Amores y Arte de Ajedrez (Repetition of Love and the Art of Playing Chess) by Spanish churchman Luis Ramirez de Lucena was published in Salamanca in 1497.[47] Lucena and later masters like Portuguese Pedro Damiano, Italians Giovanni Leonardo Di Bona, Giulio Cesare Polerio and Gioachino Greco or Spanish bishop Ruy López de Segura developed elements of openings and started to analyze simple endgames. In the 18th century the center of European chess life moved from the Southern European countries to France. The two most important French masters were François-André Danican Philidor, a musician by profession, who discovered the importance of pawns for chess strategy, and later Louis-Charles Mahé de La Bourdonnais who won a famous series of matches with the Irish master Alexander McDonnell in 1834.[50] Centers of chess life in this period were coffee houses in big European cities like Café de la Régence in Paris[51] and Simpson's Divan in London.[52] As the 19th century progressed, chess organization developed quickly. Many chess clubs, chess books and chess journals appeared. There were correspondence matches between cities; for example the London Chess Club played against the Edinburgh Chess Club in 1824.[53] Chess problems became a regular part of 19th century newspapers; Bernhard Horwitz, Josef Kling and Samuel Loyd composed some of the most influential problems. In 1843, von der Lasa published his and Bilguer's Handbuch des Schachspiels (Handbook of Chess), the first comprehensive manual of chess theory. History of chess 236 Modern competition-style chess Competitive chess became visible in 1834, and the 1851 London Chess tournament raised concerns about the time taken by the players to deliberate their moves. On recording time it was found that players often took hours to analyze moves, and one player took as much as two hours and 20 minutes to think over a single move at the London tournament. The following years saw the development of speed chess, five-minute chess and the most popular variant, a version allowing a bank of time to each player in which to play a previously agreed number of moves, e.g. two hours for 30 moves. In the final variant, the player who made the predetermined number of moves in the agreed time received additional time budget for his next moves. Penalties for exceeding a time limit came in form of fines and forfeiture. Since fines were easy to bear for professional players, forfeiture became the only effective penalty; this added "lost on time" to the traditional means of losing such as checkmate and resigning.[14] In 1861 the first time limits, using sandglasses, were employed in a tournament match at Bristol, England. The sandglasses were later replaced by pendulums. Modern clocks, consisting of two parallel timers with a small button for a player to press after completing a move, were later employed to aid the players. A tiny latch called a flag further helped settle arguments over players exceeding time limit at the turn of the 19th century.[14] A Russian composer, Vladimir Korolkov, authored a work entitled Stamp of the USSR devoted to the accomplished "Excelsior" in 1958 in which the White side wins only by making six Estonian player and analyst Paul Keres, 1991. [15] consecutive captures by a pawn. Position analysis became particularly popular in the 19th century.[15] Many leading players were also accomplished analysts, including Max Euwe, Mikhail Botvinnik, Vasily Smyslov and Jan Timman.[15] Digital clocks appeared in the 1980s.[14] Another problem that arose in competitive chess was when adjourning a game for a meal break or overnight. The player who moved last before adjournment would be at a disadvantage, as the other player would have a long period to analyze before having to make a reply when the game was resumed. Preventing access to a chess set to work out moves during the adjournment would not stop him from analyzing the position in his head. Various strange ideas were attempted, but the eventual solution was the "sealed move". The final move before adjournment is not made on the board but instead is written on a piece of paper which the referee seals in an envelope and keeps safe. When the game is continued after adjournment, the referee makes the sealed move and the players resume. Birth of a sport (1850–1945) The first modern chess tournament was held in London in 1851 and won, surprisingly, by German Adolf Anderssen, relatively unknown at the time. Anderssen was hailed as the leading chess master and his brilliant, energetic attacking style became typical for the time, although it was later regarded as strategically shallow.[54] [55] Sparkling games like Anderssen's Immortal game and Evergreen Game or Morphy's Opera game were regarded as the highest possible summit of the chess art.[56] Deeper insight into the nature of chess came with two younger players. American Paul Morphy, an extraordinary chess prodigy, won against all important competitors, including Anderssen, during his short chess career between 1857 and 1863. Morphy's success stemmed from a combination of brilliant attacks and sound strategy; he intuitively knew how to prepare attacks.[57] Prague-born Wilhelm Steinitz later described how to avoid weaknesses in one's own position and how to create and exploit such weaknesses in the opponent's position.[58] In addition to his theoretical achievements, Steinitz founded an important tradition: his triumph over the leading Polish-German master Johannes Zukertort in 1886 is regarded as the first official World Chess Championship. Steinitz lost his crown in 1894 to a much younger German mathematician Emanuel Lasker, who maintained this title for 27 years, the longest tenure of History of chess all World Champions.[59] It took a prodigy from Cuba, José Raúl Capablanca (World champion 1921–27), who loved simple positions and endgames, to end the German-speaking dominance in chess; he was undefeated in tournament play for eight years until 1924. His successor was Russian-French Alexander Alekhine, a strong attacking player, who died as the World champion in 1946, having briefly lost the title to Dutch player Max Euwe in 1935 and regaining it two years later.[60] Between the world wars, chess was revolutionized by the new theoretical school of so-called hypermodernists like Aron Nimzowitsch and Richard Réti. They advocated controlling the center of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns, inviting opponents to occupy the center with pawns which become objects of attack.[61] 237 Since the end of 19th century, the number of annually held master tournaments and matches quickly grew. Some sources state that in 1914 the title of chess grandmaster was first formally conferred by Tsar Nicholas II of Russia to Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch and Marshall, but this is a disputed claim.[62] The tradition of awarding such titles was continued by the World Chess Federation (FIDE), founded in 1924 in Paris. In 1927, Women's World Chess Championship was established; the first to hold it was Czech-English master Vera Menchik.[63] Wilhelm Steinitz, the first World Chess Champion Post-war era (1945 and later) After the death of Alekhine, a new World Champion was sought in a tournament of elite players ruled by FIDE, who have controlled the title since then, with one interruption. The winner of the 1948 tournament, Russian Mikhail Botvinnik, started an era of Soviet dominance in the chess world. Until the end of the Soviet Union, there was only one non-Soviet champion, American Bobby Fischer (champion 1972–1975).[64] In the previous informal system, the World Champion decided which challenger he would play for the title and the challenger was forced to seek sponsors for the match.[65] FIDE set up a new system of qualifying tournaments and matches. The world's strongest players were seeded into "Interzonal tournaments", where they were joined by players who had qualified from "Zonal tournaments". The leading finishers in these Interzonals would go on the "Candidates" stage, which was initially a tournament, later a series of knock-out matches. The winner of the Candidates would then play the reigning champion for the title. A champion defeated in a match had a right to play a rematch a year later. This system worked on a three-year cycle.[65] World Champions José Raúl Capablanca (left) and Emanuel Lasker in 1925 Botvinnik participated in championship matches over a period of fifteen years. He won the world championship tournament in 1948 and retained the title in tied matches in 1951 and 1954. In 1957, he lost to Vasily Smyslov, but regained the title in a rematch in 1958. In 1960, he lost the title to the Latvian prodigy Mikhail Tal, an accomplished tactician and attacking player. Botvinnik again regained the title in a rematch in 1961. Following the 1961 event, FIDE abolished the automatic right of a deposed champion to a rematch, and the next champion, Armenian Tigran Petrosian, a genius of defense and strong positional player, was able to hold the title for two cycles, 1963–1969. His successor, Boris Spassky from Russia (1969–1972), was a player able to win in both positional and sharp tactical style.[66] History of chess 238 The next championship, the so-called Match of the Century, saw the first non-Soviet challenger since World War II, American Bobby Fischer, who defeated his Candidates opponents by unheard-of margins and clearly won the world championship match. In 1975, however, Fischer refused to defend his title against Soviet Anatoly Karpov when FIDE refused to meet his demands, and Karpov obtained the title by default. Karpov defended his title twice against Viktor Korchnoi and dominated the 1970s and early 1980s with a string of tournament successes.[67] Karpov's reign finally ended in 1985 at the hands of another Russian player, Garry Kasparov. Kasparov and Karpov contested five world title matches between 1984 and 1990; Karpov never won his title back.[68] Current World Champion Viswanathan Anand In 1993, Garry Kasparov and Nigel Short broke with FIDE to organize their own match for the title and formed a competing Professional Chess Association (PCA). From then until 2006, there were two simultaneous World Champions and World Championships: the PCA or Classical champion extending the Steinitzian tradition in which the current champion plays a challenger in a series of many games; the other following FIDE's new format of many players competing in a tournament to determine the champion. Kasparov lost his Classical title in 2000 to Vladimir Kramnik of Russia. Earlier in 1999, Kasparov as the reigning world champion played a game online against the world team composed of more than 50,000 participants from more than 75 countries. The moves of the world team were decided by plurality vote, and after 62 moves played over four months Kasparov won the game. The number of ideas, the complexity, and the contribution it has made to chess theory make it one of the most important chess games ever played.[69] The FIDE World Chess Championship 2006 reunified the titles, when Kramnik beat the FIDE World Champion Veselin Topalov and became the undisputed World Chess Champion.[70] In September 2007, Viswanathan Anand from India became the next champion by winning a championship tournament.[71] In October 2008, Anand retained his title, decisively winning the rematch against Kramnik.[72] Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] "The History Of Chess" (http:/ / www. thechesszone. com/ history_of_chess). ChessZone. . Retrieved 29 March 2011. Leibs (2004), page 92 Forbes (1860) Robinson & Estes (1996), page34 Murray, H.J.R. (1913). A History of Chess. Benjamin Press (originally published by Oxford University Press). ISBN 0-936317-01-9. OCLC 13472872. [6] Davidson, Hooper & Whyld, and Golombek all give this correspondence. Bird (pp 4, 46) exchanges the bishop and rook. [7] Meri 2005: 148 [8] Hooper and Whyld, 144-45 (first edition) [9] Chess: Ancient precursors and related games (Encyclopedia Britannica 2002) [10] Remus, Horst, "The Origin of Chess and the Silk Road" (http:/ / www. silk-road. com/ newsletter/ volumeonenumberone/ origin. html), The Silk Road journal, The Silkroad Foundation, v.1(1), January 15, 2003. [11] Chess: Introduction to Europe (Encyclopedia Britannica 2007) [12] Riddler 1998 [13] Chess: Development of Theory (Encyclopedia Britannica 2002) [14] Chess: The time element and competition (Encyclopedia Britannica 2002) [15] Chess: Chess composition (Encyclopedia Britannica 2002) [16] Gupta, K.R.; Gupta, Amita.(2006). Concise Encyclopaedia of India, Volume 3 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Efgu1BwmeCQC). Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. pp. 964. [17] A History of Chess, bottom of p.311, by H.J.R.Murray, publ. Oxford at the Clarendon Press. History of chess [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] Wilkins 2002: 46 Encyclopedia Britannica (Ninth Edition) Hooper 1992: 74 Kulke 2004: 9 Wilkins 2002: 48 Wilkinson 1943 A History of Chess See the chess set's page (http:/ / www. metmuseum. org/ toah/ hd/ nish/ ho_1971. 193a-ff. htm) on the Museum's website. Bell 1979: 57 Warner & Warner 2008, p. 394-402. Yalom 2004, p. 5. Chess: Set design (Encyclopedia Britannica 2007) Chinese chess (Encyclopedia Britannica 2007) Li 1998 Banaschak: A story well told is not necessarily true - being a critical assessment of David H. Li's "The Genealogy of Chess" Shogi (Encyclopedia Britannica 2002) Vale 2001: 172 Gamer 1954 Vale 2001: 177 Vale 2001: 171 Vale 2001: 152 Vale 2001: 173 239 [40] Vale 2001: 151 [41] Vale 2001: 174 [42] Murray, H. J. R.: 1913 [43] Chess (History): Standardization of rules (Encyclopedia Britannica 2002) [44] Murray, Harold James Ruthven (1952). "6: Race-Games". A History of Board-Games Other than Chess. Hacker Art Books. ISBN 0-87817-211-4. [45] Murray (1913) p.777 [46] Davidson (1981), p. 13–17 [47] Calvo, Ricardo. Valencia Spain: The Cradle of European Chess (http:/ / www. goddesschess. com/ chessays/ ricardovalencia. html). Retrieved 10 December 2006 [48] An analysis from the feminist perspective: Weissberger, Barbara F. (2004). Isabel Rules: constructing queenship, wielding power. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-4164-1. OCLC 217447754. P. 152ff [49] See History of the stalemate rule. [50] Louis Charles Mahe De La Bourdonnai. (http:/ / www. chessgames. com/ perl/ chessplayer?pid=31596) Chessgames.com. Retrieved 30 November 2006. [51] Metzner, Paul (1998). Crescendo of the Virtuoso: Spectacle, Skill, and Self-Promotion in Paris during the Age of Revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20684-3. OCLC 185289629. Online version (http:/ / ark. cdlib. org/ ark:/ 13030/ ft438nb2b6/ ) [52] Bird, Henry Edward. Chess History and Reminiscences (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ etext/ 4902). Retrieved 10 December 2006 [53] London Chess Club. (http:/ / www. chessgames. com/ perl/ chessplayer?pid=80740) Chessgames.com. Retrieved 30 November 2006. [54] World Title Matches and Tournaments - Chess history. (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 2006/ worldchessnetwork. com/ English/ chessHistory/ salute/ matchesTournaments/ london1851. php) worldchessnetwork.com [55] Hartston, W. (1985). The Kings of Chess. Pavilion Books Limited. p. 36. ISBN 0-06-015358-X. [56] Burgess, Graham, Nunn, John and Emms, John (1998). The Mammoth Book of the World's Greatest Chess Games. Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-0587-6. OCLC 40209258., p. 14. [57] Shibut, Macon (2004). Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-43574-1. OCLC 55639730. [58] Steinitz, William and Landsberger, Kurt (2002). The Steinitz Papers: Letters and Documents of the First World Chess Champion. McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-1193-7. OCLC 48550929. [59] Kasparov (1983a) [60] Kasparov 1983b [61] Fine (1952) [62] This is stated for example in The Encyclopaedia of Chess (1970, p.223) by Anne Sunnucks, but this is also disputed by Edward Winter (chess historian) in his Chess Notes 5144 and 5152 (http:/ / 72. 14. 205. 104/ search?q=cache:Uv0K9qUrveUJ:www. chesshistory. com/ winter/ winter38. html+ site:chesshistory. com/ winter+ Grandmaster+ Tsar& hl=en& ct=clnk& cd=1& gl=us). [63] Menchik at ChessGames.com (http:/ / www. chessgames. com/ perl/ chessplayer?pid=13277). Retrieved 11 December 2006 [64] Kasparov 2003b, 2004a, 2004b, 2006 [65] "Chess History" (http:/ / www. thechessplace. com/ page/ 976499). . Retrieved 2008-01-07. History of chess [66] Kasparov 2003b, 2004a [67] Kasparov 2003a, 2006 [68] Keene, Raymond (1993). Gary Kasparov's Best Games. B. T. Batsford Ltd.. ISBN 0-7134-7296-0. OCLC 29386838., p. 16. [69] Harding, T. (2002). 64 Great Chess Games, Dublin: Chess Mail. ISBN 0-9538536-4-0. [70] Kramnik at ChessGames.com (http:/ / www. chessgames. com/ perl/ chessplayer?pid=12295). Retrieved 13 December 2006 [71] "Viswanathan Anand regains world chess title" (http:/ / in. reuters. com/ article/ sportsNews/ idINIndia-29785520070930). Reuters. 2007-09-30. . Retrieved 2007-12-13. [72] "Anand draws 11th game, wins world chess title" (http:/ / ibnlive. in. com/ news/ anand-draws-11th-game-wins-world-chess-title/ 77005-5. html?from=rssfeed). IBN Live. October 29, 2008. . Retrieved 2008-12-17. 240 References Encyclopedia Britannica • • • • • "Chess: Ancient precursors and related games.". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. "Chess: Development of Theory". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. "Chess: The time element and competition". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. "Chess: Chess composition". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. "Chess (History): Standardization of rules". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. • "Chess: Set design." (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-80432/chess). Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-28. • "Chess: Introduction to Europe" (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-80430/chess). Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-28. • "Chinese chess" (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9024151). Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-28. • "Shogi". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. WWW • Banaschak, Peter. "A story well told is not necessarily true : a critical assessment of David H. Li's The Genealogy of Chess " (http://www.banaschak.net/schach/ligenealogyofchess.htm). Books • Bell, Robert Charles (1979). Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0486238555. • Bird, Henry Edward (1893). Chess History and Reminiscences. London. (Republished version by Forgotten Books). ISBN 1-60620-897-7. • Davidson, Henry A. (1949, 1981). A Short History of Chess. McKay. ISBN 0-679-14550-8. OCLC 17340178. • Forbes, Duncan (1860). The History of Chess: From the Time of the Early Invention of the Game in India Till the Period of Its Establishment in Western and Central Europe (http://books.google.com/ books?id=Oa4UAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover). London: W. H. Allen & Co. • Golombek, Harry (1977). Golombek's Encyclopedia of Chess. Crown Publishing. ISBN 0-517-53146-1 • Harding, Tim (2003). Better Chess for Average Players. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-29029-8. OCLC 33166445. • Hooper, David Vincent; Whyld, Kenneth (1992). The Oxford Companion to Chess. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198661649. • Hooper, David and Whyld, Kenneth (1992). The Oxford Companion to Chess, Second edition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866164-9. OCLC 25508610. Reprint: (1996) ISBN 0-19-280049-3 • Kasparov, Garry (2003a). My Great Predecessors, part I. Everyman Chess. ISBN 1-85744-330-6. OCLC 223602528. History of chess • Kasparov, Garry (2003b). My Great Predecessors, part II. Everyman Chess. ISBN 1-85744-342-X. OCLC 223906486. • Kasparov, Garry (2004a). My Great Predecessors, part III. Everyman Chess. ISBN 1-85744-371-3. OCLC 52949851. • Kasparov, Garry (2004b). My Great Predecessors, part IV. Everyman Chess. ISBN 1-85744-395-0. OCLC 52949851. • Kasparov, Garry (2006). My Great Predecessors, part V. Everyman Chess. ISBN 1-85744-404-3. OCLC 52949851. • Kulke, Hermann; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Routledge. ISBN 0415329205. • Leibs, Andrew (2004). Sports and Games of the Renaissance. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32772-6 • Li, David H. (1998). The Genealogy of Chess. Premier Pub. Co. ISBN 0-9637852-2-2. • Meri, Josef W. (2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 0415966906. • Murray, H. J. R. (1913). A History of Chess. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827403-3. • Musser Golladay, Sonja, "Los Libros de acedrex dados e tablas: Historical, Artistic and Metaphysical Dimensions of Alfonso X’s Book of Games" (http://etd.library.arizona.edu/etd/GetFileServlet?file=file:/// data1/pdf/etd/azu_etd_2444_1_m.pdf&type=application/pdf) (PhD diss., University of Arizona, 2007) • Needham, Joseph (1962). "Thoughts on The Origin of Chess" (http://www.goddesschess.com/chessays/ needham1.html). • Needham, Joseph; Ronan, Colin A. (June 1985). The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521315364. • Needham, Joseph; Ronan, Colin A. (July 1986). The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 3. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521315603. • Robinson, Dindy & Estes, Rebecca (1996). World Cultures Through Art Activities. New Hampshire: Libraries Unlimited. ISBN 1-56308-271-3 • Vale, M. G. A. (2001). The Princely Court: Medieval Courts and Culture in North-West Europe, 1270-1380. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199269939. • Wilkins, Sally (2002). Sports and Games of Medieval Cultures. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313317119. • Yalom, Marilyn (2004). Birth of the Chess Queen: a History (Illustrated ed.). HarperCollins. ISBN 0060090642. • Firdausí (1915). The Sháhnámá of Firdausí (http://www.archive.org/stream/shahnama07firduoft#page/n7/ mode/2up). VII. Trans. Warner, Arthur George & Warner, Edmond. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.. ISBN 0415245451. 241 Journals • Anand, Viswanathan, "The Indian Defense" (http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/ 0,28804,1815747_1815707_1815674,00.html), TIME, Thursday, Jun. 19, 2008. An article on the history of chess by the 2007-10 chess world champion. • Gamer, Helena M. (October 1954). "The Earliest Evidence of Chess in Western Literature: The Einsiedeln Verses". Speculum (Medieval Academy of America) 29 (4): 734–750. doi:10.2307/2847098. JSTOR 2847098. • Gordon, Stewart (July/August 2009). "The Game of Kings" (http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/ 200904/the.game.of.kings.htm). Saudi Aramco World (Houston: Aramco Services Company) 60 (4): 18–23. ( PDF version (http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/pdf/2000/200904.pdf)) • Riddler, Ian; Denison, Simon (February 1998). "When there is no end to a good game" (http://www.britarch.ac. uk/ba/ba31/ba31feat.html). British Archaeology (United Kingdom: Council for British Archaeology) (31). ISSN 1357-4442 • Wilkinson, Charles K (May 1943). "Chessmen and Chess" (http://www.goddesschess.com/chessays/ chessmenandchess.html). The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin (The Metropolitan Museum of Art) New History of chess Series 1 (9): 271–279. doi:10.2307/3257111. JSTOR 3257111. • Wilkinson, Charles K. (May 1943). "Chessmen and Chess". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin (The Metropolitan Museum of Art) New Series, Vol. 1, No. 9 (9): 271–279. doi:10.2307/3257111. JSTOR 3257111. 242 External links • Origin and history of Chess, Xiangqi, Shogi and more (http://history.chess.free.fr/) • Chess. (2007). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 30, 2007, from Encyclopedia Britannica Online (http:/ /www.britannica.com/ebc/article-80429) • "Chess," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007 (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761565896_3/ Chess.html#s18) ( Archived (http://www.webcitation.org/5kwqozOV2) 2009-10-31) • Initiative group Koenigstein (http://www.mynetcologne.de/~nc-jostenge/) • Goddess Chess Chessays (http://www.goddesschess.com/chessays/chessaystoc.html) • Chess for all ages (http://www.mark-weeks.com/aboutcom/caa-hist.htm) • Alfonso X y el ajedrez - Alfonso X and Chess (http://knol.google.com/k/braulio-vázquez-campos/ alfonso-x-y-el-ajedrez/1nt2tw69bo2xt/13?hl=en#/) Cox-Forbes theory The Cox-Forbes theory is a long-debunked theory on the evolution of chess put forward by Captain Hiram Cox and extended by Professor Duncan Forbes (1798–1868). The theory states that a four-handed dice-chess game (Chaturaji) was originated in India in approximately 3000 BC; and that arising from the results of certain rules, or the difficulty in getting enough players, the game evolved into a two-handed game (Chaturanga). On account of religious and legal objections in Hinduism to gambling, the dice were dropped from the game, making it a game purely of skill. In Forbes' explanation, he calls the four-handed dice version Chaturanga and insists that Chaturaji is a misnomer that actually refers to a victory condition in the game akin to checkmate. In his 1860 account, the players in opposite corners are allies against the other team of two players. He represents this "Chaturanga" as gradually developing into the two-player diceless form by the time it was adopted by the Persians as "Chatrang". He further asserts that this name later became "Shatranj" after the Arabic pronunciation. The theory was allegedly based on evidence in the Indian text Bhavishya Purana, but more recent study of the work has shown the evidence to be weaker than previously thought. The earliest Puranas are now assigned a more conservative date of 500 BC, rather than 3000 BC. As a result, the theory is now rejected by all serious chess historians. Albrecht Weber (1825–1901) and Dutch chess historian Antonius van der Linde (1833–1897) found that the Purana quoted by Forbes did not even contain the references he claimed. While working on Geschichte und Litteratur des Schachspiels (Berlin, 1874, two vols.), Van der Linde also found that the actual text around which Forbes had built his entire theory (Tithitattva of Raghunandana) was actually from around AD 1500, rather than 3000 BC as claimed by Forbes. Van der Linde thought that Forbes deliberately lied, and was furious. John Griswold White wrote in 1898, "He did not even make good use of the material known to him." (Hooper & Whyld 1992, pp. 143, 226–7) Cox-Forbes theory 243 References • Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1992), The Oxford Companion to Chess (2 ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 143, 226–7, ISBN 0-19-280049-3 • The History of Chess, 1860, by Duncan Forbes [1] - complete original text • Chaturanga [2] - website debunking Cox-Forbes References [1] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Oa4UAAAAYAAJ& client=firefox-a [2] http:/ / history. chess. free. fr/ chaturanga. htm Liubo Liubo (Chinese: 六博; pinyin: liù bó; Wade–Giles: liu po; literally "six sticks") is an ancient Chinese board game played by two players. For the rules, it is believed that each player had six game pieces that were moved around the points of a square game board that had a distinctive, symmetrical pattern. Moves were determined by the throw of six sticks, which performed the same function as dice in other race games. The game was invented no later than the A pair of Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) ceramic tomb figurines of two middle of the 1st millennium BCE, and was gentlemen playing liubo immensely popular during the Han Dynasty (202 BCE–220 CE). However, after the Han Dynasty it rapidly declined in popularity, possibly due to the rise in popularity of the game of Go, and it eventually became almost totally forgotten. Knowledge of the game has increased in recent years with archeological discoveries of Liubo game boards and game equipment in ancient tombs, as well as discoveries of Han Dynasty picture stones and picture bricks depicting Liubo players. Liubo 244 History It is not known when the game of Liubo originated, although according to legend it was invented by Wu Cao (烏曹, called Wu Zhou 烏胄 in the early 2nd century CE Shuowen Jiezi dictionary), a minister to King Jie, the last king of the Xia Dynasty, who according to traditional chronology reigned 1728 BCE – 1675 BCE.[1] Although there is no archeological or reliable documentary evidence to support the view that Liubo dates back to the Shang Dynasty (1600 BCE–1046 BCE), early Chinese records do indicate that Liubo was already a popular game by the Warring States Period (476 BCE – 221 BCE). For example, the Records of the Grand Historian records a speech made during the reign of King Xuan of Qi (reigned 319 BCE – 301 BCE) that claims that the capital city of Linzi was so wealthy that its citizens were all able to indulge in activities such as playing musical instruments, cock fighting, dog racing, playing Liubo and playing kick ball.[2] The game of Liubo is also described in the mid 3rd century BCE poem Summons of the Soul (Zhao Hun 招魂) in the Mural from an Easter Han Dynasty tomb at Luoyang, Henan showing a pair of Liubo players in the foreground, the player on the right with his right hand raised up as if about to throw down the six throwing sticks. Songs of Chu: Then with bamboo dice and ivory pieces the game of Liu Bo is begun; Sides are taken; they advance together; keenly they threaten each other. Pieces are kinged and the scoring doubled. Shouts of ‘five white!’ arise.[3] The earliest Liubo boards to have been discovered are a pair of ornately decorated stone boards from a 4th century BCE tomb in the royal tomb complex of the State of Zhongshan at Pingshan in Hebei.[4] The game reached its greatest popularity during the Han Dynasty, as is evidenced by the discovery of many examples of Liubo boards or sets of Liubo game pieces as grave goods in high status tombs dating to the Han Dynasty. Pottery or wooden figurines of players with model Liubo boards have also been discovered in some Han tombs.[5] [6] Engraved picture stones (畫像石) and moulded picture bricks (畫像磚) that were widely used to decorate tombs and temples during the Eastern Han period (25–220 CE) also frequently depict people playing Liubo, sometimes as a small part of a complex Eastern Han glazed pottery tomb figurines playing Liubo, scene depicting many different activities, but sometimes as the with six sticks laid out to the side of the game board focal point of the scene, with the players attended by servants and playing in the cool of a pavilion. Some picture stones and engravings on stone coffins, especially those from the area of modern Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, show two winged immortals playing Liubo on a mountain, usually as part of a larger scene depicting the Queen Mother of the West and various mythical animals. After the end of the Han Dynasty the game seems to have lost its poularity, and there are no known examples of Liubo funerary ware or depictions of Liubo playing later than the Jin Dynasty (265–420). Although the game is still occasionally referred to in some historical sources and in poetry as late as the Tang Dynasty (618–907), it seems that Liubo had been largely displaced by the game of Go. By the time of the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) all knowledge Liubo of the game of Liubo had been lost, and it is only with the archeological discoveries of recent years that the game has become better known. There is some evidence that the game of Liubo spread to beyond the confines of China. The Old Book of Tang mentions that Tibetans enjoyed playing both the game of Go and Liubo,[7] but although ancient Tibetan Go boards have been discovered, no examples of Tibetan Liubo boards are known.[8] The Chinese version of the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra also mentions the playing of several games, including Liubo, which some have taken as evidence that Liubo was transmitted to India. However, to date no examples of Liubo boards have been found outside of China. 245 Equipment Liubo boards and game equipment are often found as grave goods in tombs from the Han Dynasty. Various types and sizes of Liubo board have been unearthed, made from a variety of materials, including wood, lacquered wood, pottery, stone and bronze. Some of the boards are simple square slabs of stone or wood, but others are supported by knobs at the four corners, and some are built as tables with long legs. Regardless of their size or shape, the common feature of all Liubo boards is the distinctive pattern that is carved or painted on their surface: All excavated boards have the angular V-shaped marks at the corners and L-shaped marks at the center of the edges, as well as the central square and T-shaped protrusions, and most boards also have four marks (usually circular but sometimes a decorative pattern) between the corner mark and the central square. However, on some boards each circular mark is replaced by a straight line joining the corner mark to the corner of the inner square, and in a few cases there is no mark between the corner and the square at all. Liubo 246 In many tombs only the Liubo board has survived (especially if made of stone or bronze), and it can be assumed that any associated game pieces have decayed, whereas in other cases the game pieces (which are often made of ivory) have survived but the Liubo board (which is often made of wood or lacquer) has rotted away. However, in 1973 a unique, complete set of Liubo equipment in a lacquer box was discovered in a 2nd century BCE tomb at Mawangdui (believed to be that of the son of the Marquis of Dai). This Liubo set comprises the following items (the Chinese description of the items in the inventory of grave goods that was found in the tomb are given in brackets):[9] • 1 lacquered wooden game box (45.0 × 45.0 × 17.0 cm.) [博一具] • 1 lacquered wooden game board (45.0 × 45.0 × 1.2 cm.) [博局一] A lacquered Chinese liubo board game set excavated from Tomb No. 3 of Mawangdui, Changsha, Hunan province, China, dated to the 2nd century BCE during the Western Han Dynasty. • 12 cuboid ivory game pieces (4,2 × 2.2 × 2.3 cm.), six black and six white [象其十二] • 20 ivory game pieces (2.9 × 1.7 × 1.0 cm.) [象直食其廿] • 30 rod-shaped ivory counting chips (16.4 cm. long) [象筭三十枚] • 12 ivory throwing rods (22.7 cm. long) [象□□□□ (last four characters obliterated)] • 1 ivory knife (22.0 cm. long) [象割刀一] • 1 ivory scraper (17.2 cm. long) [象削一] • 1 eighteen-sided die with the numbers "1" through "16" and characters meaning "win" and "lose" [not listed in the inventory] The six black and six white game pieces are the main game pieces to be moved around the board, and similar sets of cubic or cuboid game pieces made from ivory, jadeite or rock crystal have been found in several other tombs. In at least one case the game pieces are not distinguished by colour, but by having an engraving of a tiger on the pieces of one set and an engraving of a dragon on the pieces of the other set.[10] The twelve long rods are two sets of the six throwing sticks that the players use to determine their moves, and which the game is named after (Liubo="six sticks"). Most Han stone pictures of Six jadeite Liubo game pieces from the tomb of King Zhao Mo of Nanyue (reigned 137 BC – 122 BC) Liubo show the players throwing sticks onto a mat between themselves (with the Liubo board to the side of the mat), and ceramic model Liubo sets such as the one excavated in 1972 from Lingbao in Henan province show six sticks lined up neatly between the two players.[11] Sets of thirty rod-shaped counting chips have also been found in association with Liubo sets from other tombs.[12] However, the twenty ivory game pieces and the eighteen-sided die in the Mawangdui set are not typically associated with Liubo boards in other tombs, and it is possible that they were not used for playing Liubo, but were equipment for a different game. A similar eighteen-sided die with numbers "1" through "16", "win" and "take a drink" was found in association with two sets of twenty copper, coin-shaped tokens (one set inscribed "Number 1" through "Number 20", and the other set inscribed with three-character lines of poetry) in a Han tomb at Mancheng County in Hebei. No Liubo board or Liubo game pieces were found in the tomb, and because of the inscription "take a drink" (酒來) on one face of the die, the die and sets of tokens are supposed to have been used for a drinking game.[13] Liubo 247 Rules The exact rules of the game of Liubo are not known, and some of the surviving descriptions of the game are conflicting, which suggests that the game may have been played according to different rules at different times or in different places. The most complete description of the rules of Liubo occurs in a quotation from the lost Book of Ancient Bo (古博經) in a commentary by Zhang Zhan (張湛) to the Book of Liezi that was written during the Jin Dynasty (265–420): Method of play: Two people sit facing each other over a board, and the board is divided into twelve paths, A close-up view of the board game with game pieces from the Eastern Han tomb model set with two ends, and an area called the "water" in the middle. Twelve game pieces are used, which according to the ancient rules are six white and six black. There are also two "fish" pieces, which are placed in the water. The throwing of the dice is done with a jade. The two players take turns to throw the dice and move their pieces. When a piece has been moved to a certain place it is stood up on end, and called an "owl (梟or驍) ". Thereupon it can enter the water and eat a fish, which is also called "pulling a fish". Every time a player pulls a fish he gets two tokens, and if he pulls two fish in a row he gets three tokens [for the second fish]. If a player has already pulled two fish but does not win it is called double-pulling a pair of fish. When one player wins six tokens the game is won. Another, somewhat later source, The Family Instructions of Master Yan by Yan Zhitui (531–591) states that there were two variants of Liubo, "Greater Bo" (大博) which was played with six throwing sticks, and "Lesser Bo" (小博) which was played with two dice:[14] The ancient Greater Bo used six sticks, whereas Lesser Bo used two dice. Nowadays there is no-one who knows how to play, but in those days when it was played it used one die and twelve game pieces. It had very little skill, and was not worth playing. Most game historians think that Liubo was a race game, and that players moved their six games pieces around the marks on the board. However, others consider Liubo to have been a battle game played with dice or throwing sticks. There have been several attempts to reconstruct the rules of the game, most notably by Lien-sheng Yang, who discusses the game as it was possibly played on TLV mirrors.[15] Yang theorizes that a player’s piece would start on an L-shaped mark and try to move to a V-shaped corner mark depending on the throw of the sticks. Certain throws would allow a player's piece to move into the center and ‘kill’ the opponent’s piece if it was already there. Once in the center, a piece could begin to block the enemy’s pieces from taking a square. For each block one would gain two points. One could also attempt to recover one’s pieces after they are blocked, and would gain three points for doing this. If one failed to win after having blocked two men, then the opponent would gain six points and win the game. The first player to six points would win the game. Jean-Louis Cazaux has also reconstructed similar rules for playing Liubo.[16] An implementation of these reconstructed rules as a playable computer game has also been attempted.[17] Liubo 248 Chupu A variant of Liubo in which dice were used to make the moves was called Chupu (樗蒲) or Wumu (五木).[18] In Korea the traditional game of jeopo 저포 (hanja: 樗蒲 ) is still played, on a board that is similar to a Liubo board.[19] Relationship to other games There have been attempts to relate Liubo to other board games, and in particular some Chinese scholars believe that Xiangqi (Chinese chess) was based on Liubo.[20] Some Chinese game historians believe that Xiangqi is not related to Western chess, but was based on Liubo, whereas others have suggested that Liubo was transmitted from China to India during the Eastern Jin (317–420), where it developed into Chaturanga, which was the ancestor to both Western chess and Chinese chess.[21] Although many western game historians reject the claim that Xiangqi or other chess variants derive from Liubo,[22] Jean-Louis Cazaux argues that Liubo could have been transformed from a race game to a battle game, and it could then have become Chinese chess.[23] Liubo patterns on other objects Liubo mirrors The pattern found on the surface of Liubo boards is also found on the most common type of Han Dynasty bronze mirror, known from their distinctive markings as TLV mirrors. There is some debate over whether the Liubo pattern on these mirrors was simply decorative, or whether it had a ritual significance, or whether perhaps the mirrors doubled as portable Liubo game boards. Zhou Zheng has pointed out that one TLV mirror dating to the reign of Wang Mang (9–23) has an inscription that includes the words "Carved with a Liubo board pattern to dispel misfortune" (刻具博局去[祛]不羊[祥]), which suggests that the main purpose of the Liubo pattern on mirrors was ritual, and that the pattern had a special significance beyond game-playing.[24] Han dynasty bronze mirror with TLV pattern Liubo 249 Liubo coins The Liubo pattern is also sometimes found on the reverse of Wu Zhu coins. Such coins were not used as currency but were probably lucky charms.[25] Sundials In 1897 a stone sundial was discovered in Inner Mongolia which had been overcarved with a Liubo board pattern.[26] The only other complete Han dynasty sundial, in the collection of the Royal Ontario Museum, also has a Liubo pattern carved on it. It may be that the sundials were repurposed as Liubo boards by carving the Liubo pattern over the original sundial markings, or it may be that the Liubo markings were added for some unknown ritual purpose. Divination boards In 1993 a wooden board with turtle divinition diagrams and prognostications on one side and a Liubo diagram and forty-five prognostications on five topics on the other side was excavated from a late Western Han tomb at Yinwan in Donghai County, Jiangsu.[27] The Liubo diagram is too small to have been used for playing Liubo, and is covered with the sixty terms of the sexagenary cycle which are written all along the lines of the Liubo diagram, in a similar way that the turtle diagram on the other side of the board is filled with the sixty terms. The prognostications under the Liubo diagram are headed with one of nine terms that correspond to the words of an enigmatic, mnemonic rhyme about Liubo written by Xu Bochang (許博昌) during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han (141 BCE – 87 BCE); Lillian Tseng (Zeng Lanying) argues that these are the names for particular points on the board (the two lines of the "V" mark, the two lines of the "L" mark, the two lines of the "T" mark, the circle or line between the corner and the central square, the outside edge of the central square, and the inside of the central square).[28] Stone sundial from Inner Mongolia overcarved with a Liubo board pattern Liubo 250 Schematic diagram of the Yinwan Han dynasty Liubo divination diagram, showing the positions of the sixty terms of the sexagenary cycle (following the corrections of Zeng Lanying) and examples of the nine board positions: A=fāng 方 "square"; B=lián 廉 (pàn 畔) "edge"; C=jié 楬 (jiē 揭) "lift"; D=dào 道 "path"; E=zhāng 張 "stretch"; F=qū 曲 (jiǔ 究) "bend"; G=qū 詘 (qū 屈) "curve"; H=cháng 長 (xuán 玄) "long"; I=gāo 高 "tall" (terms used in Xu Bochang's rhyme given in brackets if different). Li Xueqin has suggested that the board was used for divination by matching the day to be divined to the corresponding sexagenary term on the Liubo diagram, and then reading off the corresponding prognostication according to the position of the sexagenary term on the Liubo diagram.[29] However, Lillian Tseng points out that the divination could also be done the other way round, by looking for the desired prognostication (for example an auspicious marriage day), and then all the days on the Liubo board that were written on the position corresponding to the term heading the prognostication would match the desired prognostication. It has been theorized that the placement of the sixty sexagenary terms on the points of the Liubo divination diagram indicate the possible positions for placing pieces when playing Liubo, and that the sequence of the terms across the divination diagram reflects the path to be followed around the board when playing the game (starting at the north-east corner and ending at the north side of the central square).[30] Liubo 251 Famous Liubo players The following is a list of famous people who are recorded to have played Liubo: • King Mu of Zhou (reigned 977 BCE – 922 BCE), who according to the apocryphal Travels of King Mu once played a game of Liubo with a hermit that lasted three days.[31] • Duke Min of Song (宋湣公), who in 682 BCE got into an argument with Nangong Wan 南宮萬 whilst playing Liubo with him, and was killed by Nangong Wan when he hit the duke with the Liubo board.[32] • King Anxi of Wei 魏安釐王 (reigned Liubo players inside an Eastern Han model pottery tower 277 BCE – 243 BCE) and his half-brother Lord Xinling of Wei 信陵君 (died 243 BCE). Once when the two of them were playing Liubo a message came that the beacons on the northern border had been lit; King Anxi wanted to stop the game and discuss the situation with his ministers, but his brother told him not to worry as it was only the king of Zhao on a hunting trip, and so they continued playing. The king was worried and could not concentrate on the game, but after the game was over news came that it was indeed the king of Zhao out hunting.[33] • Jing Ke (died 227 BCE), the failed assassin of Qin Shi Huang, once had an argument with Lu Goujian (魯句踐) over a game of Liubo, and had to flee for his life.[34] • Emperor Jing of Han (reigned 156 BCE – 141 BCE), who when he was crown prince became angry during a game of Liubo with the Prince of Wu, and threw the Liubo board at the prince, killing him.[35] • Liang Ji (died 159), who according to his biography was fond of playing Liubo. • Li Guangyan (761–826), a Uyghur general who was presented with a girl who was trained in the arts of "song, dance, music and Liubo".[36] • Liu Min (895-954), a Shatuo Turk and founder of the Northern Han kingdom, liked to play Liubo and gambling games when he was young.[37] Confucius famously did not approve of Liubo. In the Analects he grudgingly allows that playing Liubo and Go is better than being idle,[38] and according to the apocryphal Family Sayings of Confucius he stated that he would not play the game as it promoted bad habits.[39] References [1] Xu, Shen. "說文解字/06 [[[Shuowen Jiezi (http:/ / zh. wikisource. org/ wiki/ 說æ解å/ 06)] vol. 7]"] (in Chinese). 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). . Retrieved 2009-06-26. "簙:局戲也。六箸十二棊也。从竹博聲。古者烏胄作簙。" [2] Sima, Qian. "史記/卷069 [Records of the Grand Historian vol.69]" (http:/ / zh. wikisource. org/ wiki/ å²è¨/ å·069) (in Chinese). 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). . Retrieved 2009-06-26. "臨菑甚富而實,其民無不吹竽鼓瑟,彈琴擊築,鬥雞走狗,六博蹋鞠者。" [3] Hawkes, David (1985). The Songs of the South: An Anthology of Ancient Chinese Poems by Qu Yuan and Other Poets. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. p. 229. ISBN 0-14-044375-4. [4] Rawson, Jessica (1996). Mysteries of Ancient China. London: British Museum Press. pp. 159–161. ISBN 0-7141-1472-3. [5] 甘肃省博物馆 (Gansu Provincial Museum). "武威磨咀子三座汉墓发掘简报 [Brief report of the excavation of three Han tombs at Mozuizi in Wuwei]" (in Chinese). 文物 (Cultural Relics) 1972 (12): 9–16. [6] 河南省博物馆 (Henan Provincial Museum). "灵宝张湾汉墓 [The Han tomb at Zhangwan in Lingbao]" (in Chinese). 文物 (Cultural Relics) 1975 (11): 80–81. [7] Xu, Liu. "舊唐書/卷196上 [Old Book of Tang vol.196A]" (http:/ / zh. wikisource. org/ wiki/ èåæ¸/ å·196ä¸) (in Chinese). 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). . Retrieved 2009-06-26. "圍棋陸博,吹蠡鳴鼓為戲,弓劍不離身。" Liubo [8] Hazod, Guntram (2002). "The Royal Residence Pho brang byams pa mi 'gyur gling and the Story of Srong btsan sgam po's Birth in Rgya ma" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=UsC1sEKQNeYC). Tibet, past and Present: Tibetan Studies I. Proceedings of the Ninth Seminar of the IATS, 2000. Leiden: Brill. pp. 27–48. ISBN 9004127755. . [9] 熊传新 (Xiong Chuanxin). "谈马王堆3号西汉墓出土的陆博 [Discussion of the Liubo set unearthed from the No. 3 Western Han tomb at Mawangdui]" (in Chinese). 文物 (Cultural Relics) 1979 (4): 35–39. [10] 大葆台汉墓发掘组 (Dabaotai Han Tomb Excavation Group) (1989) (in Chinese). 北京大葆台汉墓 [The Han tomb at Dabaotai in Beijing]. Beijing: Wenwu chubanshe. p. 53. ISBN 7-5010-0238-X. [11] "The green-glazed liubo-playing pottery figurines" (http:/ / www. cultural-china. com/ chinaWH/ html/ en/ History2041bye5118. html). Cultural China. . Retrieved 2009-06-26. [12] 莱西县文化馆 (Laixi County Culture Hall). "山東萊西縣岱墅西漢木槨墓 [The Western Han timber-chambered tomb at Daishu in Laixi county in Shandong]" (in Chinese). 文物 (Cultural Relics) 1980 (12): 15. [13] 中国社会科学院考古研究所 (Archeology Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences) (1980) (in Chinese). 满城汉墓发掘报告 [Excavation report for the Han tomb at Mancheng]. Beijing: Wenwu chubanshe. pp. 271–274. [14] Yan, Zhitui. "顏氏家訓/卷第7 [The Family Instructions of Master Yan vol. 7]" (http:/ / zh. wikisource. org/ wiki/ é¡æ°å®¶è¨/ å·ç¬¬7) (in Chinese). 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). . Retrieved 2009-06-26. "古为大博则六箸,小博则二茕,今无晓者。比世所行,一茕十二棋,数术浅短,不足可翫。" [15] Yang, Lien-sheng (June 1952). "An Additional Note on the Ancient Game Liu-po". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 15 (1): 124–139. doi:10.2307/2718275. JSTOR 2718275. [16] Cazaux, Jean-Louis (2008-01-20). "Reconstructed rules of Liubo" (http:/ / history. chess. free. fr/ liubo-rules. htm). . Retrieved 2009-06-26. [17] "The Ancient Game of Liubo" (http:/ / liubo-game. appspot. com). 2011-04-11. . Retrieved 2011-04-19. [18] 色子的五木、投瓊和彩戰等 (http:/ / pjlog. com/ viewthread. php?tid=2648) [19] "[[Traditional Games (http:/ / gomalee. tistory. com/ 155) Play Jeopo]"]. 20 May 2011. . Retrieved 2011-09-30. [20] "Give up Western Chess – play Chinese Chess instead! (interview between Dr. René Gralla and Prof. David H. Li)" (http:/ / www. chessbase. com/ newsdetail. asp?newsid=2455). ChessBase. 2005-06-15. . Retrieved 2009-06-26. "Professor Li, it seems to be that historians from China endorse your thesis – that the origins of chess can be found in China. In summary: XiangQi originates from the mysterious game Liubo; Liubo turned into GeWu, the latter has turned into Proto-XiangQi. Peter Banaschak analysed the sources that the representatives of the Chinese school cite, and he thinks that all those quotations from the past can be references to some game, but not necessarily to the game of chess or XiangQi." [21] "Liubo – the Ancestor of Board Games" (http:/ / kaleidoscope. cultural-china. com/ en/ 140K2115K5502. html). Cultural China. . Retrieved 2009-06-26. "According to the research of modern board game historians, liubo is actually the ancestor of all battle board games of the world today, such as Chinese chess, chess etc. These games all evolve from liubo." [22] Banaschak, Peter. "A story well told is not necessarily true – being a critical assessment of David H. Li's "The Genealogy of Chess"" (http:/ / www. banaschak. net/ schach/ ligenealogyofchess. htm). . Retrieved 2009-06-26. [23] Cazaux, Jean-Louis (2001). "Is Chess a Hybrid Game ?" (http:/ / www. mynetcologne. de/ ~nc-jostenge/ cazaux. pdf) (PDF). pp. 5–8. . Retrieved 2009-06-26. "My idea, very speculative I must confess, is that someone could have turned this race game into a confrontation game opposing in each side the 6 stones as Soldiers, with a notion of promotion during the course of the game, and 10 fishes as Officers. ... Also, to divide the two sides on a battlefield, the best was probably to convert the central water into a river in the middle." [24] 周铮 (Zhou Zheng). ""规矩镜"应改称"博局镜" ["Geometric mirrors" should be called "Liubo pattern mirrors"]" (in Chinese). 考古 (Archeology) 1987 (12): 1116–1118. [25] "#54832: China, charm – Wu Zhu coin" (http:/ / www. zeno. ru/ showphoto. php?photo=54832). Zeno Oriental Coins Database. . Retrieved 2009-06-26. [26] 孙机 (Sun Ji). "托克托日晷 [The Togtoh sundial]" (in Chinese). 中国历史博物馆馆刊 (Journal of the Museum of Chinese History) 1971 (3): 74–81. [27] "尹湾汉墓简牍初探 [Preliminary investigation about the wooden slips from the Han tomb at Yinwan]" (in Chinese). 文物 (Cultural Relics) 1996 (10): 68–71. [28] 曾蓝莹 (Lillian Tseng). "尹湾汉墓"博局占"木牍试解 [Attempt to explain the "Liubo divination" wooden slip from the Han tomb at Yinwan]" (in Chinese). 文物 (Cultural Relics) 1994 (8): 62–65. [29] 李学勤 (Li Xueqin). ""博局占"与规矩纹 ["Liubo board divination" and geometric patterns]" (in Chinese). 文物 (Cultural Relics) 1997 (1): 49–51. [30] Cazaux, Jean-Louis. "Liubo" (http:/ / history. chess. free. fr/ liubo. htm). . Retrieved 2009-06-26. 252 [31] "穆天子傳/卷五 [Account of King Mu of Zhou vol.5]" (http:/ / zh. wikisource. org/ wiki/ ç©å¤©åå³/ å·äº) (in Chinese). 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). . Retrieved 2009-06-26. "是日也,天子北入于邴,与井公博,三日而决。" [32] Sima, Qian. "史記/卷038 [Records of the Grand Historian vol.38]" (http:/ / zh. wikisource. org/ wiki/ å²è¨/ å·038) (in Chinese). 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). . Retrieved 2009-06-26. "十一年秋,湣公與南宮萬獵,因博爭行,湣公怒,辱之,曰:「始吾敬若;今若,魯虜也。」萬有力,病此言,遂以局殺湣公于蒙澤。" [33] Sima, Qian. "史記/卷077 [Records of the Grand Historian vol.77]" (http:/ / zh. wikisource. org/ wiki/ å²è¨/ å·077) (in Chinese). 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). . Retrieved 2009-06-26. "公子與魏王博,而北境傳舉烽,言「趙寇至,且入界」。魏王釋博,欲召大臣謀。公子止王曰:「趙王田獵耳,非為寇也。」複博如故。王恐,心不 Liubo 253 [34] Sima, Qian. "史記/卷86 [Records of the Grand Historian vol.86]" (http:/ / zh. wikisource. org/ wiki/ å²è¨/ å·086) (in Chinese). 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). . Retrieved 2009-06-26. "荊軻遊於邯鄲,魯句踐與荊軻博,爭道,魯句踐怒而叱之,荊軻嘿而逃去,遂不復會。" [35] Sima, Qian. "史記/卷106 [Records of the Grand Historian vol.106]" (http:/ / zh. wikisource. org/ wiki/ å²è¨/ å·106) (in Chinese). 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). . Retrieved 2009-06-26. "孝文時,吳太子入見,得侍皇太子飲博。吳太子師傅皆楚人,輕悍,又素驕,博,爭道,不恭,皇太子引博局提吳太子,殺之。" [36] Xu, Liu. "列传第一百一十一 [Biographies chapter 111]" (http:/ / www. my285. com/ shishu/ jts/ 165. htm) (in Chinese). 旧唐书 (Old Book of Tang). 梦远书城 (my285.com). . Retrieved 2009-06-26. [37] Xue, Juzheng. "舊五代史/卷135 [Old History of the FIve Dynasties vol. 135]" (http:/ / zh. wikisource. org/ wiki/ èäºä»£å²/ å·135) (in Chinese). 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). . Retrieved 2009-06-26. [38] Kong, Qiu. "論語/陽貨第十七 [Analects ch. 17]" (http:/ / zh. wikisource. org/ wiki/ è«èª/ é½è²¨ç¬¬åä¸) (in Chinese). 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). . Retrieved 2009-06-26. "子曰:「飽食終日,無所用心,難矣哉!不有博弈者乎?為之,猶賢乎已!」" [39] "孔子家語/卷一 [Family Sayings of Confucius vol. 1]" (http:/ / zh. wikisource. org/ wiki/ åå家èª/ å·ä¸) (in Chinese). 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). . Retrieved 2009-06-26. "哀公問於孔子曰:“吾聞君子不博,有之乎?”孔子曰:“有之。”公曰:“何為?”對曰:“為其二乘。”公曰:“有二乘,則何為不博?”子曰:“為其兼行惡道 External links • Illustrated article on Liubo by Jean-Louis Cazaux (http://history.chess.free.fr/liubo.htm) • Pictures of Liubo artefacts on the Cultural China website (http://www.cultural-china.com/chinaWH/html/en/ 11Kaleidoscope2115.html) • Andrew West, Pictures of funerary statuettes of Liubo Players (http://babelstone.co.uk/Blog/2009/05/ lost-game-of-liubo-part-1-funerary.html) Chaturanga Further information: Chess (disambiguation) This article is about the two-player ancient game Chaturanga. For the four-player version, played with dice, see Chaturaji. Chaturanga pieces Raja (King) Mantri or Senapati (Counselor or General; Queen) Ratha (Chariot; Rook) Gaja (Elephant; Bishop) Asva (Horse; Knight) Padàti or Bhata (Foot-soldier; Pawn) Chaturanga 254 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Chaturanga: The position of the pieces at the start of a game.[1] Note that the Ràjas do not face each other; the white Ràja starts on e1 and the black Ràja on d8. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Ashtāpada, the uncheckered 8x8 board, sometimes with special marks, on which Chaturanga was played. Chaturanga (Sanskrit caturaṅga चतुरङ्ग) is an ancient Indian game that is presumed to be the common ancestor of the games of chess, shogi, and makruk, and related to xiangqi and janggi. Chaturanga developed in Gupta India around the 6th century. In the 7th century, it was adopted as Shatranj in Sassanid Persia, which in turn was the form that brought chess to late-medieval Europe (see Origins of chess for more information on the ancestry of chess.) The exact rules of Chaturanga are not known. Chess historians suppose that the game had similar rules to those of its successor Shatranj. In particular, there is uncertainty as to the moves of the Gaja (elephant), the precursor of the Bishop in modern chess. Chaturanga 255 History Sanskrit caturaṅga is a bahuvrihi compound, meaning "having four limbs or parts" and in epic poetry often means "army".[2] The name itself comes from a battle formation mentioned in the Indian epic Mahabharata, referring to four divisions of an army, viz. elephants, chariots, cavalry, and infantry. Chaturanga was played on an 8x8 uncheckered board, called Ashtāpada [3]. The board had some special marks, the meaning of which is unknown today. These marks were not related to chaturanga, but were drawn on the board only by tradition. The great chess historian Murray has conjectured that the Ashtāpada was also used for some old race type dice game, perhaps similar to Chowka bhara, in which these marks had a meaning. An early reference to an ancient Indian board game is sometimes attributed to Subandhu in his Vasavadatta (c. AD 450): The time of the rains played its game with frogs for pieces [nayadyutair] yellow and green in color, as if mottled by lac, leapt up on the black field squares. The colors are not those of the two camps, but mean that the frogs have a two-tone dress, yellow and green. Banabhatta's Harsha Charitha (c. 625) contains the earliest reference to the name Chaturanga: Under this monarch, only the bees quarreled to collect the dew; the only feet cut off were those of measurements, and only from Ashtâpada one could learn how to draw up a Chaturanga, there was no cutting-off of the four limbs of condemned criminals.... While there is little doubt that Ashtâpada is the gaming board of 8x8 squares, the double meaning of Chaturanga, as the four folded army, may be controversial. There is a probability that the ancestor of Chess was mentioned there. Pieces • Raja (King) - Moves like the King in chess, as in Shatranj. • Mantri (Minister); also known as Senapati (General) - Moves one square diagonally, like the Fers in Shatranj. • Ratha (Chariot); also spelled Śakata - Moves like the Rook in chess, as in Shatranj. • Gaja (Elephant) - Three different moves are described in ancient literature: 1. Two squares in any diagonal direction, jumping over one square, as the Alfil in Shatranj. • The same move is used for the Boat in a four-handed version of Chaturangam, Chaturaji.[4] • The Elephant in Xiangqi (Chinese chess) has the same move, but without jumping. (The name Elephant is used for a fairy chess piece with this move: a (2, 2) leaper, but one that cannot jump over an intervening piece.) 2. One square forward or one square in any diagonal direction • This is the same move as the Silver General in Shogi. • In Makruk (Thai chess) and Sittuyin (Burmese chess) the elephant moves in the same way. • This move was described ca. 1030 by Biruni in his India book. 3. Two squares in any orthogonal direction, jumping over one square. (In modern chess, the rook moves orthogonally.) • A piece with such a move is called a Dabbābah [5] in some chess variants. This move was described by the Arabic chess master al-Adli [6] ca. 840 in his (partly lost) chess work. (The Arabic word dabbābah in former times meant a covered siege engine for attacking walled fortifications, and nowadays means "army Krishna and Radha playing chaturanga on an 8x8 Ashtāpada. Chaturanga tank"). • The German historian Johannes Kohtz (1843–1918) suggests, rather, that this was the earliest move of the Ratha. [7] • Ashva (Horse); also spelled Ashwa, Asva - Moves like the Knight in chess, as in Shatranj. (This is the distinctive move that marks a game as a likely descendant of Chaturanga.) • Padàti/Bhata (Foot-soldier); also spelled Pedati, Bhata; also known as Sainik (Warrior)—Moves like the Pawn in chess, as in Shatranj. Al-Adli also mentions two further differences from Shatranj: • Stalemate was a win for a stalemated player. This rule appeared again in some medieval chess variations in England ca. 1600. According to some sources, there was no stalemate, though this is improbable. • The player that is first to bare the opponent's king (capture all the pieces except the king) wins. In Shatranj this is also a win, but only if the opponent cannot bare the player's king on the next move in return. 256 References [1] "The History Of Chess" (http:/ / www. thechesszone. com/ history_of_chess). ChessZone. . Retrieved 29 March 2011. [2] Meri 2005: 148 [3] http:/ / history. chess. free. fr/ ashtapada. htm [4] W. Borsodi, etc. (1898). American Chess Magazine (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=I_4LAAAAYAAJ& pg=RA1-PA262& dq="Horse+ ship"#PRA1-PA262,M1). Original from Harvard University. pp. 262. . [5] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ piececlopedia. dir/ dabbabah. html [6] http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20091028083454/ http:/ / www. geocities. com/ SiliconValley/ Lab/ 7378/ aladli. htm [7] http:/ / www. goddesschess. com/ chessays/ calvognosis2. html Further reading • • • • A History of Chess, H.J.R. Murray (1913), ISBN 0-936317-01-9. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants, D.B. Pritchard (1994), ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. The Oxford History of Board Games, David Parlett (1999) ISBN 0-19-212998-8. Games Ancient and Oriental and How to Play Them, Edward Falkener (1892, re-issued 1961) ISBN 0-486-20739-0 • Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1992), The Oxford Companion to Chess (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-280049-3 • Davidson, Henry (1949), A Short History of Chess, McKay, ISBN 0-679-14550-8 (1981 paperback) External links • Chaturanga, from Chess Variants (http://www.chessvariants.org/historic.dir/chaturanga.html) • Software including the different historical rules variants (http://www.chaturanga.org/) Sessa 257 Sessa Sessa (or Sissa) was a legendary vellalar and creatorlaskerbook of the game of chess ancestor, chaturanga. References 1. Edward Lasker (1959). Adventure of Chess, Dover. The vellalar Sessa creating Chaturanga (by Brazilian artist Thiago Cruz, 2007). Chaturaji 258 Chaturaji a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Chaturaji, starting position. Pieces with different colors were used for each of four players. Chaturaji (means "four kings", also known as "Choupat", IAST Caupāṭ, IPA: [tʃɔːˈpaːʈ]) is a four player chess-like game. It was first described in detail circa 1030 by Biruni in his India book.[1] Originally, this was a game of chance: the pieces to be moved were decided by rolling two dice. A diceless variant of the game was still played in India at the close of the 19th century. History The ancient Indian epic Mahabharata contains a reference to a game, which could be Chaturaji:[2] Presenting myself as a Brahmana, Kanka by name, skilled in dice and fond of play, I shall become a courtier of that high-souled king. And moving upon chess-boards beautiful pawns made of ivory, of blue and yellow and red and white hue, by throws of black and red dice. I shall entertain the king with his courtiers and friends. However, there is no certainty whether the mentioned game is really a chess-like game like Chaturaji, or a race game like Pachisi. Captain Cox and professor Forbes put forth a theory (the Cox-Forbes theory), that Chaturaji is a predecessor of Chaturanga and hence the ancestor of modern chess. An even stronger version of this theory was put forward by Prof. Stewart Culin.[3] However, this theory was rejected by Murray,[1] modern scholars siding with Murray. Rules Piece moves Chaturaji 259 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Boat move. The boat at f6 can move to any of the four squares marked with a cross. The game is played with pieces of four different colors as shown in the diagram. Each player has four pieces on the back rank with four pawns in front of them on the second rank. The four pieces are king, elephant, horse and boat (or ship in some sources). The king moves like the chess king, the elephant like the chess rook and the horse like the chess knight. The boat corresponds to the chess bishop but has a more restricted range, like the alfil in Shatranj. The boat moves two squares diagonally in any direction as shown in the diagram, jumping over the intervening square. Note that this differs from most ancient chess-like games where it is the elephant which normally corresponds to the chess bishop. The pawn also moves as in chess, but does not have the option of an initial double-square move. Each of the four players' pawns moves and captures in a different direction along the board, as one would expect from the initial player's setup. For example, the red pawns which start on the g-file above move left across the board, promoting on the a-file. Also, the pawn's promotion rules are different; one must promote to the piece that starts on the same file (or rank) of the promotion square (king included) and one can promote only after one's piece of that type has been captured. Boat triumph a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Chaturaji Boat triumph rule. Green boat c3 can capture all other boats by moving to e5. All boats shown belong to different players. When a boat moves in such a way that a 2x2 square filled with boats is formed, it captures all three boats of other players (see diagram). This rule is called boat triumph. 260 Dice throws On each turn two dice are thrown. Usually oblong (four sided) stick dice were used. Players were allowed to throw the dice in the air and catch them, exercising some control over the outcome. However, playing with cubic dice is also possible. Pieces to be moved are determined by dice numbers (note that the stick dice didn't have 1 and 6): • • • • 1 or 5 - pawn or king 2 - boat 3 - knight 4 or 6 - elephant On each turn two moves may be made, one for each die. The same or two different pieces may be moved, and the player may skip one or both of his moves if desired. Scoring There is no check or checkmate. The king can be captured like any other piece. The goal of the game is to collect as many points as possible. Points are scored by capturing opponents' pieces, according to this scale: • • • • • pawn - 1 boat - 2 knight - 3 elephant - 4 king - 5. A score of 54 points is awarded to a player who manages to capture all three opponents' kings while his own king remains on the board. This value is a sum of points of all pieces in three armies. References [1] Murray, H.J.R. (1913). A History of Chess. Benjamin Press (originally published by Oxford University Press). ISBN 0-936-317-01-9. [2] Mahabharata, Book 4, Section 1 (http:/ / www. sacred-texts. com/ hin/ m04/ m04001. htm) [3] Four-Handed Chaturanga (http:/ / history. chess. free. fr/ chaturanga. htm) by Jean-Louis Cazaux. Further reading • D.B. Pritchard (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants (p. 48-49). ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. External links • Chaturanga for four players (http://www.chessvariants.org/historic.dir/chaturang4.html) by Hans Bodlaender. • Chaturaji software (http://Chaturanga.net), including multi-media encyclopedia with Cox-Forbes theory. • 4-handed Chaturanga with dice (http://hem.passagen.se/melki9/4chaturanga.htm) implementation for Zillions of Games. Shatranj 261 Shatranj Further information: Chess (disambiguation) Shatranj (Devanagari: शतरंज, Persian: ‫ )ﺷَﻄْﺮَﻧْﺞ‬is an old form of chess, which came to the Western world from India. Modern chess has gradually developed from this game. Iranian shatranj set, glazed fritware, 12th century. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. Etymology and origins a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Shatranj: The position of the pieces at the start of a game. Note that the Shahs face each other, either in the d-file (as shown) or the e-file. The word shatranj is derived from the Sanskrit chaturanga (catuḥ="four", anga="arm"). In Middle Persian the word appears as chatrang, with the 'u' lost due to syncope and the 'a' lost to apocope, e.g., in the title of the text Mâdayân î chatrang ("Book of Chess") from the 7th century AD. In Persian folk etymology, the word is sometimes re-bracketed as sad ("hundred") + ranj ("worries"), which might appear quite meaningful to players. The word was adapted into Arabic as shatranj, and then into the Portuguese xadrez, Spanish ajedrez, and Greek ζατρίκιον; but English chess and check come via French échecs (Old French eschecs) from Persian ‫( ﺷَﺎﻩ‬shāh = "king"). Krishna and Radha playing chaturanga on an 8x8 Ashtāpada. Shatranj The game came to Persia from India in the early centuries of the Christian Era (Common Era). The earliest Persian reference to shatranj is found in the Middle Persian book Karnamak-i Artaxshir-i Papakan, which was written between the 3rd and 7th centuries AD (Common Era). This ancient Persian text refers to Shah Ardashir I, who ruled from 224–241, as a master of the game:[1] By the help of Providence Ardeshir became more victorious and warlike than all, on the polo and the riding-ground, at Chatrang and Vine-Artakhshir, and in several other arts. However, Karnamak contains many fables and legends, and this only establishes the popularity of chatrang at the time of its composition.[2] 262 Iranian shatranj set, glazed fritware, 12th century. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. Persian manuscript from the 14th century describing how an ambassador from India brought chess to the Persian court. Shams-e-Tabrīzī as portrayed in a 1500 painting in a page of a copy of Rumi's poem dedicated to Shams. During the reign of the later Sassanid king Khosrau I (531–579), a gift from an Indian king (possibly a Maukhari Dynasty king of Kannauj)[3] included a chess game with sixteen pieces of emerald and sixteen of ruby (green vs. red).[2] The game came with a challenge which was successfully resolved by Khosrau's courtiers. This incident, originally referred to in the Mâdayân î chatrang (c. 620 AD), is also mentioned in Firdausi's Shahnama (c. 1010 AD). The rules of Chaturanga seen in India today have enormous variation, but all involve four branches (angas) of the army: the horse, the elephant (bishop), the chariot (rook) and the foot-soldier (pawn), played on a 8x8 board. Shatranj adapted much of the same rules as Chaturanga, and also the basic 16 piece structure. In some later variants the darker squares were engraved. The game spread Westwards after the Islamic conquest of Persia and achieved great popularity and a considerable body of literature on game tactics and strategy was produced from the 8th c. onwards. With the spread of Islam, chess diffused into the Maghreb and then to Andalusian Spain. During the Islamic conquest of India (c.12th c.), some forms came back to India as well, as evidenced in the N. Indian term māt (mate, derivaative from Persian māt) or the Bengali borey (pawn, presumed der. Arabic baidaq).[4] Over the following centuries, chess became popular in Europe eventually giving rise to modern chess. Rules Shatranj 263 Shatranj pieces Shah (King) Fers or Wazīr (Counsellor) Rukh (Chariot or Rook) "Pīl" in Persian and "al-Fīl" in Arabic (Elephant) Asb (Horse in Persian) or Knight Sarbaz (piyadeh) (Pawn) Fers. A move diagram for the fers. Pīl, Alfil, Aufin, and similar. A move diagram for a Pīl. This piece can jump over other pieces. The initial setup in shatranj was essentially the same as in modern chess. However the position of the white shah (king), on the right or left side was not fixed. Either the arrangement as in modern chess or as shown on the diagram above were possible. In either case, however, the white and black shāh would be on the same file (but not always in modern India). The game was played with these pieces: • Shāh (king) moves like the king in chess. • Fers (counsellor; also spelled ferz; Arabic firz, from Persian ‫ ﻓﺮﺯﻳﻦ‬farzīn ; also called Wazīr) moves exactly one square diagonally, which makes it a rather weak piece. It was renamed "queen" in Europe. Even today, the word for the queen piece is ферзь (ferz) in Russian, vezér in Hungarian and "vazīr" in Persian. It has analogues to the guards in xiangqi and Gold Generals in shogi. • Rukh (chariot; from Persian ‫ ﺭﺥ‬rokh) moves like the rook in chess. • Pīl, Alfil, Aufin, and similar (elephant; from Persian ‫ ﭘﻴﻞ‬pīl; al- is the Arabic for "the") moves exactly two squares diagonally, jumping over the square between. Each Pīl could reach only one-eighth of the squares on the board, and because their circuits were disjoint, they could never capture one another. This piece might have had a different move sometimes in chaturanga, where the piece is also called "elephant". The Pīl was replaced by the bishop in modern chess. Even today, the word for the bishop piece is alfil in Spanish, alfiere in Italian, "fīl" in Persian and слон (which means elephant) in Russian. The elephant piece survives in xiangqi with the limitations that the elephant in xiangqi cannot jump over an intervening piece and is restricted to the owner's half of the Shatranj board. In janggi, its movement was changed to become a slightly further-reaching version of the horse. • Faras (horse, from Arabic; Persian ‫ ﺍﺳﭗ‬asp) moves like the knight in chess. • Baidaq (from Arabic ‫ ﺑﻴﺪﻕ‬from Persian ‫ ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ‬piyāda, foot-soldier, by adapting the Persian word as Arabic bayādiq, which was treated as a broken plural from which was extracted an apparent singular baidaq) moves and captures like the pawns in chess, but not moving two squares on the first move. When they reach the eighth rank, baidaqs are promoted, but only to fers. Pieces are shown on the diagrams and recorded in the notation using the equivalent modern symbols, as in the table above. In modern descriptions of shatranj, the names king, rook, knight and pawn are commonly used for shah, rukh, faras, and baidaq. There were also other differences compared to modern chess: Castling was not allowed (it was invented much later). Stalemating the opposing king resulted in a win for the player delivering stalemate. Capturing all one's opponent's pieces apart from the king (baring the king) was a win, unless your opponent could capture your last piece on his or her next move, then in most parts of the Islamic world it was a draw, but in Medina it was a win.[2] 264 History Early Arabic shatranj literature During the Golden Age of Arabic, many works on shatranj were written, recording for the first time the analysis of opening games, chess problems, the knight's tour, and many more subjects common in modern chess books. Many of these manuscripts are missing, but their content is known due to compilation work done by the later authors.[2] The earliest listing of works on chess is in the Fihrist, a general bibliography produced in 377 AH (988 CE) by Ibn al-Nadim. It includes an entire section on the topic of chess, listing: • • • • • Al-Adli's Kitab ash-shatranj ('Book of chess') Ar-Razi's Latif fi'sh-shatranj ('Elegance in chess') As-Suli's Kitab ash-shatranj (two volumes) Al-Lajlaj's Kitab mansubat ash-shatranj ('Book of chess-positions or problems') B. Aliqlidisi's Kitab majmu'fi mansubat ash-shatranj ('Collection of chess problems') There is a passage referring to chess in a work said to be by Hasan, a philosopher from Basra who died in 728 CE. However the attribution of authorship is dubious. Player classification Al-Adli as well as as-Suli introduced classifications of players by their playing strength. Both of them specify 5 classes of players: • Aliyat (or aliya), grandees • Mutaqaribat, proximes - players who could win 2-4 games out of 10 in the match against grandee. They received odds of a pawn from grandee (better players g-, a- or h-pawn, weaker ones d- or e-pawn). • Third class - players who received odds of a fers from grandee. • Fourth class - received odds of a knight. • Fifth class - received odds of a rook. To determine his or her class, a player would play a series or match with a player of a known class without odds. If he won 7 or more games out of 10, he belonged to a higher class. Shatranj 265 Famous players During the reign of the Arab caliphs, shatranj players of highest class were called aliyat or grandees.[2] There were only a very few players in this category. The most well known of them were: • Jabir al-Kufi, Rabrab and Abun-Naam were three aliyat players during the rule of caliph al-Ma'mun. • Al-Adli was the strongest player during the rule of caliph al-Wathiq. At this time he was the only player in aliyat category. • Ar-Razi in 847 won a match against an already old al-Adli in the presence of caliph al-Mutawakkil and so become a player of aliyat category. • As-Suli was the strongest player during the reign of caliph al-Muktafi. Ar-Razi was already dead and there were no players of comparable strength before as-Suli appeared on the scene. In the presence of al-Muktafi he easily won a match against a certain al-Mawardi and thus proved that he was the best player of that time. As-Suli considered Rabrab and ar-Razi as the greatest of his predecessors. • Al-Lajlaj was a pupil of as-Suli and also a great shatranj master of his time. Game play Openings a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Mujannah - Mashaikhi opening. In opening shatranj players usually tried to reach a specific position, tabiya. Openings in shatranj were usually called tabbiyya‫( ﺗَﺒِّﻴّﺔ‬pl. tabbiyyaat),‫ ﺗَﺒِﻴّﺎﺕ‬which can be translated as battle array. Due to slow piece development in shatranj, the exact sequence of moves was relatively unimportant. Instead players aimed to reach a specific position, tabiya, mostly ignoring the play of their opponent. The works of al-Adli and as-Suli contain collections of tabiyat. Tabiyat were usually given as position on a half-board with some comments about them. The concrete sequence of moves to reach them was not specified. In his book Al-Lajlaj analyzed some tabiya in detail. He started his analysis from some given opening, for example "Double Mujannah" or "Mujannah - Mashaikhi", and then continued up to move 40., giving numerous variations. Shatranj 266 Piece values Both al-Adli and as-Suli provided estimation of piece values in their books on shatranj. They used a monetary system to specify piece values. For example, as-Suli gives piece values in dirhem, the currency in use in his time:[2] Piece Value 1 dirhem Rook 2/3 dirhem Knight 1/3 - 3/8 dirhem Fers 1/4 dirhem Alfil 1/4 dirhem Central pawn (d-, or e-pawn) 1/6 - 1/5 dirhem Knight's or Alfil's pawn (b-, c-, f-, or g-pawn) 1/8 dirhem Rook's pawn (a- or h-pawn) As-Suli also believed that the b-pawn was better than the f-pawn and King's side Alfil (on the c-file) was better than Queen's side one (on the f-file). Furthemore, an Alfil on the c-file was better than the d-pawn and the Alfil on the f-file was better than an e-pawn. Mansubat Dilaram Problem, ca. 10th century a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 White to move and win. This is a typical example of a shatranj problem, Mansuba. Persian chess masters composed many shatranj problems. Such shatranj problems were called mansūba (pl. mansūbāt). This word can be translated from Arabic as arrangement, position or situation. Mansubat were typically composed in such a way that a win could be achieved as a sequence of checks. One's own king was usually threatened by immediate checkmate. One of the most famous Mansuba is the Dilaram Problem shown at the right. Black threatens immediate checkmate by 1...Ra2 or Ra8. However, white can win with a two-rook sacrifice: Shatranj 1. Rh8+ Kxh8; 2. Bf5+ Kg8; 3. Rh8+ Kxh8; 4. g7+ Kg8; 5. Nh6#. or 1. Rh8+ Kxh8; 2. Bf5+ Rh2; 3. Rxh2+ Kg8; 4. Rh8+ Kxh8; 5. g7+ Kg8; 6. Nh6#. Note that the Alfil (bishop) moves two squares diagonally, jumping over intermediate pieces; this allows it to jump over the white knight to deliver the discovered check from the second rook with 2.Bf5+. It was said that a nobleman wagered (playing white) his wife Dilārām on a chess game, and this position arose, and she appealed "Sacrifice your two Rooks, and not me."[5] 267 References [1] Unknown court historian of the Sassanid Empire (before 628AD). The Karnamik-I-Ardashir, or The Records of Ardashir. http:/ / www. fordham. edu/ halsall/ ancient/ ardashir. html. Note: Vine-Artakhsir is a reference to the game later known as Nard, a predecessor of Backgammon. [2] Murray, H.J.R. (1913). A History of Chess. Benjamin Press (originally published by Oxford University Press). ISBN 0-936-317-01-9. [3] Jean-Louis Cazaux (12 March 2004). "The Enigma of Chess birth: The Old Texts: 6th, 7th and 8th centuries" (http:/ / history. chess. free. fr/ sources. htm). . Retrieved 14 July 2007. [4] Jean-Louis Cazaux (16 June 2006). "Indian Chess Sets" (http:/ / history. chess. free. fr/ india. htm). . Retrieved 14 July 2007. [5] A History of Chess, bottom of p.311, by H.J.R.Murray, publ. Oxford at the Clarendon Press. External links • Shatranj, the medieval Arabian Chess (http://history.chess.free.fr/shatranj.htm) by Jean-Louis Cazaux. • Shatranj (http://www.chessvariants.com/historic.dir/shatranj.html) by Hans L. Bodlaender • The Time of Shatranj and the Aliyat (http://www.schemingmind.com/journalarticle.aspx?article_id=3& page=1) by Miguel Villa. • ICC Shatranj rules (http://www.chessclub.com/help/shatranj) Abu Bakr bin Yahya al-Suli Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Yahya al-Suli (c. 880 – 946) was a nadim (boon companion) of successive Abbasid caliphs. He was noted for his poetry and scholarship and wrote a chronicle called Akhbar al-Radi wa'l-Muttaqi, detailing the reigns of the caliphs al-Radi and al-Muttaqi. He was a legendary shatranj (an ancestor of chess) player, still remembered to this day. Upon the death of al-Radi in 940, al-Suli fell into disfavour with the new ruler due to his sympathies towards Shi'a Islam and as a result had to go into exile at Basra, where he spent the rest of his life in poverty. Al-Suli's great-grandfather was the Turkish prince Sul-takin and his uncle the poet Ibrahim ibn al-'Abbas as-Suli. Akhbar al-Radi wa'l-Muttaqi Al-Suli's chronicle has long been in the shadow of more famous chronicles such as those of al-Mas'udi and Miskawayh, perhaps because al-Suli was seen as a nadim and not a serious scholar. However, the account in significant for offering an eyewitness account of the transition to Buyid rule. It was during al-Radi's caliphate in 936 that the position of "amir al-umara" was created, which allowed for the transfer of executive power from the caliph to an "amir", a position that the Buyids later used to establish a new dynasty alongside the Abbasids. After this point, the Abbasids never regained their full power. However, al-Suli's account makes it clear that not all power was transferred to the amirs. He treats the period as a time of crisis, but not the end of the Abbasid caliphate. Abu Bakr bin Yahya al-Suli 268 Chess Al-Suli came to prominence as a shatranj player sometime in between 902 and 908 when he beat al-Mawardi, the court shatranj champion of al-Muktafi, the Caliph of Baghdad. Al-Mawardi was so thoroughly beaten he fell from favour, and was replaced by al-Suli. After al-Muktafi's death, al-Suli remained in the favour of the succeeding ruler, al-Muqtadir and in turn ar-Radi. Al-Suli's shatranj-playing ability became legendary and he is still considered one of the best Arab players of all time. His biographer ben Khalliken, who died in 1282, said that even in his lifetime great shatranj players were said to play like al-Suli. Documentary evidence from his lifetime is limited, but the endgames of some of the matches he played are still in existence. His skill in blindfold chess was also mentioned by contemporaries. Al-Suli also taught shatranj. His most well known pupil is al-Lajlaj ("the stammerer"). One of his most prominent achievements is his book, Kitab Ash-Shatranj (Book of Chess), which was the first scientific book ever written on chess strategy. It contained information on common chess openings, standard problems in middle game, and annotated end games. It also contains the first known description of the knight's tour problem. Many later European writers based their work on modern chess on al-Suli's work. Apart from his chess book he also wrote several historical books. Al-Suli's Diamond a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 White to move, White wins “ This ancient position is so difficult that there is no one in the world who would be able to solve it, except those I have taught to do so. I doubt whether anyone did this before me. This was said by al-Suli. ” [1] —12th century manuscript from the library of Sultan Abdul Hamid al-Suli created a shatranj problem called "al-Suli's Diamond" that went unsolved for over a thousand years.[2] David Hooper and Ken Whyld studied this problem in the mid-1980s but were unable to crack it. It was finally solved by Russian Grandmaster Yuri Averbakh.[1] [3] As this is a shatranj, the "queen" (counsellor) is a very weak piece, able to move only a single square diagonally. It is also possible to win in shatranj by capturing all pieces except the king. The solution given is 1. Kb4 in Hans Ree's "The Human Comedy of Chess". Abu Bakr bin Yahya al-Suli 269 Notes [1] Damsky, Yakov (2005), The Book of Chess Records, Batsford, pp. 166–167, ISBN 0-7134-8946-4 [2] Shenk, David, The Immortal Game: A History of Chess [3] Ree, Hans (2000), The Human Comedy of Chess, Access Publishers Network References • Robert Charles Bell (1980). Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. ISBN 0-486-23855-5. • Leder, S. "al-Suli, Abu Bakr Muhammad." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008. Brill Online. • H.J.R. Murray (1913). A History of Chess. ISBN 0-936317-01-9. Tamerlane chess Tamerlane chess is a strategic board game related to chess and derived from shatranj. It was developed in Persia during the reign of Timur, also called Tamerlane (1336–1405). Some sources attribute the game's invention to Timur, but this is by no means certain. Because Tamerlane Chess is a larger variant of shatranj, it is also called Shatranj Kamil (perfect chess) or Shatranj Al-Kabir (large chess). It is distinctive in that there are multiple varieties of pawn, each of which promotes in its own way. The board Tamerlane chess starting board A Tamerlane chess board is made up of 110 uncheckered squares arranged in a 10x11 pattern. Additional squares protrude from the left side on the ninth row and from the right side on the second row. These extra squares are called citadels. When the opposing king occupies a player's citadel, the game is declared a draw. No piece other than a king may occupy a citadel. There are several ways for an opening setup to be arranged. A common one is as follows: White's side, bottom row, from the left- Elephant, Space, Camel, Space, War Machine, Space, War Machine, Space, Camel, Space, Elephant. Second Row from the left- rook, knight, picket, giraffe, general, king, vizir, giraffe, picket, knight, rook. Third row from the left- pawn of pawns, pawn of war engines, pawn of camels, pawn of elephants, pawn of generals, pawn of kings, pawn of vizirs, pawn of giraffes, pawn of pickets, pawn of knights, pawn of rooks. Black's side mirrors white's. Tamerlane chess 270 Pieces Anglicised versions of piece names are used here. • • • • • • • • • • • King - Moves as a traditional King General - Moves one square diagonally Vizir - Moves one square horizontally or vertically Giraffe - Moves one square diagonally and then a minimum of three squares horizontally or vertically Picket - Moves as a Bishop in traditional chess, but must move a minimum of two squares Knight - Moves as a knight in traditional chess Rook - Moves as a rook in traditional chess Elephant - Moves two squares diagonally and is unobstructed by pieces in between Camel - Moves two diagonally and two straight, unobstructed by pieces in between War Engine - Moves two horizontally or vertically, unobstructed by pieces in between Pawns - Move as pawns in traditional chess, but with no initial double move or en passant capture. Every piece (including the pawn) has a corresponding pawn. Hence; Pawn of Kings, Pawn of Vizirs, Pawn of Giraffes, etc. Promotion rules Upon reaching the last rank on the board, a pawn is promoted to its corresponding piece. Thus, Pawn of Giraffes becomes a Giraffe, etc. Exceptions to this are the Pawn of Kings and Pawn of Pawns. A Pawn of Kings becomes a Prince, which must be mated or taken before the opponent can win. It moves as a king. When the Pawn of Pawns reaches the last rank, it stays there and cannot be taken. As soon as a situation develops where the opponent cannot escape losing a piece to a pawn, or where a pawn may attack two opposing units at the same time, the player must move his/her pawn to that location. Upon the second promotion of this pawn, it moves to the starting point of the Pawn of Kings. Upon the third promotion it becomes an adventitious king, which acts as a prince. Other rules When multiple kings are held, they may be captured as normal pieces. When only one king remains it must be checkmated. Once during the game a player may exchange a checked king for another non-royal piece. A player may move into check if he holds multiple kings. The adventitious king is the only piece that may move into a player's own citadel. This is often done to prevent the opponent from entering. External links • • • • Tamerlane chess [1] Play Tamerlane Chess [2] Timur's Chess [3] more details and history on Tamerlane Chess [4] Tamerlane chess 271 References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ historic. dir/ tamerlane. html http:/ / www. pathguy. com/ chess/ Tamerlan. htm http:/ / filer. case. edu/ org/ cwrums/ games/ tamerlane. html http:/ / history. chess. free. fr/ tamerlane. htm Hiashatar Hiashatar is a medieval chess variant played in Mongolia. The game is played on a 10 x 10 board. The pieces are the same as in chess with the exception that there is an additional piece which is called the "bodyguard".[1] [2] The game is not as popular as western chess or Shatar. Pieces • King (noyon) - moves like the King in chess • Queen (bers) - moves like the Queen in chess • Bodyguard (hia) - moves like a Queen, but can only move one or two squares. The Bodyguard has a special power; any piece sliding must stop its move if it moves through any square a king's move away from the bodyguard. Any piece a king's move away from the bodyguard can only move one square. The only piece immune to this power of the Bodyguard is the Knight. • Rook (tereg) - moves like the rook in chess • Knight (mori) - moves like the Knight in chess • Bishop (teme) - moves like the Bishop in chess • Pawn (fu) - moves like the pawn in chess except that it can make an initial triple step. Other Rules • There is no castling • Pawns promote only to queen References • N. Okano, Sekai-no meina shogi (World's chess games), p.40-46, chapter V. 1999. [1] http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080703142230/ http:/ / www. geocities. com/ kisslook/ eng/ mongeng. html [2] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ index/ msdisplay. php?itemid=MLhiashatar Senterej 272 Senterej Senterej (or Ethiopian chess) is a chess variant, the form of chess traditionally played in Ethiopia. It is the last popular survival of shatranj.[1] Rules The board is not checkered, merely marked into squares; it is usually a red cloth, marked by strips of black. Each king stands just to the right of the centerline from its player's point of view. It moves one step in any direction. At its left stands the ferz, moving one square diagonally. (One source says it moves one step in any direction, but may only capture diagonally. There may have been regional variations.) On their flanks stands a piece called the fil. This is the alfil, leaping diagonally to the second square distant. Beside these stand the horses, moving as knights. In the corners stand the rooks. The second rank is filled with pawns, which move one step forward and capture one square diagonally forward. There is no double first move, and therefore no capture en passant. A pawn reaching the farthest rank is promoted to ferz (one source says, to the rank of any piece already lost). In Senterej both sides start playing at the same time without waiting for turns. The phase before first capture is called the Mobilization Phase, or werera. Both players may move their pieces as many times as they like without concern for the number of moves the opponent makes. During this phase the players watch each other's moves, and retract their own and substitute others as they think best. They only start to take turns after the First Capture. The play was much more sociable than Europe is used to, with all the bystanders (even, in the old days, slaves) calling out their notions of useful plays and moving the pieces about to demonstrate. The rules and customs surrounding checkmate are numerous. Dealing the fatal blow with a rook or knight was considered inartistic. Delivering the fatal stroke with a ferz or fil is more respectable; with a combination of pawns, even more praiseworthy. A king denuded of all pieces cannot be mated. A king with only a single piece supporting him (pawns do not count, in this case or the previous one) can only be mated before that piece has moved seven times.[2] Advantages Senterej creates randomized initial chess positions, which make the memorizing chess opening sequences far less helpful. References [1] Pritchard, D. (2007). The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. John Beasley. ISBN 978-0955516801., p. 247 [2] This account of the rules is taken from Murray, H. J. R., A History of Chess, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1913, pages 362–364. External links • Senterej, the Ethiopian Chess (http://history.chess.free.fr/senterej.htm) • Senterej – Ethiopian Chess with a flying start (http://www.chessbase.com/newsdetail.asp?newsid=5321) by Dr. René Gralla • A Note on Ethiopian Chess (http://tezeta.net/25/a-note-on-ethiopian-chess) by Dr. Richard Pankhurst • Kaiserin setzte ein Korps matt (Neues Deutschland) (http://www.neues-deutschland.de/artikel/143861. kaiserin-setzte-ein-korps-matt.html) (German) Lewis chessmen 273 Lewis chessmen Lewis Chessmen Lewis chessmen in the British Museum Material Created Discovered Present location Walrus Ivory 12th century Uig, Lewis in 1831 British Museum · Museum of Scotland The Lewis Chessmen (or Uig Chessmen, named after the bay where they were found) are a group of 78 12th-century chess pieces, most of which are carved in walrus ivory. Discovered in 1831 on the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland,[1] they may constitute some of the few complete, surviving medieval chess sets, although it is not clear if a set as originally made can be assembled from the pieces. They are owned and exhibited by the British Museum in London, which has 67 of the original pieces, and the Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh, which has the remaining 11 pieces. Lewis chessmen 274 Origin The chessmen were probably made in Norway, perhaps by craftsmen in Trondheim, in the 12th century,[2] although some scholars have suggested other sources in the Nordic countries.[3] During that period the Outer Hebrides, along with other major groups of Scottish islands, were ruled by Norway.[2] According to Dr. Alex Woolf, director of the Institute for Medieval Studies of the University of St. Andrews, there are a number of reasons for believing the chess pieces probably came from Trondheim: a broken queen piece in a similar style found in an excavation of the archbishop's palace (it appeared the piece was broken as it was being made), the presence of wealthy people in Trondheim able to pay craftsmen for the high-quality pieces, similar carving in Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim, the excavation in Trondheim of a kite-shaped shield similar to shields on some of the pieces and a king piece of similar design found on Hitra Island, near the mouth of Trondheim Fjord. Woolf has said that the armour worn by the chess figures includes "perfect" reproductions of armour worn at the time in Norway.[4] Some historians believe that the Lewis chessmen were hidden (or lost) after some mishap occurred during their carriage from Norway to wealthy Norse "Beserker" rook, at the British Museum in towns on the east coast of Ireland, like Dublin. The large number of pieces London and their lack of wear may suggest they were the stock of a trader or dealer in such pieces.[2] Along with the chess pieces, there were 14 plain round tablemen for the game of tables and one belt buckle, all made of ivory, making a total of 93 artifacts.[5] Another possibility, put forward by Icelanders Gudmundur G. Thorarinsson and Einar S. Einarsson, is that the chessmen originated in Iceland.[6] The pair claim that the most important indicator of Icelandic origins is the presence of bishops among the Lewis Chessmen – such pieces first being used in Iceland. However this is disputed by Woolf, who stated that the use of bishops originated in England.[4] The Icelandic hypothesis has been strongly challenged by chess historian and member of the Ken Whyld Association,[7] Morten Lilleøren, who has written an article entitled "The Lewis Chessmen Were Never Anywhere Near Iceland!"[8] Description Almost all of the pieces in the collection are carved from walrus ivory, with a few made instead from whale teeth. The 78 pieces consist of 8 kings, 8 queens, 16 bishops, 15 knights, 12 rooks and 19 pawns. The heights of the pawns range from 3.5 to 5.8 cm while the major pieces are between 7 and 10.2 cm. Although there are 19 pawns (a complete set requires 16), they have the greatest range of sizes of all the pieces, which has suggested that the 78 pieces might belong to at least 5 sets.[9] All the pieces are sculptures of human figures, with the exception of the pawns, which are smaller, geometric shapes. The knights are mounted on rather diminutive horses and are shown holding spears and shields. The rooks are standing soldiers or warders holding a shield and sword; four of the rooks are shown as wild-eyed berserkers biting their shields with battle fury.[10] Some pieces bore traces of red stain when found, indicating that red and white were used to distinguish the two sides, rather than the black and white used in modern chess.[4] Lewis chessmen 275 Scholars have observed that, to the modern eye, the figural pieces, with their bulging eyes and glum expressions, have a distinct comical character.[11] [12] This is especially true of the single rook with a worried, sideways glance (front left of first image below) and the beserkers biting their shields which have been called "irresistibly comic to a modern audience."[13] It is believed, however, that the comic or sad expressions were not intended or perceived as such by the makers to whom these images instead displayed strength, ferocity or, in the case of the queens who hold their heads with a hand, "contemplation, repose and possibly wisdom."[11] Modern discovery The chessmen were discovered in early 1831 in a sand bank at the head of Camas Uig on the west coast of the Isle of Lewis, in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. There are various local stories concerning their arrival and modern discovery on Lewis. Malcolm "Sprot" Macleod from the nearby township of Pennydonald discovered the trove in a small stone kist in a dune, exhibited them briefly in his byre and sold them on to Captain Roderick Ryrie.[14] One reported detail, that it was a cow that actually unearthed the stash, is generally discounted in Uig as fabrication. Malcolm Macleod's family were evicted from Pennydonald several years later when the area was cleared to make the farm at Ardroil. The Lewis chessmen top: king, queen, bishop middle: knight, rook, pawn bottom: closeup of queen (resin replicas) Exhibition and ownership They were exhibited by Ryrie at a meeting of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, on April 11, 1831. The chessmen were soon after split up, with 10 being purchased by Kirkpatrick Sharpe and the others (67 chessmen and 14 tablemen) were purchased on behalf of the British Museum in London. Kirkpatrick Sharpe later found another bishop to take his collection up to eleven, all of which were later sold to Lord Londesborough. In 1888 they were again sold, but this time the purchaser was the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, who donated the pieces to the Royal Museum in Edinburgh. The eleven are now on display in the Museum of Scotland. The pieces given to the British Museum are still located there, and most can be found in Room 42 with the registration numbers M&ME 1831, 11–1.78–159. Others have been lent to Scottish museums and temporary exhibitions.[2] A range of resin or plastic replicas are popular items in the Museum shops. The chessmen were number 5 in the list of British archaeological finds selected by experts at the British Museum for the 2003 BBC Television documentary Our Top Ten Treasures presented by Adam Hart-Davis. They feature in the 2010 BBC Radio 4 series A History of the World in 100 Objects as number 61, in the "Status Symbols" section. A new exhibition entitled "The Lewis Chessmen: Unmasked" that includes chesspieces from both the Museum of Scotland and the British Museum collections, along with other relevant objects, is touring Scotland in 2010/11. The exhibition opened in Edinburgh on 21 May 2010 and proceeded to Aberdeen, Shetland and the Museum nan Eilean in Stornoway, opening there on 15 April 2011.[15] Lewis chessmen 276 Controversy In 2007–08 a dispute arose regarding the most appropriate place to display the pieces. The issue first arose late in 2007 with calls from Scottish National Party (SNP) politicians in the Western Isles (notably Councillor Annie Macdonald, MSP Alasdair Allan and MP Angus MacNeil) for the return of the pieces to the place they were found. Linda Fabiani the Scottish Minister for Europe, External Affairs and Culture stated that "it is unacceptable that only 11 Lewis Chessmen rest at the National Museum of Scotland while the other 82 remain in the British Museum in London". Richard Oram, Professor of Medieval and Environmental History at the University of Stirling, agreed arguing that there was no reason for there to be more than "a sample" of the collection in London. Both points of view have been dismissed by Margaret Hodge the UK Minister of State in the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, writing "It's a lot of nonsense, isn't it?"[14] The local historical society in Uig, Comann Eachdraidh Uig, which operates a registered museum near the find site featuring detailed information about the chessmen and Norse occupation in Lewis, has indicated publicly that it has no intention of pursuing any claim to the ownership of the pieces and does not support demands for them to be sent to Edinburgh, but would welcome short-term loans.[16] In October 2009 twenty-four of the pieces from the London collection and six from Edinburgh began a 16-month tour of diverse locations in Scotland. The tour was part-funded by the Scottish Government and Mike Russell, the Minister for Culture and External Affairs stated that the Government and the British Museum had "agreed to disagree" on their eventual fate. Bonnie Greer, the museum's deputy chairman said that she "absolutely" believed the main collection should remain in London.[17] A selection of some of the other chess pieces, with a row of bishops at the back, then a row of knights. A resin replica of one of the kings Lewis chessmen in the Museum of Scotland The Lewis chessmen in the British Museum Knight in London Popular culture The Harry Potter series depicts a game known as Wizard's Chess where magically animated pieces move and kill on vocal command of the players. In the films, the pieces of the standard tabletop game are depicted using Lewis Chessmen. Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Chessbase: The enigma of the Lewis chessmen (http:/ / www. chessbase. com/ newsdetail. asp?newsid=6665) British Museum Website. (http:/ / www. britishmuseum. org/ the_museum/ news_and_press_releases/ statements/ the_lewis_chessmen. aspx) Robinson, p. 14. McClain, Dylan Loeb (8 September 2010), Reopening History of Storied Norse Chessmen (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 09/ 09/ arts/ 09lewis. html), New York Times, , retrieved 14 September 2010 (appeared September 9, 2010 in the newspaper, page C2, New York Times) (Robinson 2004, pp. 5, 36, 54–55) Are the Isle of Lewis chessmen Icelandic? (http:/ / www. leit. is/ lewis/ ), , retrieved 14 September 2010 Ken Whyld Association (http:/ / www. kwabc. org/ Homepage-UK/ home-english. htm) Lilleøren, Morten, The Lewis Chessmen Were Never Anywhere Near Iceland! (http:/ / www. chesscafe. com/ text/ skittles399. pdf) (ChessCafe.com, 2011) [9] Robinson, p. 30. [10] Robinson, pp. 28-29. [11] Robinson, pp. 37-41. [12] N. Stratford, The Lewis chessmen and the enigma of the hoard (The British Museum Press, 1997), p. 48. Lewis chessmen [13] Robinson, p. 37. [14] Burnett, Allan (February 3, 2008) "Stalemate". Glasgow. The Sunday Herald. [15] "Lewis Chessman exhibition opens in Stornoway museum" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ uk-scotland-highlands-islands-13085170). BBC. Retrieved 15 April 2011. [16] Uig News, February 2008 [17] Cornwell, Tim (2 October 2009) "Chessmen 'will never come home'. The Scotsman. Edinburgh. 277 References • British Museum Website. (http://www.britishmuseum.org/the_museum/news_and_press_releases/statements/ the_lewis_chessmen.aspx) • Murray, H. J. R. (1985). A History of Chess. Oxford University Press. • Robinson, James (2004). The Lewis Chessmen. British Museum Press. • Stratford, N. (1997). The Lewis chessmen and the enigma of the hoard. The British Museum Press. • Taylor, Michael (1978). The Lewis Chessmen. British Museum Publications Limited. External links • The British Museum's page on the chessmen (http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/ highlight_objects/pe_mla/t/the_lewis_chessmen.aspx) • National Museums Scotland's pages on the chessmen (http://www.nms.ac.uk/our_museums/ national_museum/special_exhibitions/lewis_chessmen_tour.aspx) • A History of the World in 100 Objects, Number 61: The Lewis Chessmen (http://www.bbc.co.uk/ programmes/b00stb51) • Not Chess pieces, Not from Lewis (http://textualities.net/writers/features-a-g/chandlerg05.php) • The Isle Of Lewis Chessmen Website (http://www.isleoflewischessset.co.uk/) 278 Xiangqi and variants Xiangqi Xiangqi Xiangqi board with pieces in their starting positions Genre(s) Players Setup time Playing time Board game 2 Under one minute Informal games: may vary from 20 minutes to several hours Blitz games: up to 10 minutes Random chance None Skill(s) required Tactics, strategy Xiangqi Chinese 象棋 Transcriptions Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin xiàngqí - Wade–Giles hsiang4-ch'i2 [listen] Min - Hokkien POJ chhiūⁿ-kî Cantonese - Jyutping zeong6 kei2 Xiangqi 279 Xiangqi (Chinese: 象棋; pinyin: Xiàngqí) is a two-player Chinese board game in the same family as Western chess, chaturanga, shogi, Indian chess and janggi. The present-day form of Xiangqi originated in China and is therefore commonly called Chinese chess in English. Xiangqi is one of the most popular board games in China. Besides China and areas with significant ethnic Chinese communities, Xiangqi is also a popular pastime in Vietnam (Cờ tướng). The game represents a battle between two armies, with the object of capturing the enemy's "general" piece. Distinctive features of Xiangqi include the unique A Xiangqi board movement of the pao ("cannon") piece, a rule prohibiting the generals (similar to chess kings) from facing each other directly, and the river and palace board features, which restrict the movement of some pieces. Its Chinese name can be treated as meaning "Image Game" or "Elephant Game": 象 originally, and primarily, means "elephant" and is derived from a stylized drawing of an elephant; it was later used to mean "image", as a jiajie (re-use for another word which was pronounced the same); also, elephant ivory was commonly used as a material for carving models. 棋 means "board game". Xiangqi contains features which are not in Indian chess: the river, the palace, and the placing of the pieces on the intersections of the lines, rather than within the squares. These features may have come from an earlier Chinese board game (perhaps a war-type game) which was also called 象棋 (Xiangqi). As in an astronomical context 象 sometimes means "constellation" or "asterism" (i.e., in both cases, a figure made of stars), there were early Chinese theorizings (which Harold James Ruthven Murray followed and believed) that the older Xiangqi simulated the movements of stars and other celestial objects in the sky. Xiangqi 280 Rules of the game Board Xiangqi is played on a board that is 9 lines wide by 10 lines long. In a manner similar to the game Go (Wéiqí 圍棋), the pieces are played on the intersections, which are known as points. The vertical lines are known as files, while the horizontal lines are known as ranks. Centered at the first through third ranks of the board is a square zone also mirrored in the opponent's territory. The three point by three point zone is demarcated by two diagonal lines connecting opposite corners and intersecting at the center point. This area is known as 宮 gōng, the palace or fortress. Dividing the two opposing sides (between the fifth and sixth ranks) is 河 hé, the river. The river is often marked with the phrases 楚河 chǔ hé, meaning "Chu River", and 漢界 (in Traditional Chinese). hàn jiè, meaning "Han border", a reference to the Chu-Han War. Although the river provides a visual division between the two sides, only a few pieces are affected by its presence: "soldier" pieces have an enhanced move after crossing the river, while "elephant" pieces cannot cross. The starting points of the soldiers and cannons are typically marked with small crosses, but not all boards have these marks. Xiangqi is a common pastime in Chinese cities. Play The pieces start in the position shown in the diagram above. Which player moves first has varied throughout history, and also varies from one part of China to another. Some Xiangqi books state that the black side moves first; others state that the red side moves first. Also, some books may refer to the two sides as north and south; which direction corresponds to which color also varies from source to source. Generally, red goes first in most modern formal tournaments.[1] Each player in turn moves one piece from the point it occupies to another point. Generally pieces are not permitted to move through a point occupied by another piece. A piece can be moved onto a point occupied by an enemy piece, in which case the enemy piece is "captured" and removed from the board. A player cannot capture one of his own pieces. Pieces are never "promoted" (converted into other pieces), although the pawn/soldier is able to move sideways after it crosses the river. Generally all pieces capture using their normal moves. One piece has a special capture move, as described below. Xiangqi 281 The game ends when one player captures the other's general. When the general is in danger of being captured by the enemy player on his next move, the enemy player is said to have "delivered a check" (simplified Chinese: 照将/将军; traditional Chinese: 照將/將軍, abbreviated (simplified Chinese: 将; traditional Chinese: 將; pinyin: jiāngjiāng)) and the general is said to be "in check". A check should be announced. If the general's player can make no move to prevent the general's capture, the situation is called "checkmate" (simplified Chinese: 将死; traditional Chinese: 將死). "Checkmate!" (assuming the cannon is safe) Note that the horse is not actually needed for this to be checkmate. Unlike Chess, in which a stalemate is a draw, in Xiangqi, a player with no legal moves left loses. In Xiangqi, a player (often with material or positional disadvantage) may attempt to check or chase pieces in a way that the moves fall in a cycle, forcing the opponent to draw the game. The following special rules are used to make it harder to draw the game by endless checking and chasing (regardless of whether the positions of the pieces are repeated or not): • The side that perpetually checks with one piece or several pieces will be ruled to lose under any circumstances unless he or she stops the perpetual checking. • The side that perpetually chases any one unprotected piece with one or more pieces will be ruled to lose under any circumstances unless he or she stops the perpetual chasing. Chases by generals and soldiers are allowed however.[2] • If one side perpetually checks and the other side perpetually chases, the perpetually checking side has to stop or be ruled to lose. • When neither side violates the rules and both persist in not making an alternate move, the game can be ruled as a draw. • When both sides violate the same rule at the same time and both persist in not making an alternate move, the game can be ruled as a draw. Different sets of rules set different limits on what is considered "perpetual". For example, Club Xiangqi rules allow a player to check/chase six consecutive times using one piece, twelve times using two pieces, and eighteen times using three pieces before considering the check/chase a perpetual check/chase.[2] The above rules to prevent perpetual checking and chasing are popular, but they are by no means the only rules. There are a large number of confusing end game situations.[3] Pieces The pieces are flat circular disks, each with a Chinese character on, sometimes engraved into the surface. The black pieces are marked with somewhat different characters from the corresponding red pieces; this practice Western version of pieces may have originated in situations where there was only one material available to make the pieces from and no coloring material available to distinguish the opposing armies. Xiangqi General The generals are labelled with the Chinese character 將 (trad.) / 将 (simp.) jiàng (general) on the black side and 帥 (trad.) / 帅 (simp.) shuài (marshal) on the red side. The general starts the game at the midpoint of the back edge (within the palace). The general may move and capture one point either vertically or horizontally, but not diagonally. The two generals may not face each other in the same file with no intervening pieces. If that happens, the "flying general" (飛將) move may be executed, in which one general may "fly" across the board to capture the enemy general. In practice this rule is only used to enforce checkmate. The general may not leave the palace except when executing the "flying general" move. The Indian name "king" for this piece was changed to "general" because China's rulers objected to their royal title "king" or "emperor" being given to a game-piece.[4] 282 General and advisors Advisor The advisors (also known as guards or ministers, and less commonly as assistants, mandarins, or warriors) are labelled 士 shì ("scholar", "gentleman", "officer") for black and 仕 shì ("scholar", "official") for red. Rarely, sets use the character 士 for both colours. The advisors start to the sides of the general. They move and capture one point diagonally and may not leave the palace, which confines them to five points on the board. They serve to protect the general. The advisor is probably derived from the mantri in Chaturanga, like the queen in Western chess. Elephant The elephants are labeled 象 xiàng (elephant) for black and 相 xiàng (minister) for red. They are located next to the advisors. These pieces move and capture exactly two points diagonally and may not jump over intervening pieces (the move is described as being like the character 田 Tián [field]). If an elephant is blocked by an intervening piece, it is known as "blocking the elephant's eye" (塞象眼). They may not cross the river; thus, they serve as defensive pieces. Because an elephant's movement is thus restricted to just seven board positions, it can be easily trapped or threatened. Typically the two elephants will be used to defend each other. The Chinese characters for "minister" and "elephant" are homophones (Listen) and both have alternative meanings as "appearance" or "image". However, both are referred to as elephants in the game. Xiangqi Horse 283 The horses are labelled 馬 mǎ for black and 傌 mà for red in sets marked with Traditional Chinese characters and 马 mǎ for both black and red in sets marked with Simplified Chinese characters. Some traditional sets use 馬 for both colours. They begin the game next to the elephants. A horse moves and captures one point vertically or horizontally and then one point diagonally away from its former position, a move which is traditionally described as being like the character 日 Rì. The horse does not jump as the knight does in Western chess. Thus, if there were a piece lying on a point one point away horizontally or vertically from the horse, then the horse's path of movement is blocked and it is unable to move in that direction. Note, however, that a piece two points away horizontally or vertically or a piece a single point away diagonally would not impede the movement of the horse. Blocking a horse is also known as "hobbling the horse's leg" (蹩馬腿). The diagram on the left illustrates the horse's movement. Since horses can be blocked, it is sometimes possible to trap the opponent's horse. It is possible for one player's horse to attack the opponent's horse while the opponent's horse is blocked from attacking, as seen in the diagram on the right. The red horse may take the black horse, but the black horse cannot take the red horse because its movement is obstructed by another piece Green moves are legal; red ones are illegal because another piece is obstructing the movement of the horse Xiangqi Chariot The chariots are labelled 車 for black and 俥 for red in sets marked with Traditional Chinese characters and 车 for both black and red in sets marked with Simplified Chinese characters. Some traditional sets use 車 for both colors. All of these characters are pronounced as jū. The chariot moves and captures vertically and horizontally any distance, and may not jump over intervening pieces. The chariots begin the game on the points at the corners of the board. The chariot is considered to be the strongest piece in the game. The chariot is sometimes known as the "rook" by English speaking players, since it is like the rook in Western chess. Chinese players (and others) often call this piece a "car", since that is one modern meaning of the character 車. Cannon The cannons are labelled 砲 pào for black and 炮 pào for red. They are homophones. Sometimes 炮 is used for both red and black. 砲 pào means a "catapult" for hurling boulders. 炮 pào means "cannon". The 石 shì radical of 砲 means 'stone', and the 火 huǒ radical of 炮 means 'fire'. However, both are normally referred to as cannons in English. In Xiangqi, each player has two cannons. The cannons start on the row behind the soldiers, two points in front of the horses. Cannons move like the chariots, horizontally and vertically, but capture by jumping exactly one piece (whether it is friendly or enemy) over to its target. When capturing, the cannon is moved to the point of the captured piece. The cannon may not jump over intervening pieces if not capturing another piece, nor may it capture without jumping. The piece which the cannon jumps over is called the 炮臺 (trad.) / 炮台 (simp.) pào tái ("cannon platform"). Any number of unoccupied spaces may exist between the cannon and the cannon platform, or between the cannon platform and the piece to be captured, including no spaces (the pieces being adjacent) in both cases. Cannons are powerful pieces at the beginning of the game when platforms are plentiful, and are used frequently in combination with chariots to achieve checkmate. Although cannons can be exchanged for a horse immediately from their starting positions, this is usually not favorable, in part due to the superiority of cannons over horses at the beginning of the game. The two cannons, when used together, can form a check that cannot be The long-range threat of the cannon stopped easily. As they line up in the attack against the opposing general, the back cannon checks the general while the front cannon, serving as the platform, prohibits blocking for the opposing side. The opposing side can only move the general, capture the back cannon, or block between the two cannons. 284 Xiangqi Soldier Each side has five soldiers, labelled 卒 zú (pawn/private) for black and 兵 bīng (soldier) for red. Soldiers are placed on alternating points, one row back from the edge of the river. They move and capture by advancing one point. Once they have crossed the river, they may also move (and capture) one point horizontally. Soldiers cannot move backward, and therefore cannot retreat; however, they may still move sideways at the enemy's edge. The soldier is sometimes known as the "pawn" by English speaking players, since it is similar to that piece in Western chess. Approximate relative values of the pieces Piece Point(s) 1 Soldier before crossing the river 2–3 Soldier after crossing the river 2 Advisor 2 Elephant 4.5 Horse 5 Cannon 9–10 Chariot 285 These approximate values do not take into account positional advantages. For example, the chariot at the corner in the beginning of the game is not very useful, but it can be moved to points where it affects the game much more, for example near the center of the board or the opponent's palace. Also, the value of a cannon drops as the game goes on due to having fewer platforms for use in capturing, while the value of the horse increases slightly due to fewer obstructions. Although the chariot has the highest value of 9–10 points, players will often in certain game scenarios value a cannon or horse at or more than the level of a chariot due to the cannon's unique attack style. What is left on the board is also important to the value of a piece. For example, in a mid or late game, if red still has two chariots and black has one advisor left, that advisor is very valuable for black because it is very easy for red to checkmate with two chariots if black does not have an advisor. Equipment One player's pieces are usually painted red (or, less commonly, white), and the other player's pieces are usually painted black (or, less commonly, blue or green). Xiangqi pieces are represented by disks marked with a Chinese character identifying the piece and painted in a colour identifying which player the piece belongs. In mainland China, most sets still use traditional Chinese characters (as opposed to simplified Chinese characters) for the pieces. Modern pieces are usually made of plastic, though some sets use pieces made of wood, and more expensive sets may use pieces made of jade. In more ancient times, many sets were simple unpainted woodcarvings; thus, to distinguish between the pieces of the two sides, most corresponding pieces use characters that are similar but vary slightly between the two sides. Xiangqi The oldest Xiangqi piece found to date is a 俥 (chariot) piece. It is kept in the Henan Provincial Museum. 286 Notation There are several types of notation used to record Xiangqi games. In each case the moves are numbered and written with the same general pattern. 1. (first move) (first response) 2. (second move) (second response) It is clearer but not required to write each move pair on a separate line. Notational system 1 The book The Chess of China[5] describes a move notation in which the ranks of the board are numbered 1 to 10 from closest to farthest away, followed by a digit 1 to 9 for files from right to left. Both values are relative to the moving player. Moves are then indicated as follows: [piece name] ([former rank][former file])-[new rank][new file] Thus, the most common opening in the game would be written as: 1. 炮 (32)–35, 馬 (18)–37 Notational system 2 A notational system partially described in A Manual of Chinese Chess[6] and used by several computer software implementations describes moves in relative terms as follows: [single-letter piece abbreviation][former file][operator indicating direction of movement][new file, or in the case of purely vertical movement, number of ranks traversed] The file numbers are counted from each player's right to each player's left. In case there are two identical pieces in one file, symbols + (front) and – (rear) are used instead of former file number. Direction of movement is indicated via an operator symbol. A plus sign is used to indicate forward movement. A minus sign or hyphen is used to indicate backwards movement. A dot or period or equal sign is used to indicate horizontal or lateral movement. If a piece (such as the horse or elephant) simultaneously moves both vertically and horizontally, then the plus or minus sign is used rather than the period. Thus, the most common opening in the game would be written as: 1. C2.5 H8+7 The single letter piece abbreviations are Piece Advisor Cannon Chariot Initial(s) A C R* Elephant E General Horse Soldier *for Rook, because using C would conflict with the letter for Cannon G H S Xiangqi 287 Notational system 3 (unofficial, for players of Western chess) Letters are used for files and numbers for ranks. File "a" is on Red's left and rank "1" is nearest to Red. A point's designation does not depend on which player moves; for both sides "a1" is the lowest left point from Red's side. [single-letter piece abbreviation][former position][check indication][analysis] position][capture indication][new Pieces are abbreviated as for system 2, except that no letter is used for the soldier. Former position is only indicated if necessary to distinguish between two identical pieces that could have made the move. If they share the same file, indicate which rank moves; if they share the same rank, indicate which file moves. If they share neither rank or file then the file is indicated. Capture is indicated by "x". No letter is used to indicate a non-capturing move. Check is indicated by "+", double check by "++", triple check by "+++", and quadruple check by "++++". Checkmate is indicated by "#". For analysis purposes, bad moves are indicated by "?" and good moves by "!". These can be combined if the analysis is uncertain ("!?" might be either but is probably good; "?!" is probably bad) or repeated for emphasis ("??" is a disaster). Thus, the most common opening in the game would be written as: 1. Che3 Hg8 An example of a brief game ("the early checkmate") is: 1. 2. 3. 4. Cbe3 Che8 Ch6 Cb4? Cxe7+! Cexe4?? Ce6# 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i Black is mated and therefore loses the game. Notice how Red's doubled cannons can't be blocked, and that the general can't move off the file either. Xiangqi 288 Gameplay Because of the size of the board and the low number of long-range pieces, there is a tendency for the battle to focus on a particular area of the board. Tactics There are several tactics common to games in the chess family, including Xiangqi. Some common ones are briefly discussed here; see Chess tactics for more details. • Fork: When one enemy piece can attack more than one piece, they are forked. • Pin: A piece is pinned when it cannot be moved without exposing a more important piece to be captured. A cannon can pin two pieces at once on one file or rank, and unlike in Western chess, because the horse can be blocked it can pin pieces as well. • Skewer: A piece is skewered when it is attacked and, on moving, exposes a less important piece to be captured. Fork 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i The horse forks the soldier and the chariot. Pin 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i The cannon is pinned by the chariot. Skewer Xiangqi 289 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i The chariot is skewering the general and chariot. When the general moves, the chariot can be taken. • Discovered check: A discovered check occurs when an attacking piece moves so that it unblocks a line for a chariot, cannon, and less often, the horse, to check the enemy general. The piece uncovering the check can safely move anywhere within its powers regardless of whether the opponent has those squares under protection. • Double check: A double check occurs when two pieces simultaneously threaten the enemy general. It may or may not be possible to block. An example of a double check that can be blocked is a chariot checking the general and acting as a platform for a cannon situated behind. This can be blocked by moving a piece between the general and the chariot, blocking the cannon's fire and that of the chariot as well. An example of a double check that can not be blocked is a horse between the enemy general and a chariot. The horse can move to check the general and uncover a check from the chariot. No piece can block because there is an attack from two directions, and both can't be blocked at once. In either case, capturing one of the checking pieces doesn't get the general out of check either. Sometimes a double check results in mate. Another, blockable, case of double check is when a cannon or chariot uncovers two checks at once from two horses, but it is rare. • Particular to Xiangqi is triple check, which arises with a cannon, a chariot, and a horse or a chariot and two horses, the latter being comparatively rare. In the first case the horse moves to give check uncovering a double check from the chariot and the cannon, which uses the chariot as a platform. This check can't be blocked and capturing a checking piece doesn't work either, as that would leave the general still in check from two enemy pieces. In the second case the chariot moves to give check uncovering a double check from the two horses. Quadruple check is also possible, arising with 2 horses, a chariot, and a cannon. Triple check 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Xiangqi 290 a b c d e f g h i Red's horse has moved from e5 to d7, giving check and exposing a double check from chariot and cannon. Quadruple check 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i Red's chariot has moved from f9 to e9, giving check and exposing a triple check from cannon and both horses. Triple check, alternate position 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i Red's chariot discovers two checks from the horses and gives check itself. Use of pieces Usually, the soldiers do not support each other unless the player has no better move. This is because from the initial position, it takes a minimum of 5 moves of a soldier to allow twin soldiers to protect each other. The two chariots are not normally lined up together as they are the most powerful pieces and in doing so, a player risks losing one chariot to an inferior piece of the enemy. Depending on the situation, it may be advantageous to position a chariot at one of the corners of the enemy's side of the board, where it is very difficult to dislodge, and threatens the enemy general. It is common to use the cannons independently to control particular ranks and files. Using a cannon to control the middle file is often considered vital strategy, because it helps to lock certain pieces such as the advisors and elephants in certain positions to prevent a check. The two files adjacent to the middle file are also considered Xiangqi important and horses and chariots can be used to push for checkmate here. The two cannons on the same file is also a powerful formation. For example, the rear cannon threatens the general. Moving a piece in front of the cannons to block the attack does not work, because then the front cannon will attack the general. A common defensive configuration is to leave the general at its starting position, deploy one advisor and one elephant on the two points directly in front of the general, and to leave the other advisor and the other elephant in their starting positions, to the side of the general. In this setup, the paired-up advisors and elephants support each other, and the general is immune from attacks by cannons. However, with the loss of a single advisor or elephant, the general becomes vulnerable to cannons, and this setup may need to be abandoned. The defender may move advisors or elephants away from the general, or even sacrifice them intentionally, to ward off attack by a cannon. 291 Openings 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i The most common opening pair of moves Since the left and right flank of the starting setup are symmetrical and therefore equivalent, it is customary to always make the first move from the right flank. Starting on the left flank is considered to be needlessly confusing. The most common opening is to move the cannon to the central column, an opening known as 當頭炮 (trad.) / 当头炮 (simp.) dāng tóu pào = "appropriate start cannon". The most common reply is to advance the horse on the same flank. Together, this move-and-response is known by the rhyme 當頭炮,馬來跳 (trad.) / 当头炮,马来跳 (simp.) dāng tóu pào, mǎ lái tiào. The notation for this is "1. 炮 (32)–35, 馬 (18)–37" or "1. C2.5 H8+7". See also the diagrams to the right. This is usually followed by the most common second move, 出車 (trad.) / 出车 (simp.) chū jū—"chariot sortie"—in which the first player moves a chariot forward one space (usually the right one – moving the left one loses the horse, and even if the defender manages to trap the cannon with his/her chariots, the cannon can simply take the nearest advisor resulting in a net gain of an advisor in material for the other side and the maneuver to trap the cannon loses time allowing the opponent to bring out other pieces). The most common reply is to move the right advisor diagonally. 上士 shàng shì. This is to prevent a series of events that leads to the first player quickly checkmating the second. Less common first moves include: • moving an elephant to the central column Xiangqi • advancing the soldier on the third or seventh file • moving a horse forward • moving either cannon behind the 2nd soldier from the left or right General advice for the opening includes rapid development of at least one chariot, because it is the most powerful piece and the only long-range piece besides the cannon. There is a saying that only a poor player does not move a chariot in the first three moves. It may not be a bad move to develop one horse to the edge of the board, for example, to avoid being blocked by one of one's own soldiers that cannot advance. Usually, at least one horse should be moved to the middle. 292 History Xiangqi has a long history. Its ancestor is believed to be the Indian chess game of Chaturanga,[7] though its precise origins have not yet been definitely confirmed; there are some indications that the game may have been played as early as the third century BC, during the Warring States Period. (See chess in early literature and timeline of chess.) Judging by its rules, Xiangqi was apparently closely related to military strategy in ancient China. The ancient Chinese game of Liubo may have had an influence as well. References to a game called Xiangqi date back to the Warring States Period; according to the first century BC text, Shuo yuan (說宛), it was one of Lord Mengchang of Qi's interests.[8] Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou once wrote a book Xiang Jing in AD 569. It is believed to have described the rules of an astronomically themed game called Xiangqi or Xiangxi (象戲). The word Xiàngqí 象棋 is usually translated as "elephant game" or "figure game", because the Chinese character 象 means "elephant" and "figure"; it originated as a stylized drawing of an elephant, and was used also to write a word meaning "figure", likely because the two words were pronounced the same. But the name can also be treated as meaning "constellation game", and sometimes the xiàngqí board's "river" is called the "heavenly river", which may mean the Milky Way. For these reasons, Harold James Ruthven Murray, author of A History of Chess, theorized that "in China it [Chess] took over the board and name of a game called 象棋 in the sense of "Constellation Game" (rendered by Murray as "Astronomical Game"), which represented the apparent movements of naked-eye-visible astronomical objects in the night sky, and that the earliest Chinese references to 象棋 meant the Astronomical Game and not Chinese chess". previous games called xiàngqí may have been based on the movements of sky objects. However, the connection between 象 and astronomy is marginal, and arose from constellations being called merely "figures" in astronomical contexts where other meanings of "figure" were less likely; this usage may have led some ancient Chinese authors to theorize that the game 象棋 started as a simulation of astronomy. To support his argument, Murray quoted an old Chinese source that says that in that older Xiangqi (which modern Xiangqi may have taken some of its rules from) the game-pieces could be shuffled, which does not happen in chess-type Xiangqi as known now.[9] Murray also wrote that in ancient China there was more than one game called Xiangqi.[10] An alternative hypothesis to Murray's is that Xiangqi was patterned after the array of troops in the Warring States era. David H. Li, for example, argues that the game was developed by Han Xin in the winter of 204 BC-203 BC to prepare for an upcoming battle.[11] His theories have been questioned by other chess researchers, however.[12] The earliest description of the game's rules appears in the story "Cen Shun" (岑順) in the collection Xuanguai lu (玄怪錄), written in the middle part of the Tang dynasty. Xiangqi 293 With the economic and cultural development during the Qing Dynasty, Xiangqi entered a new stage. Many different schools of circles and players came into prominence. With the popularization of Xiangqi, many books and manuals on the techniques of playing the game were published. They played an important role in popularizing Xiangqi and improving the techniques of play in modern times. A Western-style Encyclopedia of Chinese Chess Openings was not written until 2004. Xiangqi game pieces dated to the Song Dynasty (960–1279) Modern play Tournaments and leagues Although Xiangqi has its origin in Asia, there are Xiangqi leagues and clubs all over the world. Each European nation generally has its own governing league; for example, in Britain, Xiangqi is regulated by the United Kingdom Chinese Chess Association. Asian countries also have nationwide leagues, such as the Malaysia Chinese Chess Association in Malaysia. In addition, there are also several international federations and tournaments. For example, the Chinese Xiangqi Association hosts several tournaments every year, including the Yin Li and Ram Cup Tournaments.[13] Other organizations include the Asian Xiangqi Federation[14] and a World Xiangqi Federation,[15] which hosts tournaments and competitions bi-annually, though most are limited to players from member nations. Rankings The Asian Xiangqi Federation and its corresponding member associations also rank players in a number format similar to the rankings of chess. The best player in China, according to the 2006 Chinese National Ratings, was Xu Yinchuan with a rating of 2628.[16] Other strong players include Lu Qin and Hu Ronghua. The Asian Xiangqi Federation also bestows the title of grandmaster to select individuals around the world who have excelled at Xiangqi or have made special contributions to the game. Though there are no specific criteria for becoming a grandmaster, the list of grandmasters is limited to fewer than a hundred people.[17] Computers The game-tree complexity of Xiangqi is approximately 10150, so in 2004 it was projected that a human top player will be defeated before 2010.[18] And in the Computer-Human Xiangqi Dual Meet in 2006, the final score was Computer 5.5 – Human 4.5 Xiangqi is one of the more popular competitions at the annual Computer Olympiad. Computer programs for playing Xiangqi show the same development trend as has occurred for international Chess: they are usually console applications (called engines) which communicate their moves in text form through some standard protocol. For displaying the board graphically, they then rely on a separate Graphical User Interface. Through such standardization, many different engines can be used through the same GUI, and the GUI can also be used for automated play of different engines against each other. Popular protocols are UCI (Universal Chess Interface), UCCI (Universal Chinese Chess Interface), Qianhong (QH) protocol, and WinBoard/XBoard (WB) protocol (the latter two named after the GUIs that implemented them). There now exist many dozens of Xiangqi engines supporting one or more of these protocols, including some commercial engines. Computer Xiangqi Programs Chinese Chess Soul [19] Xiangqi NEU Chess [20] XieXie [21] XQ Master [22] Hidden Lynx [23] HOXChess [24] Xiangqi Graphical User Interfaces Qianhong Xiangqi [25] (QH, and UCCI through adapter) WinBoard / XBoard [26] (WB, and QH, UCI, UCCI through adapters) XQ Wizzard [27] (UCCI, and QH through adapter) Computer Xiangqi Website With many engine downloads [28] (Chinese site, but worth the effort of translation!) Computer Xiangqi Servers Vietson [29] ThaiGB [30] Ajax Chinese Chess [31] Club Xiangqi [32] PlayXiangqi [33] 294 Variations Using a standard Xiangqi board and pieces Blitz Chess Each player only has around 5–10 minutes each (depending on rules), leading to a fast-paced game with little or no room for thought, and moves have to be made by instinct. Supply Chess Similar to the Western chess variant, Bughouse Chess, this variant features the ability to re-deploy captured pieces, similar to a rule in Shogi, Four players play two games side-by-side with a team of two playing against another team. One teammate plays black and other plays red. Any piece obtained by capturing the opponent's piece is given to the teammate for use in the other game. These pieces can be deployed by the teammate to give him an advantage over the other player, so long as the piece starts on the player's own side of the board and does not cause the opponent to be in check. Formation One player's pieces are jumbled up, then placed randomly on one side of the river, except for the generals and advisors which must be at their usual positions in normal Xiangqi, and elephants must start at two of the seven points that they could reach from their usual positions. The other player's pieces are set up to mirror the first's. All other rules are the same as in Xiangqi. Blind Chess More well known in Hong Kong than in mainland China, this game uses Xiangqi's pieces and board, but does not follow any of its rules, bearing more of a resemblance to the western game Stratego as well as the Chinese gameLuzhanqi. The game is played on only half the Xianqi board, turned sideways to allow nine rows and five columns. Players flip their pieces so that the characters are concealed from their opponent, and then arrange them on their respective ends of the board. At each turn, a player can do one of three things: They may choose to uncover a concealed piece, move one of their own pieces to an empty square (pieces can only move to an Xiangqi adjacent square and not diagonally regardless of its movement style in original Xiangqi), or they may choose to capture one of their opponents pieces. There are limitations for the last option however: Each piece has a "rank" that enables it to capture pieces beneath its rank when an enemy piece is directly next to it. In the Taiwanese version, the rank of pieces (from highest to lowest) is: 1. General. 2. Advisor. 3. Elephant. 4. Chariot. 5. Horse. 6. Cannon. 7. Soldier. In Hong Kong, the rank is: 1. General. 2. Chariot. 3. Horse. 4. Cannon. 5. Elephant. 6. Advisor. 7. Soldier. In either version the Soldier is the lowest rank, but also important as it is the only piece that can capture the enemy General. A special rule enables the cannon to capture the same way as it does in Xiangqi by jumping over exactly one piece (whether friend or foe) landing on its target. Because of this rule, although by rank the cannon is higher than soldier, it cannot capture a soldier even when the soldier is placed directly next to it. The game continues until one of the players has lost all of his pieces. Blind chess is mostly a game of luck as the player cannot choose where his pieces are set up; he can only increase his chances by moving pieces and uncovering appropriately, calculating the odds that the uncovered piece next to them can be friend or foe, superior or inferior. T Using a special board and/or pieces There are many versions of three-player Xiangqi, or "San Xiangqui" (Three Elephants Game), all played on special boards: San Guo Qi "The Game of Three Kingdoms" is played on a special hexagonal board with three armies (red, blue and green) of Xiangqi pieces vying for dominance. A Y-shaped river trisects the board into three gem-shaped territories, each containing the grid found on one side of a Xiangqi board, but distorted to make the game playable by three people. Each player has 18 pieces: the classical 16 of regular Xiangqi and 2 new ones which stand on the same file as the Cannons. The new pieces have different names depending on their side: Fire (Huo), for red, Flag (Qi) for blue, Wind (Feng) for green, and they move two spaces orthogonally, and then one diagonally. The Generals each bear the name of the historical Chinese kingdoms—Shu for red, Wei for blue, Wu for green—from China's Three Kingdoms Period.[34] It is likely that San Guo Qi first appeared under the Southern Song Dynasty (960–1279).[35] San You Qi "Three Friends Chess" was invented by Zheng Jinde from Shexian in Anhui province during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor of Qing Dynasty (1661–1722). It is played on a Y-shaped board with a full army of Ziangqi pieces set up at the end of each of the board's three wide radii. In the center of the board sits a triangular zone with certain features (ocean, mountain, city walls) each of which are impassible by certain pieces. Two of an army's five Soldiers are replaced by new pieces called "Fires", which move one diagonal space forward. On the front corners of the palace are positioned two "Flag" pieces, which move two spaces forward inside their own camp, and then one space in any direction inside an enemy camp.[35] 'Sanrenqi:"Three Men Chess" is a riverless commercial variant played on a cross-shaped board with some special rules, including a fourth, neutral country called Han. Han has three Chariots, one Cannon, and one General named "Emperor Xian of Han," but these pieces do not move and do not belong to any of the three players until a certain point in the game when two player team up against the third player, who also gets to control Han (similar to player playing their own hand, plus that of a dummy in Bridge.[35] Si Guo Qi "Four Kingdoms Chess" is also played on a riverless, cross-shaped board, but with four players. Because there are no rivers, elephants may move about the board freely.[35] 295 Xiangqi 296 References [1] [2] [3] [4] Xiangqi: Chinese Chess (http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ xiangqi. html) at chessvariants.com Chinese Chess Rules (http:/ / www. clubxiangqi. com/ rules/ ) at clubxiangqi.com Asian Chinese Chess Rules (http:/ / www. clubxiangqi. com/ rules/ asiarule. htm) at clubxiangqi.com A History of Chess, p.120, footnote 3 says that Ssŭ-ma Kuang wrote in T'ung-kien nun in AD 1084 that Emperor Wen of Sui (541–604) found at an inn some foreigners playing a board game whose pieces included a piece called "I pai ti" = "white emperor"; in anger at this misuse of his title he had everybody at the inn put to death. [5] Leventhal, Dennis A. The Chess of China. Taipei, Taiwan: Mei Ya, 1978. ( getCITED.org listing (http:/ / www. getcited. org/ pub/ 101996662)) [6] Wilkes, Charles Fred. A Manual of Chinese Chess. 1952. [7] Henry Davidson, A Short History of Chess, p. 6 [8] "Facts on the Origin of Chinese Chess" (http:/ / www. banaschak. net/ schach/ origins. htm). Banaschak.net. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [9] A History of Chess, p.122, footnote 12: "In the biography of Lü-Ts'ai. The Emperor T'ai-Tsung (627–650) was puzzled by the phrase 太子洗馬 t'ai-tze-si-ma ('the crown-prince washes the horses') in the 周武帝三局象經 Zhou Wudi sanju xiangjing ('Zhou Wudi's three games in the Xiangjing'): 'to wash the dominoes' means 'to shuffle them' in modern Chinese; ma or 'horse' is used for the pieces in a game. The phrase probably meant 'the crown-prince shuffles the men'). He consulted Yün-Kung, who had known the phrase as a young man but had forgotten it, and then Lü-Ts'ai. The latter, after a night's consideration, explained the point, and recovered the method of play of the astronomical game and the actual position." [10] A History of Chess, p.122: The 32nd book of the history of the T'ang dynasty (618–907) said that Wu-Ti wrote and expounded a book named San-kü-siang-king (Manual of the three xiangqi's). [11] This theory is propounded in The Genealogy of Chess [12] "A story well told is not necessarily true – being a critical assessment of David H. Li's "The Genealogy of Chess", by Peter Banaschak (http:/ / www. banaschak. net/ schach/ ligenealogyofchess. htm). Banaschak.net. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [13] From FAQ #21: “What are some of the top tournaments in the world?” (http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ chinfaq. html#question20), rec.games.chinese-chess, chessvariants.com [14] Asian Xiangqi Federation (http:/ / www. asianxiangqi. org/ ) homepage includes English translations of Asian tournament results, rules, etc. [15] World Xiangqi Federation (http:/ / www. wxf. org/ ). Wxf.org. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [16] 职业棋手等级分-象棋资料-象棋网 (http:/ / chess. ourgame. com/ info/ info. asp) [17] rec.games.chinese-chess FAQ lists the International Grandmasters by country (http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ chinfaq. html). [18] Yen, Chen, Yang, Hsu, 2004, Computer Chinese Chess (http:/ / www. csie. ndhu. edu. tw/ ~sjyen/ Papers/ 2004CCC. pdf). [19] Chinese Chess Soul (http:/ / www. chesssoul. com) Chinese Chess Computer Software [20] NEU Chess (http:/ / www. neuchess. com/ ). NEU Chess. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [21] XieXie (http:/ / www. cc-xiexie. com/ ). Cc-xiexie.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [22] XQ Master (http:/ / www. xqmaster. com/ ) [23] Hidden Lynx – A free Chinese Chess program for Windows (http:/ / mayoneez. 1g. fi/ hiddenlynx/ ) [24] HOXChess – A cross platform, open source Xiangqi program (http:/ / hoxchess. googlecode. com/ ). Hoxchess.googlecode.com (2010-03-25). Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [25] Qianhong Xiangqi (http:/ / www. jcraner. com/ qianhong/ ). Jcraner.com (2009-04-01). Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [26] WinBoard Xiangqi (http:/ / home. hccnet. nl/ h. g. muller/ XQ. html). Home.hccnet.nl. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [27] Xiangqi Wizard. Sourceforge.net. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [28] 象棋巫师 – 最受欢迎的中国象棋单机版游戏 – 象棋百科全书 (http:/ / www. xqbase. com). Xqbase.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [29] Vietson Online Chinese Chess (http:/ / www. vietson. com/ ). Vietson.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [30] ThaiGB – An Internet Chinese Chess server in Thai (http:/ / www. thaibg. com/ CCOnline/ ). Thaibg.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [31] Ajax Chinese Chess – Play Chinese Chess online! (http:/ / ajaxchess. pragmaticlogic. com/ ). Ajaxchess.pragmaticlogic.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [32] Club Xiangqi – A Chinese Chess server with English/Vietnamese/Chinese interface (http:/ / www. clubxiangqi. com/ ). Clubxiangqi.com (2007-12-22). Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [33] PlayXiangqi – A Xiangqi server with Open Source client and Open Server API (http:/ / www. playxiangqi. com/ ). Playxiangqi.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [34] "The Chess Variants Pages" (http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ xiangqivariants. dir/ chin3pl. html). The Game of the Three Kingdoms. . Retrieved 31 August 2011. [35] "Sanguo Qi (Three Kingdoms Chess) & Sanyou Qi (Three Friends Chess)" (http:/ / history. chess. free. fr/ sanguoqi. htm). Another view on Chess: Odyssey of Chess. . Retrieved 31 August 2011. Xiangqi 297 Further reading • Lau, H. T. Chinese Chess. Tuttle Publishing, Boston, 1985. ISBN 0-8048-3508-X. • Leventhal, Dennis A. The Chess of China (http://www.banaschak.net/index.html). Taipei, Taiwan: Mei Ya, 1978. (out-of-print but can be partly downloaded) • Li, David H. First Syllabus on Xiangqi: Chinese Chess 1. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 1996. ISBN 0-9637852-5-7. • Li, David H. The Genealogy of Chess. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 1998. ISBN 0-9637852-2-2. • Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Cannon: Chinese Chess 2. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 1998. ISBN 0-9637852-7-3. • Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Elephant: Chinese Chess 3. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 2000. ISBN 0-9637852-0-6. • Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Pawn: Chinese Chess 4. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 2002. ISBN 0-9711690-1-2. • Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Horse: Chinese Chess 5. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 2004. ISBN 0-9711690-2-0. • Sloan, Sam. Chinese Chess for Beginners. Ishi Press International, San Rafael, Tokyo, 1989. ISBN 0-923891-11-0. • Wilkes, Charles Fred. A Manual of Chinese Chess. 1952. • Lo, Andrew; Wang, Tzi-Cheng. "'The Earthworms Tame the Dragon': The Game of Xiangqi" in Asian Games, The Art of Contest, edited by Asia Society, 2004. (a serious and updated reading about Xiangqi history) External links Learn • • • • • Rules, openings, strategy, ancient manuals (http://www.xqinenglish.com/) An Introduction to Xiangqi for Chess Players (http://www.crockford.com/chess/xiangqi.html) Presentation, rules, history and variants of xiangqi (http://history.chess.free.fr/xiangqi.htm) Xiangqi: Chinese Chess (http://www.chessvariants.com/xiangqi.html) at the Chess Variant Pages Apertures and strategy (https://sites.google.com/site/xiangqiesp/) In Spanish Play • • • • PlayOK -Play Xiangqi online, free! (http://www.playok.com/en/xiangqi/) XiangQi on ChessFreaks, play online or on your mobile (http://www.chessfreaks.com/en) Vietson Online Chinese Chess / Xiangqi – Play with friends from all over the world (http://www.vietson.com/) Play Xiangqi online against human or robot opponents, free! (http://www.boardspace.net/english/ about_xiangqi.html) • Club Xiangqi – Play Chinese Chess online with or without a user fee (http://www.clubxiangqi.com/) • PlayXiangqi – A free online service with Open Source client and Open Server API (http://www.playxiangqi. com) Software • Plays Xiangqi on your computer (http://www.jcraner.com/qianhong/) • Xiangqi (Chinese Chess) on Apple iPhone / iPod Touch (http://sites.google.com/a/clomputing.com/iphone/) Encyclopedia of Chinese Chess Openings 298 Encyclopedia of Chinese Chess Openings The Encyclopedia of Chinese Chess Openings (Chinese: 中国象棋开局编号) is a classification of all possible openings of Chinese chess (Xianqi), including rarely used openings. The editor of Encyclopedia of Chess Network included the first game of the 8197 Board as the basis, to draw up the ECCO code. ECCO characteristics of the times has numbers, due to the development of the game ECCO reference to the cut-off in 2004, the number of the system to be known as ECCO 2004. External links • http://www.elephantbase.net/ecco/ecco_intro.htm Banqi 299 Banqi Banqi Players Age range Setup time Playing time Random chance Skill(s) required 2 Any < 1 minute 5-15 minutes High Tactics, Strategy Banqi (Chinese: 半棋, 暗棋 or 盲棋; Pinyin: bànqí, ànqí or mángqí; ), or Half Chess, is a two-player Chinese board game played on a 4x8 grid, or half of the Xiangqi (Chinese Chess) board. Most games last between ten and twenty minutes, but advanced games can go on for an hour or more. Banqi is a social game, usually played for fun rather than serious competition. A more formal version of the game may have evolved into modern Luzhanqi. Equipment Board Although boards made specifically for Banqi exist, it is common to play on one half of the Xiangqi board (using only one side of the River). Pieces Banqi uses Xiangqi pieces. The backs of the pieces must be indistinguishable from each other so the pieces cannot be Basic 4x8 Banqi board identified when face down. Pieces with international symbols printed on their backs are unsuitable. Each player controls five Soldiers, one General, and two each of the five other piece types, for a total of 16 pieces. In a typical set, one player’s pieces are red, and the other player’s pieces are black. The characters may also differ. For more detailed descriptions of the pieces used in this game, see the Xiangqi article. Banqi 300 Name of piece General, marshal, "king" 帥 shuai, 將 jiàng Number per side Notes Highest rank. Captures everything except soldiers.  × 1 Advisor, guard, minister*, assistant, mandarin, warrior 仕 shi, 士 shì Elephant, war elephant, minister* 相 xiàng, 象 xiàng Chariot, rook, cart 俥 jū, 車 jū Second-highest rank in Taiwanese version.  × 2  × 2 Second-highest rank in Hong Kong version.  × 2 Horse, cavalry 傌 mà, 馬 mǎ  × 2 Soldier, private, pawn 兵 bīng, 卒 zú Lowest rank, except able to capture the general.  × 5 Cannon, catapult 炮 pào, 砲 pào Abilities differ in Taiwanese variations.  × 2 Playing the game The 32 pieces are shuffled and randomly allocated face-down to squares on the board. The pieces, as in Western Chess, are placed inside the squares, rather than on the intersections as in Chinese Chess. The first player turns up a piece to begin the game. The color of that first uncovered piece is the color he or she will play in the game. The second player then makes a move, and the two alternate until the game is finished. The game ends when a player cannot move, and that player is the loser. Most often, the game is lost because all of a player’s pieces have been captured and so he has no pieces to move. However, it is possible for one player to surround all of the other player’s remaining pieces in a manner that makes it impossible for them to move. Rules for moves There are three kinds of moves. A player may turn a piece face-up, move a piece, or capture an enemy piece. In some game variants, multiple captures may be made in one turn. Turning over a piece Turning a piece face-up is a legal move if there are any face-down pieces on the board. Once revealed, a piece may be moved, capture, or be captured. In some variants of Banqi, face-down pieces may also be captured. Moving a piece A player may only move face-up pieces of their own color. Unlike Xiangqi, all pieces move identically: a piece may move only one square up, down, left, or right. A piece may never move onto a square that is already occupied unless such a move is a legal capture. Banqi Note that all pieces capture the same way that they move, except the cannon in Taiwanese rules. 301 Capturing an opposing piece A player may only capture with a face-up piece of their own color, and may only capture a face-up piece of the opposing color. In all captures, the captured piece is removed from the board and its square is occupied by the capturing piece. The pieces are ranked, forming a hierarchy with the general at the top and soldiers at the bottom. Only pieces of equal or lower rank may be captured, with one exception. For instance, a chariot may capture a horse, and the general may capture either, but a horse cannot capture a chariot, and neither can capture the general. The one exception concerns generals and soldiers: the general cannot capture soldiers, and soldiers can capture the general. This reversal is reminiscent of Stratego. In the Hong Kong version, the pieces are ranked in this order: general, chariot, horse, cannon, elephant, advisor, soldier. This ranking reflects the approximate value of the corresponding pieces in Xiangqi (though the relative rank of horse and cannon is arguable). All pieces capture exactly as they move: one square up, down, left, or right. In the Taiwanese version, the ranking goes as follows: general, advisor, elephant, chariot, horse, soldier. This ranking is based on the initial board positions of the corresponding pieces in Xiangqi, though the horse and chariot are inexplicably swapped. Except for the cannon, pieces capture with the same motion as for movement: one square up, down, left, or right. The cannon is not included in the ranking because it is exceptional: it captures in an unusual way, it can capture a piece of any rank, and yet is vulnerable to capture by any piece except the soldier. A cannon captures as in Xiangqi: it moves any distance along a single row or column of the board, jumping over exactly one intermediate piece (called a screen). Any other squares between the cannon and its target must be empty. The color of the screening piece does not matter; it may be friend or foe, or even face down. While a cannon may capture any piece, it must jump a screen to do so. Since a cannon must jump to capture, it cannot capture a piece in an adjacent square. There are many other variations on the cannon capture rule that may add variety if desired: • One variation gives cannons the ability to capture soldiers and other cannons directly, without jumping over a screen. In other words, the cannon acts like the other pieces, ranking between horse and soldier, but with the added ability of capturing any piece by catapulting. • Another popular variation allows the attempted capture of a face-down piece, which if it can be captured is done so. If the piece cannot be captured due to its rank or color, then it is left face-up, and no movement takes place. • A popular variation with children, allows multiple captures on the same turn for already exposed pieces as well as face-down pieces as long as they are successful. • A variation that may change the strategy is that the cannon can not use a face down piece for a screen but can capture multiple pieces in a single turn. The cannon can not capture face down pieces in this variant. Stalemate A stalemate threat occurs when one player forces an endless cycle of moves. In a typical stalemate, the instigator repeatedly attacks, but cannot capture, an enemy piece. The legality of stalemating varies by culture: • Some players consider stalemate illegal. This is consistent with the rules of Chinese Chess, which require the instigator to cease the continual attack, else the victim wins. • Some players consider stalemate a legal strategy. The ability to instigate a stalemate in an otherwise losing game is one of the ways that skill can overcome luck, since the victim must accept either a drawn game or the loss of a piece. Handling a stalemate situation requires skill for the winning player, as well — the necessity of heading off a potential stalemate adds spice to an otherwise overwhelming victory. And deciding whether you can still win, even without that piece, requires great expertise. Banqi Games in which stalemate is allowed tend to produce much more even games — many a lopsided game is turned into an interesting match by the surrender of a piece to avoid a stalemate. 302 Strategy • Early Action - Under Taiwanese rules, playing first is a slight disadvantage. If you turn up a cannon, the opponent can turn up next to it with a high likelihood of capturing the cannon and no risk of losing his piece to the cannon. If you turn up anything else, the opponent can turn over a piece one hop away. If he finds a cannon, it can take your piece, but no matter what it is, your piece can't immediately take his. By convention, the new challenger plays first to give the previous game’s loser a slight advantage. • Chance - It is difficult to form strategy early on, since all pieces are hidden. This is a disadvantage to experienced players, who cannot follow a formulaic win strategy. • Royalty - Incidentally, the life of the general is not the point of this game; the game does not end because of the general’s death. In fact, both generals usually die long before the end of the game. The game ends only when one player has no legal move. Banqi is often a game of attrition. • Soldiers - Since there are five opposing soldiers, the mighty general is perversely vulnerable, and frequently the general turns out to be worthless in the face of a soldier front. This vulnerability makes the second-highest rank, chariots in Hong Kong or advisors in Taiwan, the most powerful pieces in many games. • It is often advantageous to search out and destroy the enemy soldiers, which the opponent may overlook as less valuable pieces. Once the enemy soldiers are eliminated, the general can roam free across the field in relative safety, vulnerable only to attacks by cannons and the opposing general. • Cannons - Under Taiwanese rules, the cannon has devastating potential if it is well placed behind a shield of strong allied pieces. Given such position, a cannon can be stronger than either general or advisor, especially if the opposing general and/or advisors have limited lateral mobility—that is, if they can’t sidestep a cannon attack. On the other hand, the opponent has plenty of pieces that can capture the cannon if only they can get next to it, so a poorly placed Cannon is usually short-lived. Most players will readily sacrifice a horse, chariot, or elephant to capture a cannon. • Hidden Pieces - Play is often directed by the face-down pieces. Pieces are vulnerable in a dead-end “tunnel” (a sequence of empty squares one square wide, surrounded by face-down pieces), in which there is no escape from a pursuing enemy piece. • If there is enough space between you and the attacker, you will have time to turn up some face-down pieces before the attacker closes on you. If you get to an open area at least 2 x 2 in size, you can use that “rotation space” to dodge a single enemy piece by sidestepping. You can sometimes create a rotation space by turning up a smaller enemy piece on the inside corner of a bend in the tunnel, or you might be able to punch through a wall of the tunnel to reach an open area on the other side. • It is often important to keep track of what pieces are still face-down. Usually this is done by checking both the “graveyard” for dead pieces and the playing field for live pieces; by the process of elimination you can figure out what must still remain. • Resignation - A player may simply resign if the game seems lopsided. • Attrition - Exchanging equal pieces is usually to the advantage of the player who is ahead. When winning by a sufficient margin, even disadvantageous trades can accelerate victory if chosen carefully. • Objective - Often, the move that will win most quickly (or break an impending stalemate) gives away the most valuable piece. Such moves are often overlooked. • Evasion - Some players derive pleasure from making it as difficult as possible for the opponent to actually coerce the win. Others make a game of seeing how many opposing pieces they can capture before their demise. Some just resign when defeat becomes evident, and start a new game. Banqi • Parity - Parity is important, especially in the end game. In situations where only an opposing King and pawn are left with one space between, turn order invariably determines the winner. The pawn's move will produce a stalemate, while the King's move will result in his inevitable capture. • Pinning - It is fairly easy to pin a piece against the edge of the board. Frequently, being pinned or not is the difference between defeat and stalemate. 303 External links • Introduction to one variant of Banqi [1] Software • Banqi Blue for Android [2] • Chinese Dark Chess for Android [3] References [1] http:/ / woodpress. org/ banqi/ [2] https:/ / market. android. com/ details?id=com. mct. banqiblue2011 [3] https:/ / market. android. com/ details?id=com. xidea. ChineseDarkChess& hl=en Giog Giog is a game played by two to four players. It can either be played for fun or as a serious competition. It contains a considerable amount of luck, strategic and psychological elements. Giog Players Age range Setup time Playing time 2 to 4 Any < 1 minute 5-10 minutes Random chance Medium Skill(s) required Tactics, Psychology Equipment Like Banqi, Giog uses Xiangqi Pieces. For Giog, it is important that the backs as well as the rims of the pieces be indistinguishable from each other so the pieces cannot be identified when face down. There are seven piece types in the game: Pawns, Cannons, Horses (or Knights), Chariots (or Rooks), Advisors (or Elephants), Guards, Generals (or Kings), respectively shown in the figure below. There are altogether 32 pieces and 2 colors. Let's say the colors are Red and Black. Giog 304 Set Up All players help to scramble the 32 pieces face down and distribute the pieces evenly to themselves. If the number of players is three, the winner of the previous game or a volunteer receives 12 pieces and the other two players receive 10 pieces each. Like a Mahjong game, each player arranges his/her pieces into one line with half of the pieces on top of the other half. Figure below shows how 3 players arrange their pieces. The Ranking of Pieces The ranking of pieces in Giog is identical to Banqi's ranking. That is, in ascending order: • Pawns < Cannons < Horses < Chariots < Advisors < Guards < Generals. The exceptions are: firstly, a black piece is always inferior than a red piece of the type. • Black < Red. For example, Red Horse wins Black Horse. And also, Pawns are inferior than Generals. Determining the Order of players Each of the players now reveals (turns up) any one lower piece not in his/her own profile. He/she then places the revealed piece face up on top of the other face down piece. The ranking of the 4 revealed pieces determines the order of the players who revealed them. Should there be a tie among some players, they apply the same procedures again by revealing more lower pieces until the order is finally determined. Choosing and collecting pieces The first player (who revealed or subsequently revealed the strongest piece in the previous process) starts to choose his pieces. He/she may only choose his pieces starting from a left or right head duo in any player's profile. He/she therefore has as many choices as twice the number of players. Following the first player, the second, third and fourth players consecutively collect their pieces, two at one time. The process is repeated until no piece (4-player game), 2 pieces (3-player game), 8 pieces (2-player game) are remained. These pieces are kept face down at a side and do not enter the game. Figure below shows John, having revealed a Black general starts to collect his first two pieces from no. 1 position. Kate who reveals a Red Guard collects the no. 2 duo. John misses the Black General but is consoled by the Red Guard at no. 7. Playing the game The first player plays his pieces first. He/she or any player who starts a new round may play the following 6 valid combinations of a same color: • "Liab": Single. Any piece. • "Dui": Double. Any 2 identical pieces. • "Giog": A triple of a certain combination: • 1 Chariot + 1 Horse + 1 Cannon • 1 Cannon + 1 Advisor + 1 Guard • 1 General + 1 Guard + 1 Advisor • "Sam Mui": 3 identical pieces. • "Si Mui": 4 identical pieces. • "Wu Mui": 5 identical pieces. Each of the other players must play the same number of pieces. A player may play any pieces regardless of color or rank if he/she does not have the above valid combinations. The ranking of "Liab" is as before. Bear in mind that Giog Black < Red. The ranking of "Dui" is same as the ranking of "Liab". The ranking of "Giog" is as follows: • Chariot, Horse, Cannon < Cannon, Advisor, Guard < General, Guard, Advisor. The ranking of "Sam Mui", "Si Mui" and "Wu Mui" are according to color, since only pawns are possible to form them. The player who played the strongest combinations of a same type (as what the round-starter played) wins that round. If there is a tie, the round-starter always wins, or the order of players determines the winner. For example, if the first and fourth player play the same combinations, first player wins unless fourth player is the round-starter. The winner of a round collects the won pieces and starts a new round. The game is played until all pieces are exhausted. The winner will go to the player who wins most pieces. 305 Beheading the Cock It is forbidden to play a General in the first or last round, either as a single piece or as part of a valid or non-valid combination. If a player is forced or tricked to play a general in the first or last round, then it is said that a cock is beheaded, and that player is considered the ultimate loser of the game even if he wins most pieces. 306 Shogi and variants Shogi Further information: Chess (disambiguation) Shogi A shogi game being played with a magnetic traveling set. Captured pieces in the tray (bottom-center) can be dropped on the board by the capturing player. Genre(s) Players Age range Setup time Playing time Random chance Skill(s) required Board game 2 5+ < 2 minutes 30 mins. to 2 hours (typically) None Tactics, Strategy Shogi (将棋 shōgi, generals' chess) (  /ˈʃoʊɡiː/), also known as Japanese chess, is a two-player board game in the same family as Western chess, chaturanga, and Chinese Xiangqi, and is the most popular of a family of chess variants native to Japan. Shōgi means general's (shō 将) boardgame (gi 棋). The earliest predecessor of the game, chaturanga, originated in India in the 6th century, and was brought to Japan sometime in the 10th to 12th centuries, where it spawned a number of variants. Shogi in its present form was played as early as the 16th century, while a direct ancestor without the "drop rule" was recorded from 1210 in a historical document Nichūreki, which is an edited copy of Shōchūreki and Kaichūreki from the late Heian period (ca. 1120). According to ChessVariants.com, "Perhaps the enduring popularity of Shogi can be attributed to its 'drop rule'; it was the first chess variant wherein captured pieces could be returned to the board to be used as one's own. David Pritchard credits the drop rule to the practice of 16th century mercenaries who switched loyalties when captured—no doubt as an alternative to execution."[1] Shogi 307 Game equipment Two players, Sente 先手 (Black) and Gote 後手 (White), play on a board composed of rectangles in a grid of 9 ranks (rows) by 9 files (columns). The rectangles are undifferentiated by marking or color. The board is almost always made of rectangles; square boards are very uncommon. Each player has a set of 20 wedge-shaped pieces of slightly different sizes. Except for the kings, opposing pieces are differentiated only by orientation, not by marking or color. From largest to smallest (most to least powerful), the pieces are: • 1 king • 1 rook • 1 bishop • 2 gold generals • 2 silver generals • 2 knights • 2 lances • 9 pawns Several of these names were chosen to correspond to their rough equivalents in international chess, and not as literal translations of the Japanese names. Each piece has its name written on its surface in the form of two kanji (Chinese characters used in Japanese), usually in black ink. On the reverse side of each piece, other than the king and gold general, are one or two other characters, in amateur sets often in a different colour (usually red); this side is turned face up during play to indicate that the piece has been promoted. The pieces of the two players do not differ in colour, but instead each faces forward, toward the opposing side. This shows who controls the piece during play. It has been claimed that the Japanese characters have deterred people from learning shogi. This has led to "Westernized" or "international" pieces, which replace the characters with iconic symbols. However, partially because the traditional pieces are already iconic by size, with more powerful pieces being larger, most Western players soon learn to recognize them, and Westernized pieces have never become popular. Following is a table of the pieces with their Japanese representations and English equivalents. The abbreviations are used for game notation and often to refer to the pieces in speech in Japanese. A traditional shōgi-ban (shogi board) displaying a set of koma (pieces). The pieces on the far side are turned to show their promoted values. The stands on either side are komadai used to hold captured pieces. The board itself is raised for the comfort of players seated on tatami mats (background), and is hollowed underneath to produce a pleasing sound when the pieces are moved. Shogi 308 Closeup of shogi pieces. Top: +R, R, K (reigning), K (challenging), B, +B. Bottom: +L, L, +S, S, G, N, +N, p, +p. English name King (reigning) King (challenging) Rook Image Kanji 王將 Rōmaji ōshō Meaning king general K Abbreviations 王 ō 玉將 gyokushō jeweled general K 玉 gyoku 飛車 hisha flying chariot R 飛 hi Promoted rook ("Dragon") Bishop 龍王 ryūō dragon king +R 龍 or 竜* ryū 角行 kakugyō angle mover B 角 kaku Promoted bishop ("Horse") Gold general ("Gold") Silver general ("Silver") Promoted silver 龍馬 ryūma or ryūme dragon horse +B 馬 uma 金将 kinshō gold general G 金 kin 銀将 ginshō silver general S 銀 gin 成銀 narigin promoted silver +S (全) — Knight 桂馬 keima cassia horse N 桂 kei Promoted knight 成桂 narikei promoted cassia +N (圭 or 今) — Lance 香車 kyōsha incense chariot L 香 kyō Promoted lance 成香 narikyō promoted incense +L (杏 or 仝) — Pawn 歩兵 fuhyō foot soldier p 歩 fu Promoted pawn ("tokin") と金 tokin reaches gold +p と (or 个) to Shogi 309 * The kanji 竜 is a simplified form of 龍. English speakers sometimes refer to promoted bishops as horses and promoted rooks as dragons, after their Japanese names, and generally use the Japanese term tokin for promoted pawns. Silver generals and gold generals are commonly referred to simply as silvers and golds. The characters inscribed on the reverse sides of the pieces to indicate promoted rank may be in red ink, and are usually cursive. The characters on the backs of the pieces that promote to gold generals are cursive variants of 金 'gold', becoming more cursive (more abbreviated) as the value of the original piece decreases. These cursive forms have these equivalents in print: 全 for promoted silver, 今 for promoted knight, 仝 for promoted lance, and 个 for promoted pawn (tokin). Another typographic convention has abbreviated versions of the unpromoted ranks, with a reduced number of strokes: 圭 for a promoted knight (桂), 杏 for a promoted lance (香), and the 全 as above for a promoted silver, but と for tokin. Setup and gameplay Each player sets up his pieces facing his opponent. • In the rank nearest the player he places: • • • • • The king is placed in the center file. The two gold generals are placed in the adjacent files to the king. The two silver generals are placed adjacent to each gold general. The two knights are placed adjacent to each silver general. The two lances are placed in the corners, adjacent to each knight. That is, the first rank is The starting setup of a game of shogi. L N S G K G S N L or 香 桂 銀 金 玉 金 銀 桂 香 • In the second rank, each player places: • The bishop in the same file as the left knight. • The rook in the same file as the right knight. • In the third rank, the nine pawns are placed one to each file. Traditionally, even the order of placing the pieces on the board is determined. There are two recognized orders, ohashi and ito.[2] Placement sets pieces with multiples (generals, knights, lances, pawns) from left to right in all cases, and follows the order: • • • • King Gold generals Silver generals Knights Shogi • In Ito, the player now places pawns • Lances • Bishop • Rook • In Ohashi, the player now places pawns The players alternate taking turns, with one player taking Black and playing first. The terms "Black" and "White" are used to differentiate the two sides, but there is no actual difference in the color of the pieces. For each turn a player may either move a piece which is already on the board (and potentially promote it, capture an opposing piece, or both) or else "drop" a piece that has already been captured onto an empty square of the board. These options are detailed below. Professional games are timed as in International Chess, but professionals are never expected to keep time in their games. Instead a timekeeper is assigned, typically an apprentice professional. Time limits are much longer than in International Chess (9 hours a side plus extra time in the prestigious Meijin title match), and in addition byōyomi (literally "second counting") is employed. This means that when the ordinary time has run out, the player will from that point on have a certain amount of time to complete every move (a byōyomi period), typically upwards of one minute. The final ten seconds are counted down, and if the time expires the player to move loses the game immediately. Amateurs often play with electronic clocks that beep out the final ten seconds of a byōyomi period, with a prolonged beep for the last five. 310 Movement and capture Most shogi pieces can only move to an adjacent square. A few may move across the board, and one jumps over intervening pieces. Every piece blocks the movement of all other non-jumping pieces through the square it occupies. However, if a piece occupies a legal destination for an opposing piece, it may be captured by removing it from the board and replacing it with the opposing piece. It is not possible for the capturing piece to continue beyond that square on that turn. It is common to keep captured pieces on a wooden stand (or komadai) which is traditionally placed so that its bottom left corner aligns with the bottom right corner of the board from the perspective of each player. It is not permissible to hide pieces from full view. This is because captured pieces, which are said to be in hand, have a crucial impact on the course of the game. The knight jumps, that is, it passes over any intervening piece, whether friend or foe, without an effect on either. It is the only piece to do this. The lance, bishop, and rook are ranging pieces: They can move any number of squares along a straight line limited only by intervening pieces and the edge of the board. If an opposing piece intervenes, it may be captured by removing it from the board and replacing it with the moving piece. If a friendly piece intervenes, the moving piece must stop short of that square; if the friendly piece is adjacent, the moving piece may not move in that direction at all. All pieces but the knight move either horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. These directions cannot be combined into a single move; one direction must be chosen. Normally when a player moves a piece, he/she snaps it to the board with the ends of the fingers of the same hand. This makes a sudden sound effect, bringing the opponent to the attention of the piece. This is also true for capturing and dropping pieces. On a traditional shogi ban, the pitch of the snap is deeper, delivering a more subtle effect. Shogi 311 King A King can move one square in any direction, orthogonal or diagonal. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 玉 ○ ○ The king Rook A rook can move any number of free squares along any one of the four orthogonal directions. │ │ ─ ─ 飛 | | The rook ─ ─ Bishop A bishop can move any number of free squares along any one of the four diagonal directions. \ \ 角 / / The bishop / / \ \ Because they cannot move orthogonally, the opposing unpromoted bishops can only reach half the squares of the board, unless they are captured and then dropped by the opposing player. Shogi 312 Gold general A gold general can move one square orthogonally, or one square diagonally forward, giving it six possible destinations. It cannot move diagonally backward. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 金 ○ The gold general Silver general A silver general can move one square diagonally or one square directly forward, giving it five possibilities. ○ ○ 銀 ○ ○ ○ The silver general Because an unpromoted silver can retreat more easily than a promoted one (see below), it is very common to leave a silver unpromoted at the far side of the board. Knight A knight jumps at an angle intermediate between orthogonal and diagonal, amounting to one square forward plus one square diagonally forward, in a single motion. That is, it has a choice of two forward destinations. It cannot move to the sides or backwards. ☆ 桂 ☆ The knight The knight is the only piece that ignores intervening pieces on the way to its destination. It is not blocked from moving if the square in front of it is occupied, but neither can it capture a piece on that square. Shogi It is often useful to leave a knight unpromoted (see below) at the far side of the board. However, since a knight cannot move backward or to the sides, it must promote when it lands on one of the two far ranks and would otherwise be unable to move further. 313 Lance A lance can move any number of free squares directly forward. It cannot move backward or to the sides. │ │ 香 The lance It is often useful to leave a lance unpromoted (see below) at the far side of the board. However, since a lance cannot move backward or to the sides, it must promote if it arrives at the far rank. Pawn A pawn can move one square directly forward. It cannot retreat. ○ 歩 The pawn Since a pawn cannot move backward or to the sides, it must promote (see below) if it arrives at the far rank. However, in practice, a pawn is promoted whenever possible, for the most part. Unlike the pawns of international chess, shogi pawns capture the same way they otherwise move, directly forward. There are two restrictive rules for where a pawn may be dropped. (See below.) Promotion A player's promotion zone is the far third of the board, the three ranks occupied by the opposing pieces at setup. If a piece moves across the board and part of that path lies within the promotion zone, that is, if it moves into, out of, or wholly within the zone, but not if it is dropped(see below), then that player may choose to promote the piece at the end of the turn. Promotion is indicated by turning the piece over after it moves, revealing the character for the promoted rank. If a pawn or lance reaches the far rank or a knight reaches either of the two farthest ranks, it must promote, as it would otherwise have no legal move on subsequent turns. A silver general never needs to promote, and it is often advantageous to keep a silver general unpromoted; it is easier, for example, to extract an unpromoted silver from Shogi behind enemy lines, whereas a promoted silver, with only one line of retreat, can be easily blocked. 314 A player's promotion zone (green) 歩 歩 角 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 飛 歩 香 桂 銀 金 玉 金 銀 桂 香 When captured, pieces lose their promoted status. Otherwise promotion is permanent. Promoting a piece has the effect of changing how that piece moves. Each piece promotes as follows: • A silver general, knight, lance, or pawn replaces its normal power of movement with the power of a gold general. • A rook or bishop keeps its original power of movement and gains the power to move one square in any direction, like a king. This means that a promoted bishop is able to reach any square on the board, given enough moves. • A king or a gold general cannot promote, nor can pieces which are already promoted. Promoted rook A promoted rook (dragon king, Ryuou) may move as a rook or as a king, but not as both on the same turn. │ ○ ─ ─ ○ │ 龍 │ │ The dragon king ○ ─ ○ ─ Promoted bishop A promoted bishop ("dragon horse Ryuuma") may move as a bishop or as a king, but not as both on the same turn. \ \ ○ / ○ / ○ 馬 / / The dragon horse ○ \ \ Shogi 315 Drops Captured pieces are truly captured in shogi. They are retained "in hand", and can be brought back into play under the capturing player's control. On any turn, instead of moving a piece on the board, a player may take a piece that had been previously captured and place it, unpromoted side up, on any empty square, facing the opposing side. The piece is now part of the forces controlled by that player. This is termed dropping the piece, or just a drop. A drop cannot capture a piece, nor does dropping within the promotion zone result in immediate promotion. However, either capture or promotion may occur normally on subsequent moves by the piece. A pawn, knight, or lance may not be dropped on the far rank, since it would have no legal move on subsequent turns. Similarly, a knight may not be dropped on the penultimate rank. There are two other restrictions when dropping pawns: 1. A pawn cannot be dropped onto the same file (column) as another unpromoted pawn controlled by the same player (promoted pawns do not count). A player who has an unpromoted pawn on every file is therefore unable to drop a pawn anywhere. For this reason it is common to sacrifice a pawn in order to gain flexibility for drops. 2. A pawn cannot be dropped to give an immediate checkmate. However, other pieces may be dropped to give immediate checkmate, a pawn that is already on the board may be advanced to give checkmate, and a pawn may be dropped so that either it or another piece can give checkmate on a subsequent turn. It is common for players to swap bishops, which oppose each other across the board. This leaves each player with a bishop "in hand" to be dropped later, and gives an advantage to the player with the stronger defensive position. Checkmate and winning the game When a player makes a move such that the opposing king could be captured on the following turn, the move is said to give check to the king; the king is said to be in check. If a player's king is in check and no legal move by that player will get the king out of check (which is necessary whenever possible[3] ), the checking move is also checkmate (tsumi 詰み) and effectively wins the game. The losing player should resign out of courtesy at this point, although in practice this rarely happens, as a player will concede defeat as soon as loss is inevitable. To give the warning "check!" in Japanese, one says "ōte!" (王手). However, this is an influence of international chess and is not required, even as a courtesy. A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. In professional and serious amateur games, a player who makes an illegal move loses immediately. There are two other possible, if uncommon, ways for a game to end: repetition (千日手 sennichite) and impasse (持将棋 jishōgi). If the same game position occurs four times with the same player to play, the game is considered a draw. (This used to be that it happened if a sequence caused repetition thrice.)[4] For two positions to be considered the same, the pieces in hand must be the same as well as the positions on the board. However, if this occurs with one player giving perpetual check, then that player loses. The game reaches an impasse if both kings have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. If this happens, the winner is decided as follows: Each rook or bishop scores 5 points for the owning player, and all other pieces except kings score 1 point each. (Promotions are ignored for the purposes of scoring.) A player scoring fewer than 24 points loses. (If neither player has fewer than 24, the game is no contest—a draw.) Jishōgi is considered an outcome in its own right rather than no contest, but there is no practical difference. As this impasse generally needs to be agreed on for the rule to be invoked, a player may refuse to do so, on the grounds that he/she could gain further material or position before an outcome has to be decided. If that happens, one player may force jishōgi upon getting his king and all his pieces protected in the promotion zone.[5] Shogi In professional tournaments the rules typically require drawn games to be replayed with colours (sides) reversed, possibly with reduced time limits. This is rare compared to chess and xiangqi, occurring at a rate of 1-2% even in amateur games. The 1982 Meijin title match between Nakahara Makoto and Kato Hifumi was unusual in this regard, with jishōgi in the first game (only the fifth draw in the then 40-year history of the tournament), a game which lasted for an unusual 223 moves (not counting in pairs of moves), with an astounding 114 minutes spent pondering a single move, and sennichite in the sixth and eighth games. Thus this best-of-seven match lasted ten games and took over three months to finish; Black did not lose a single game and the eventual victor was Katō at 4-3. 316 Player ranking and handicaps Amateur players are ranked from 15 kyū to 1 kyū and then from 1 dan and upwards; this is the same terminology as many other arts in Japan. Professional players operate with their own scale, from professional 4 dan and upwards to 9 dan for elite players.[6] Amateur and professional ranks are offset (with amateur 4 dan being equivalent to professional 6 kyu).[7] Games between players of disparate strengths are often played with handicaps. In a handicap game, one or more of White's pieces are removed from the setup, and in exchange White plays first. Note that the missing pieces are not available for drops and play no further part in the game. The imbalance created by this method of handicapping is not as strong as it is in international chess because material advantage is not as powerful in shogi. Common handicaps, in increasing order of severity, include: • • • • • • • Left lance Bishop Rook Rook and left lance Two pieces: Rook and bishop Four pieces: Rook, bishop, and both lances Six pieces: Rook, bishop, both lances and both knights Other handicaps are also occasionally used. The relationship between handicaps and differences in rank is not universally agreed upon, with several systems in use. If a jishōgi occurs in a handicap game, the removed pieces are counted as if White had them in play, or available for drops.[8] Game notation The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess, but differs in several respects. It is not used in Japanese-language texts, as it is no more concise than kanji. A typical move might be notated P-8f. The first letter represents the piece moved: P for Pawn. (There is also L lance, N knight, S silver, G gold, B bishop, R rook, K king, as above.) Promoted pieces are indicated by a + in front of the letter: +P is a tokin (promoted pawn). Following the abbreviation for the piece is a symbol for the type of move: – for a simple move, x for a capture, or * for a drop. Next is the square on which the piece lands. This is indicated by a numeral for the file and a lowercase letter for the rank, with 1a being the top right corner (as seen by Black) and 9i being the bottom left corner. This is based on Japanese convention, which, however, uses Japanese numerals instead of letters. For example, square 2c is "2三" in Japanese. If a move entitles the player to promote, then a + is added to the end if the promotion was taken, or an = if it was declined. For example, Nx7c= indicates a knight capturing on 7c without promoting. Shogi In cases where the piece is ambiguous, the starting square is added to the letter for the piece. For example, at setup Black has two golds which can move to square 5h (in front of the king). These are distinguished as G6i-5h (from the left) and G4i-5h (from the right). Moves are numbered per player's move, unlike chess which counts each pair of moves as one move. For example, the start of a game might look like this: 1. 3. 5. 7. P-7f P-2f P-2e Sx8h 2. 4. 6. 8. P-3d G-3b Bx8h+ S-2b 317 In handicap games White plays first, so Black's move 1 is replaced by an ellipsis. Strategy and tactics Shogi is similar to chess but has a much larger game tree complexity because of the use of drops.[9] However, like chess, the game can be divided into the opening, middle game and endgame, each requiring a different strategy. The opening consists of arranging one's defenses and positioning for attack, the mid game consists of attempting to break through the opposing defenses while maintaining one's own, and the end game starts when one side's defenses have been compromised. History "The world's first chess variant Chaturanga arose in India in approximately the seventh century AD. From there it migrated both westward and northward, mutating along the way."[1] "The western branch became Shatranj in Arabia and Orthodox Chess in Europe. The northern branch became Xiangqi in China and Changgi in Korea."[1] "Sometime in the 10th to 12th centuries, 'chess' crossed the channel to Japan where it spawned a number of interesting variants."[1] "One of these was called 'Small Shogi'."[1] "Eventually, Small Shogi (though it went through many forms) won out over the larger variants and is now referred to simply as 'Shogi'."[1] "It is certain that Shogi in its present form was played in Japan as early as the 16th century."[1] It is not clear when chess was brought to Japan. The earliest generally accepted mention of shogi is Shin Saru Gakuki (新猿楽記) (1058–1064) by Fujiwara Akihira. The oldest archaeological evidence is a group of 16 shogi pieces excavated from the grounds of Kōfuku-ji in Nara Prefecture. As it was physically associated with a wooden tablet written on in the sixth year of Tenki (1058), the pieces are thought to date from that period. These simple pieces were cut from a writing plaque in the same five-sided shape as modern pieces, with the names of the pieces written on them. The dictionary of common folk culture, Nichūreki (二中歴) (ca. 1210–1221), a collection based on the two works Shōchūreki (掌中歴) and Kaichūreki (懐中歴), describes two forms of shogi, large (dai) shogi and small (shō) shogi. These are now called Heian shogi (or Heian small shogi) and Heian dai shogi. Heian small shogi is the version on which modern shogi is based, but the Nichūreki states that one wins if one's opponent is reduced to a single king, indicating that drops had not yet been introduced. According to Kōji Shimizu, chief researcher at the Archaeological Institute of Kashihara, Nara Prefecture, the names of the Heian shogi pieces keep those of chaturanga (general, elephant, horse, chariot and soldier), and add to them the five treasures of Buddhism (jade, gold, silver, katsura tree, and incense). Around the 13th century the game of dai shogi developed, created by increasing the number of pieces in Heian shogi, as was sho shogi, which added the rook, bishop, and drunken elephant from dai shogi to Heian shogi. Around the 15th century, the rules of dai shogi were simplified, creating the game of chu shogi in a form close to the modern game. It is thought that the rules of standard shogi were fixed in the 16th century, when the drunken elephant was Shogi removed from the set of pieces. However, there is no clear record of when drops were introduced. In the Edo period, shogi variants were greatly expanded: tenjiku shogi, dai dai shogi, maka dai dai shogi, tai shogi, and taikyoku shogi were all invented. However, it is thought that these were only played to a very limited extent. Both standard shogi and go were promoted by the Tokugawa shogunate. In 1612, the shogunate passed a law giving endowments to top shogi players (Meijin (名人)). During the reign of the eighth shogun, Tokugawa Yoshimune, castle shogi tournaments were held once a year on the 17th day of Kannazuki, corresponding to November 17, which is Shogi Day on the modern calendar. The title of meijin became hereditary in the Ōhashi and Itō families until the fall of the shogunate, when it came to be passed by recommendation. Today the title is used for the winner of the Meijin-sen competition, the first modern title match. From around 1899, newspapers began to publish records of shogi matches, and high-ranking players formed alliances with the aim of having their games published. In 1909, the Shogi Association (将棋同盟社) was formed, and in 1924, the Tokyo Shogi Association (東京将棋同盟社) was formed. This was an early incarnation of the modern Japan Shogi Association (日本将棋連盟), founded in 1997. In 1935, meijin Sekine Kinjirō stepped down, and the rank of meijin came to be awarded to the winner of a Meijin title match (名人戦 meijin-sen). Yoshio Kimura (木村義雄) became the first Meijin under this system in 1937. This was the start of the shogi title matches (see titleholder system). After the war other tournaments were promoted to title matches, culminating with the Ryūō title match (竜王戦 ryūō-sen) in 1988 for the modern line-up of seven. About 200 professional shogi players compete. Each year, the title holder defends the title against a challenger chosen from knockout or round matches. The closest cousin of Shogi in the Chaturanga family is Makruk of Thailand. Not only the similarity in distribution and movements of the pieces but also the names of Shogi pieces suggest intimacy between Shogi and Makruk by its Buddhist symbolism (Gold, Silver, Cassia and Incense), which isn't recognised in Chinese chess at all. In fact, Chinese chess and its East Asian variants are far remoter relatives than Makruk. Though some early variants of Chaturanga more similar to Shogi and Makruk are known to have been played in Tang Dynasty China, they are thought to have been extinguished in Song Dynasty China and in East Asia except in Japan probably owing to the popularity of Chinese chess. 318 Tournament Play In 1996, Yoshiharu Habu won all seven titles; in 2008 he held four. In 2006, the Shogi Association admitted women to the ranks of professionals (正棋士). Since the 1990s, shogi has grown in popularity outside Japan, particularly in the People's Republic of China, and especially Shanghai. The January 2006 edition of Kindai Shogi (近代将棋) states that there are 120,000 shogi players in Shanghai. The game has been relatively slow to spread to countries where Chinese characters are not in common use. Computer shogi Shogi has the highest game complexity of all popular chess variants. Therefore, Shogi is the hardest of the popular chess variants in terms of programming the computer to beat the highest rated player. Computers have steadily improved in playing shogi since the 1970s. In 2007, champion Yoshiharu Habu estimated the strength of the 2006 world computer shogi champion Bonanza at the level of 2-dan shoreikai. Tools used by shogi programmers are the GUI Shogidokoro, shogi server Floodgate and the annual computer tournaments. The Japan Shogi Association prohibits professionals from playing computers in public without prior permission. After some 35 years of development, a computer finally beat a professional player on October 12, 2010, when the top ranked female champion Ichiyo Shimizu was beaten by the Akara2010 system in a game lasting just over 6 hours.[10] Highest rated player on Shogi Club 24 is computer program Ponanza, rated 3211.[11] On July 24 2011, computer Shogi programs Shogi Bonanza and Akara crushed the amateur team of Kosaku and Shinoda in 2 games. The allotted time for the amateurs was 1 hour and then 3 minutes per move. The allotted time for the computer was 25 minutes and then 10 seconds per move.[12] 319 Shogi video games Hundreds of video games were released exclusively in Japan for several consoles. Notes [1] ChessVariants.com (http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ shogi. html) [2] The Japanese-language page Shogi Pineapple (http:/ / shogi-pineapple. com/ bbs/ mibbs. cgi?mo=p& fo=beginner& tn=0006) indicates the two orders; ohashi is depicted on the left and ito on the right. See also the page from Lucky Dogs Games (http:/ / www. luckydog. pwp. blueyonder. co. uk/ games/ shogi/ index. htm) [3] http:/ / lists. topica. com/ lists/ shogi/ read/ message. html?sort=a& mid=812767402 [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] YouTube - How to play Shogi(将棋) -Lesson#15- Repetition("Sen-nichi-te") (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=7SZpI_a4aC0) http:/ / www. shogi. net/ arc/ shogi-l/ shogi_rules. txt http:/ / www. shogi. net/ arc/ shogi-l/ shogi_ranking. txt Title offset illustration (http:/ / web-japan. org/ kidsweb/ archives/ news/ 04-12/ image/ kyudan. gif) - The Basic Rules, par. 2 (http:/ / eric. macshogi. com/ shogi/ handicap/ handicap-intro. html) [9] Hitoshi Matsubara, Reijer Grimbergen. "Differences between Shogi and western Chess from a computational point of view". Proceedings: Board Games in Academia. [10] http:/ / search. japantimes. co. jp/ cgi-bin/ nn20101012x3. html [11] "Computer program Ponanza highest rated player on Shogi Club 24" (http:/ / www. shogidojo. com) (in Japanese). Shogi Club 24. . [12] "Shogi computer programs crush Amateurs" (http:/ / www. asahi. com/ shougi/ topics/ TKY201108020334. html) (in Japanese). The Asahi Shimbun. 2 August 2011. . References Bibliography • SHOGI Magazine (70 issues, January 1976 - November 1987) by The Shogi Association (edited by George Hodges) • Shogi for Beginners (1984) by John Fairbairn • Guide to Shogi openings: Shogi problems in Japanese and English (1983) by Aono Teruichi, translated by John Fairbairn • Better Moves for Better Shogi (1983) by Aono Teruichi, translated by John Fairbairn ISBN 4-87187-999-2 • The Art of Shogi (1997) by Tony Hosking • Habu's Words (2000) by Habu Yoshiharu, translated by Takahashi Yamato and Tony Hosking • Classic Shogi (2006) by Tony Hosking • The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants (1994) by David Pritchard, ISBN 0-9524142-0-1 Shogi 320 External links • Shogi (http://www.dmoz.org/Games/Board_Games/Abstract/Battle_Games/Shogi/) at the Open Directory Project • Shogi play site, with almost all Shogi variants available for online play (http://shogitter.com/) • Presentation, rules, history of shogi (http://history.chess.free.fr/shogi.htm) • Micro-Shogi (http://www.kolumbus.fi/geodun/shogi.htm) • Shogi.Net (http://www.shogi.net/shogi.html) • Reijer Grimbergen's Shogi Page (http://www.teu.ac.jp/gamelab/SHOGI/shogipage.html) • Ricoh Shogi Page (http://www.ricoh.co.jp/SHOGI/index_e.html) • An Introduction to Shogi for Chess Players (http://www.crockford.com/chess/shogi.html) • Photos from international shogi tournament Tendo, Japan 2008 (http://depositfiles.com/files/06htzgcug) • Turn Based Shogi on GoldToken (http://goldtoken.com/games/play?rules=Shogi) • Shogipedia (http://wiki.81squareuniverse.com/) • Japanese Chess (http://www.japanesechess.org/) Flash file with an AI to play against. Shogi strategy and tactics Shogi, or Japanese Chess, is similar to chess but has a much larger game tree complexity because of the use of drops.[1] However, like chess, the game can be divided into the opening, middle game and endgame, each requiring a different strategy. The opening consists of arranging one's defenses and positioning for attack, the mid game consists of attempting to break through the opposing defenses while maintaining one's own, and the end game starts when one side's defenses have been compromised. The basic tactics of Shogi are similar to those of chess, involving forks, pins, removing the defender and other techniques, all of which are considered very strong when used effectively. Opening The starting setup of a game of shogi The opening of shogi is generally slower than that of chess, due to the larger board and less mobile pieces. But since a quick offense will leave a player's home territory open to drop attacks as soon as pieces are exchanged, the aim of the opening is to build up defenses for the king, typically by moving the king to the side in a castle with three generals.[2] Leaving a king on its original square (居玉 igyoku or "sitting king") is a particularly dangerous position.[3] Both players can move the rook pawn forward, or, more commonly, advance the pawn above and to the right of the bishop. The former is known as a rook opening and the latter a bishop opening. With a bishop opening, it's common to exchange bishops by having one capture the other. This allows each player to put their newly captured bishop into play anywhere on the board. However, it is not advantageous to exchange bishops if your opponent has a better defensive setup, or more lines of attack. Openings are also classified as static rook (居飛車 ibisha) openings, where the offense is supported by the rook in its original position, and ranging rook (振り飛車 furibisha) openings, where the rook moves to the center or left of the board to support an attack there, typically with the idea of allowing the opponent to attack while arranging a better defense and aiming for a counterattack. However, as the most powerful piece on the board, the rook invites Shogi strategy and tactics attack, and in most cases, especially for weaker players, it is a good idea to keep the king well away from the rook.[3] Many common opening attacks involve advancing a silver, and ideally a pawn, along a file protected by the rook. This is the climbing silver attack.[3] Because silvers have more possibilities for retreat, while golds better defend their sides, silvers are generally considered superior as attacking pieces, and golds superior as defensive pieces. It is common practice to defend the king with three generals, two golds and a silver. Because defense is so important, and because shogi pieces are relatively slow movers, the opening game tends to be much longer in shogi than in International Chess,[3] commonly with a dozen or more moves to shore up defenses before the initial attack is made. There are several strong defensive fortifications known as castles. There are many variations and types of castles which can be used, but it is essential to understand which ones are useful in the current situation and how to compensate for its weak points. 321 The Yagura castle The Yagura castle (矢倉囲い Yagura gakoi) is considered by many to be the strongest defensive position in shogi.[3] It has a strongly protected king; a well fortified line of pawns; and the bishop, rook, and a pawn all support a later attack by the rook's silver or knight. It is notoriously difficult to break down with a frontal assault, though it is weaker from the side. It is typically used against static rook openings that involve advancing the rook's pawn. However, one's opponent may just as easily adopt this defense, giving neither side an advantage. There is a good deal of flexibility in the order of moves when building the Yagura defense, and the possibilities will not be listed here. The The Yagura castle (defensive position) only point to keep in mind is that the generals should move diagonally, not directly forward.[3] However, there is a strong intermediate position called the kani ("crab").[3] It has the three pawns on the left side advanced to their final Yagura positions, and on the second rank all four generals are lined up next to the bishop, which is still in its starting position: |B|G|S|G|S| bishop-gold-silver-gold-silver. The king is moved one square to the left, behind the middle silver. While forming the castle, the rook's pawn is often advanced two squares in preparation for a climbing rook assault on the opposing king. Another common preparation is to advance the adjacent silver's pawn square, allowing passage for both the rook's silver and knight. These offensive moves are not properly part of the castle, but the two-square pawn advance must be carried out early if there is to be room for it, and so it is often done while still castling.[3] A common attack against the Yagura defense is to advance the rook's knight directly forward, defended by the rook and with a pawn in hand, to attack the fortifications on either side of the castled king.[3] If the defender has answered a lance's pawn advance on that side, a pawn may be dropped where the edge pawn had been. If the defending silver has moved or is not yet in position, a pawn may be dropped there. Shogi strategy and tactics 322 The Mino castle A defensive position that is considered easier for beginners, but still popular with professionals, is the Mino castle (美濃囲い Minō gakoi). The King is placed in a safe position, while the three generals work well to back each other up. This is sometimes used when a player chooses a bishop opening rather than the rook-pawn opening. The Mino castle takes six moves to complete, not necessarily in this order: The Mino castle (defensive position) 1. Move the rook to the left side of the board, preferably to the sixth file. This move must be first. 2. Move the king to where the rook started, 3 moves. 3. Move the right-side silver general up one space, so it is now adjacent to the king. 4. Move the left-side gold general diagonally up and right so that it is protected by the other gold general, which has not yet moved. 5. (Optional) Move the edge pawn one square forward; two is even better. This gives king an escape route at the end game. 6. (Optional) Move the fourth file pawn one square forward. This makes it harder for the most direct threat-mate on the castle to be made. The Anaguma castle A third defense often used in professional Shogi is the Anaguma (アナグマ, Japanese for "badger"), commonly called the "bear in the hole" castle in English (穴熊囲い Anaguma gakoi). This castle can be executed on either side of the board, i.e. either by a player utilizing the ranging rook strategy or by a player employing the static rook strategy. The end-result will place the king in the corner square where the lance started, defended by two gold generals and one silver. One suggested strategy for a rook-side castle is: 1. Move the rook to the sixth or seventh file. 2. Move the king to the rook's starting square. The Anaguma or "bear in the hole" castle (defensive position) 3. Move the lance up one square, then move the king to the lance's starting square. 4. Move the silver general up and right. 5. Move both gold generals to the castle for additional defense. Middle game Professional shogi players tend to evaluate the 'flow' of the game, that is, the sequence of moves leading to the current position and its likely development, much more than chess players.[4] Because pawns attack head on, and cannot defend each other, they tend to be lost early in the game, providing ammunition for such attacks. Dropping a pawn behind enemy lines, promoting it to a "tokin" (gold general), and dropping a second pawn immediately behind the "tokin" so that they protect each other makes a strong attack; it threatens the opponent's entire defense, but provides little value to the opponent if the attack fails and the pieces are captured. Shogi strategy and tactics Players raised on International Chess often make poor use of drops,[3] but dropping is half the game. If a player has more than a couple of captured pieces in hand, it is likely that dropping attacks are being overlooked. However, it is wise to keep a pawn in hand, and often to exchange pieces if necessary to get one. Compared with International Chess players, shogi players are more likely to sacrifice pieces, even powerful ones, if the resulting capture can be dropped back into play for a specific purpose. Attacking pieces can easily become trapped behind enemy lines, as the opponent can often drop a pawn on a protected square to cut off the line of retreat. For this reason, rooks, which can retreat in only one direction, are commonly kept at a safe distance in the early parts of the game, and used to support attacks by weaker pieces. However, once the game has opened up, a promoted rook is an especially deadly piece behind enemy lines. Advancing a lance pawn can open up the side of the board for attack. Therefore, when a player first advances a lance pawn, it is common, though not obligatory, for the opponent to answer by advancing the opposing pawn, in order to avoid complications later in the game. It also allows the king to escape if attacked from the side. 323 End game The collapse of one side's defense marks the beginning of the end game. Once a player has broken through the enemy lines, the opponent's king can be easily trapped by its own pieces. A common last-ditch defensive tactic is to open the pawn line to allow the king to escape. Kings are more difficult to checkmate in the open, especially if the opponent does not have many ranged pieces in play. In the endgame, it comes down to a race over who can checkmate the opponent first. A tactic known as speed counting plays an important role in the endgame. By counting the number of moves until checkmate (assuming the opponent doesn't get to move) for both Black and White, this will help to influence decisions on whether to attack or defend. A simple mistake can change the flow of the game drastically. Among this, there are many other delicate factors to look out for within the endgame, including sacrificial attacks and traps. References [1] Hitoshi Matsubara, Reijer Grimbergen. "Differences between Shogi and western Chess from a computational point of view". Proceedings: Board Games in Academia. [2] Jonathan Schaeffer, Martin Müller, Yngvi Björnsson (2003). Computers and games: third international conference, CG 2002, Edmonton, Canada, July 25-27, 2002: revised papers. Springer. pp. 175. [3] Shogi for Beginners, John Fairbairn, 1984. [4] Ito Takeshi, Matsubara Hitoshi, R. Grimbergen (2004). "A Cognitive Science Approach to Shogi Playing Processes (2)-Some Results on Next Move Test Experiments". Transactions of Information Processing Society of Japan 45 (5): 1481–1492. Bibliography • Shogi for Beginners (1984) by John Fairbairn. An introduction. • Guide to Shogi openings: Shogi problems in Japanese and English (1983) by Aono Teruichi, translated by John Fairbairn • Better Moves for Better Shogi (1983) by Aono Teruichi, translated by John Fairbairn ISBN 4-87187-999-2 • The Art of Shogi (1997) by Tony Hosking • Habu's Words (2000) by Habu Yoshiharu, translated by Takahashi Yamato and Tony Hosking • Classic Shogi (2006) by Tony Hosking • Lightning Speed Endgame Technique (http://gamelab.yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp/SHOGI/TANIGAWABOOK/ tanigawabookmain.html) (1988) by Koji Tanigawa. Advanced strategy. • SHOGI Magazine (70 issues, January 1976 - November 1987) by The Shogi Association (edited by George Hodges) Shogi strategy and tactics 324 External links • Ricoh Shogi Club (http://www.ricoh.co.jp/SHOGI/index_e.html) History of shogi Arrival in Japan It is not clear when the ancestral chess-type game that later developed into shogi was brought to Japan. This is in contrast to the game of go, which was almost certainly brought to Japan in or around the Nara period, since a go board is stored in the treasury of Shōsōin (正倉院). There are tales that relate that it was invented by Yuwen Yong of Northern Zhou, and that Kibi Makibi (吉備真備) brought it back after visiting the country of Tang, but both these tales are likely to have been invented at the start of the Edo period by those keen to make a name for themselves as authorities on shogi. There are several theories about when shogi spread to Japan, but the earliest plausible date is around the 6th century. It is thought that the pieces used in the shogi of the time were not the current five-sided pieces, but three-dimensional figures, as were used in Chaturanga. This parallels the changes in chess pieces, which are more representational and less abstract than those made earlier. However, a large problem with this theory is that as pieces in this form have never been found, let alone stored in the treasury of Shōsōin, there is little physical evidence supporting it. Another theory gives a later date, stating that shogi was brought to Japan after the start of the Nara period. but as these games are different from shogi, for example in that pieces are placed on the intersections of lines, serious doubts about this theory remain. The games of makruk from Thailand and Cambodia and sittuyin from Myanmar have an elephant which moves in the same way as the silver general. Sittuyin also has the practice of dropping pieces. From the Song Dynasty through the Ming Dynasty, China sent great trade convoys through the southern islands and all around the Indian Ocean and also traded with Japan, so elements of South Asian chess could have reached Japan. See also the history of chess. Shogi in the Heian period One of the oldest documents indicating the existence of shogi is Kirinshō (麒麟抄), written by Fujiwara Yukinari (藤原行成) (972 - 1027), a seven-volume work which contains a description of how to write the characters used for shogi pieces, but the most generally accepted opinion is that this section was added by a writer from a later generation. Shin Saru Gakuki (新猿楽記) (1058 - 1064), written by Fujiwara Akihira also has passages relating to shogi, and is regarded as the earliest document on the subject. The oldest archaeological evidence is a group of 16 shogi pieces excavated from the grounds of Kōfuku-ji in Nara Prefecture, and as a wooden writing plaque written on in the sixth year of Tenki (1058) was found at the same time, the pieces are thought to be of the same period. The pieces of the time appear to have been simple ones made by cutting a writing plaque and writing directly on the surface, but they have the same five-sided shape as modern pieces. As "Shin Saru Gakuki", mentioned above, is of the same period, this find is backed up by documentary evidence. The dictionary of common folk culture, Nichūreki (二中歴), which it is estimated was created between 1210 and 1221, a collection based on the two works Shōchūreki (掌中歴) and Kaichūreki (懐中歴), thought to have been written by Miyoshi Tameyasu (三善為康), describes two forms of shogi, large (dai) shogi and small (shō) shogi. So as not to confuse these with later types of shogi, in modern times these are called Heian shogi (or Heian small shogi) and Heian dai shogi. Heian shogi is the version on which modern shogi is based, but it is written that one wins if History of shogi one's opponent is reduced to a single king, apparently indicating that at the time there was no concept of pieces in the hand. The pieces used in these variants of shogi consist of those used in Heian shogi: the king, gold general, silver general, knight, lance, and pawn, and those used only in Heian great shogi: the copper general, iron general, side mover, tiger, flying dragon, free chariot and go between. According to Kōji Shimizu, chief researcher at the Archaeological Institute of Kashihara, Nara Prefecture, the names of the Heian shogi pieces keep those of chaturanga (general, elephant, horse, chariot and soldier), and add to them the five treasures of Buddhism (jewel, gold, silver, katsura tree, and incense). There is also a theory by Yoshinori Kimura that while chaturanga was from the start a game simulating war, and thus pieces were discarded once captured, Heian shogi involved pieces kept in the hand. 325 The development of medieval shogi In games around the world related to shogi, there have been changes in the rules with the passage of time, such as increasing the abilities of the pieces or their numbers, as winning strategies have been discovered, and the Japanese game of shogi is no exception to this. Around the 13th century, the game of dai shogi, created by increasing the number of pieces in Heian shogi, was played, and the game of sho shogi, which adds the rook, bishop and drunken elephant from dai shogi to Heian shogi. Around the 15th century, as the rules of dai shogi had become too complicated, they were simplified, creating the game of chu shogi, which is close to the modern game. It is thought that the rules of modern shogi were fixed in the 16th century, when the drunken elephant was removed from the set of pieces. According to Shoshōgi Zushiki (諸象戯図式), a set of shogi rules published in 1696, during the Ganroku period, it states that the drunken elephant piece was removed from the game of sho shogi by Emperor Go-Nara during the Tenmon period (1532 - 1555), but whether or not this is true is not clear. As many as 174 shogi pieces have been excavated from the Ichijōdani Asakura Family Historic Ruins, which are thought to be from the latter half of the 16th century. Most of these pieces are pawns, but there is also one drunken elephant, leading to the hypothesis that in this period variations of shogi with and without the drunken elephant existed side by side. One point of note in the history of this family of games is that it was during this period that the unique rule in Japanese shogi was developed whereby captured pieces (pieces in the hand) could be returned to the board. It is thought that the rule of pieces in the hand was proposed around the 16th century, but there is also a theory that this rule existed from the time of Heian sho shogi. In the Edo period, more types of shogi with yet more pieces were proposed: tenjiku shogi, dai dai shogi, maka dai dai shogi, tai shogi (also called "dai shogi", but termed "tai shogi" to avoid confusing the two) and taikyoku shogi. However, it is thought that these forms of shogi were only played to a very limited extent. Modern shogi Modern shogi (hon shogi), like go, was officially approved by the Tokugawa shogunate. In 1612, the shogunate passed a law giving endowments to shogi players including Kanō Sansa (加納算砂) (Hon'inbō Sansa (本因坊算砂)) and Shūkei (宗桂) (who was given the name Ōhashi Shūkei (大橋宗桂) after his death). These iemotos (families upholding the tradition of go or shogi) gave themselves the title of go-dokoro (碁所) (literally, places of go) and shogi-dokoro (将棋所), places of shogi. The first O-hashi Shu-kei received fifty koku of rice and five men. In the Kan'ei period (around 1630), the "castle shogi" (御城将棋) tournament, where games were played before a shogun, was held. During the time of the eighth shogun, Tokugawa Yoshimune, a system was established where the castle shogi tournament was held once a year on the 17th day on Kannazuki, and today the corresponding day in the modern calendar, November 17, has been designated Shogi Day. History of shogi The Meijin (名人), who were the iemotos of shogi, were paid endowments. Over the reign of the shogunate, the title of meijin became a hereditary title of the Ōhashi family and one of its branches, and the Itō family. Today the title of meijin is still used, for the winner of the Meijin-sen competition. It became a tradition for shogi players inheriting the title of meijin to present a collection of shogi puzzles to the shogunate government. A number of genius shogi players emerged who were not hereditary meijin. Itō Kanju (伊藤看寿) was born in the mid-Edo period, and showed promise as a potential meijin, but died young and never inherited the title (which was bestowed on him posthumously). Kanju was a skilled composer of shogi puzzles, and even today his collection of puzzles "Shogi Zukō" (将棋図巧) is well known as one of the greatest works of its kind. In the late Edo period, Amano Sōho (天野宗歩) came to prominence. As he was one of the "Arino group" of amateur shogi players, the rank of meijin was out of his reach, but he was feared for his skill, being said to have "the ability of a 13-dan player", and was later termed a kisei (棋聖) (literally, wise man or master of shogi). More than a few count Sōho as one of the greatest shogi players in history. 326 Newspaper shogi and the formation of shogi associations After the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate, the three shogi families were no longer paid endowments, and the iemoto system in shogi lost its power. The lines of the three families ended, and the rank of meijin came to be bestowed by recommendation. The popularity of amateur shogi continued in the Meiji period, with shogi tournaments and events held all over Japan, and "front-porch shogi" (縁台将棋), played wherever people gathered, in bath houses or barber's shops. However, it is thought that, with the exception of a handful of high-ranking players at the end of the 19th century, it was impossible to make a living as a professional shogi player during this period. From around 1899, newspapers began to publish records of shogi matches, and high-ranking players formed alliances with the aim of having their games published. In 1909, the Shogi Association (将棋同盟社) was formed, and in 1924, the Tokyo Shogi Association (東京将棋同盟社) was formed, with Sekine Kinjirō (関根金次郎), a thirteenth-generation meijin, at its head. This was an early incarnation of the modern Japan Shogi Association (日本将棋連盟), founded in 1997. The meijin system and title matches In 1935, Sekine Kinjiro- stepped down from the rank of meijin, which then came to be conferred based on ability in the short term, rather than recommendation as before. The first Meijin title match (名人戦 meijin-sen) (known officially at the time as the Meijin Kettei Kisen (名人決定大棋戦)) was held over two years, with Yoshio Kimura (木村義雄) becoming the first Meijin in 1937. This was the start of the shogi title matches (see titleholder system). Later, in 1950, the Kudan title match (九段戦 kudan-sen) (9-dan title match) (renamed the Jūdan title match (十段戦 jūdan-sen) (10-dan title match) in 1962) and the Ōshō title match (王将戦 ōshō-sen) (King title match) were founded. The Ōza-sen (王座戦) tournament was started in 1953 and became a title match in 1983. In 1960 the Ōi title match (王位戦 ōi-sen) was founded, and later the Kisei-sen (棋聖戦) in 1962, and the Kiō-sen (棋王戦 kiō-sen) in 1974. The Jūdan-sen was changed to become the Ryūō title match (竜王戦 ryūō-sen) in 1988, completing the modern line-up of seven title matches. The ages of Ōyama and Habu It was considered to be nearly impossible to hold all the titles at once, but in 1957, Kōzō Masuda took all three of the titles which existed at the time (Meijin, Kudan and Ōshō), to become a triple champion (三冠王). However, another player later took these three titles from Masuda, and went on in 1959 to take the newly founded titles of Ōi and Kisei, to become a quintuple champion (五冠王) - Yasuharu Ōyama (大山康晴). Ōyama went on to defend these titles for six years, a golden age which became known as the "Ōyama age". Ōyama reached a total of 80 title holding periods, an unprecedented achievement at the time, when there were fewer titles than at present. History of shogi After the number of titles increased to seven in 1983, it was believed to be impossible to hold all of them at once, but in 1996, Yoshiharu Habu became the first septuple champion (七冠王), beginning an age known as the "Habu age". Since then, there has never been a time when he was without a title, and he has amassed a total of over 70 title holding periods (71 at October 2008). 327 The birth of the women's game While there are both men and women among the ranks of professional shogi players, no woman player has yet won through the pro qualifier leagues (新進棋士奨励会 shinshin kishi shōreikai) to become an officially certified professional player (棋士 kishi). This served to slow the spread of the game among women, and to overcome the problem, the system of professional woman shogi players (女流棋士 joryū kishi) was introduced. In 1966, Akiko Takojima (蛸島彰子) left the pro-qualifier leagues at the 1-dan level and became the first professional woman shogi player. However, at the time women's contests were not held, and so her only work as a professional was giving shogi lessons. In 1974, the first women's contest, the Women's Meijin Title Match (女流名人位戦 joryū meijin-sen), was held, which Takojima won, becoming the first woman meijin. 1974 is often considered to be the year in which women's shogi began, and indeed the Ladies Shogi Professional Organization (女流棋士会 joryū kishi kai) celebrates "anniversary parties" counting from this year. At present there are more than 50 professional women players, and as well as the Women's Meijin title match, there is also the Women's Ōshō Title Match (女流王将戦), the Women's Ōi Title Match (女流王位戦), the Ōyama Meijin Cup Kurashiki–Tōka Title Match (大山名人杯倉敷藤花戦), the Ladies' Open Tournament (レディースオープントーナメント), and the Kajima Cup, a total of six competitions. In addition, each of the standard professional tournaments has a women's section, in which the top women in each tournament compete. Trends in the world of amateur shogi Shogi is also well-known among the general public (amateurs). Two different rating systems based dan and kyu ranks are used, one for amateurs and one for professionals, with the highest ranks at amateur level, 4-dan or 5-dan, being equivalent to 6-kyu at the professional level. In the past, there were games between amateurs and professionals, but these were generally special match-ups organised by newspapers or magazines, or instructional games at events or shogi courses. However, sometimes there are amateurs with an ability to rival professionals, some of whom earn a living as shinken-shi (真剣師), gamblers playing for stakes. Motoji Hanamura (花村元司) made enough to live on as a shinken-shi, before taking the entrance exam and turning professional in 1944. He later challenged Yasuharu Ōyama in the meijin-sen, but did not manage to take the title of meijin from him. Jūmei Koike (小池重明) was another shinken-shi, who beat one professional after another in special matches, and won the title of amateur meijin twice in a row, putting him ahead of the crowd in the amateur world. Later, due in part to the instigation of Ōyama, the then chairman of the general assembly of the Japanese Shogi Association (棋士総会), a vote was held on whether to accept Koike among their ranks, but there were concerns about his behaviour, and the vote went against him. Although he never became a professional, after his death, television programmes and books telling his story were produced, and he now has more fans all over Japan than when he was alive. In recent times, the gap in ability between strong amateurs and professionals continues to diminish, and there are even official professional tournaments in which those with the best results in amateur shogi contests (将棋のアマチュア棋戦) can take part. Some amateurs, including Tsuneyoshi Kobayashi (小林庸俊), Takashi Amano (天野高志), Hirukawa (蛭川敦), Kiriyama (桐山隆), Masaki Endō (遠藤正樹), Masakazu Hayasaki (早咲誠和) and Atsumoto Yamada (山田敦幹) have been called "pro killers", and recently two young players, Yukio Katō (加藤幸男) and Tōru Shimizukami (清水上徹) have been making waves in the amateur world. History of shogi The number of players who have left the pro qualifier leagues and gone on to have success as amateurs has increased. Shōji Segawa (瀬川晶司) retired from the qualifier leagues due to age restrictions, but went on to compete as an amateur in professional matches. His performance in the Ginga title match (銀河戦, ginga-sen) was particularly notable, and at one point he won over 70% of his matches with professionals. Sekawa submitted a petition requesting entry to the professional ranks to the Japan Shogi Association, and was granted exceptional permission to take the entrance exam. He is the first person to become a professional after retiring from the pro qualifier leagues. In 2006, the Shogi Association officially admitted the entrance of amateurs and women professionals to the ranks of professionals (正棋士), and announced details of an entrance exam for the 4-dan level (entering the "free class" (フリークラス) level of the professional ranking league (順位戦)) and the third-level pro qualifier league (奨励会三段リーグ). Unless exceptional permission is granted, applicant normally need to have experience in the pro qualifier leagues, and cannot become professionals if they have retired from the leagues, but given the reforms taking place in the Association, it would be by no means unlikely if another Shōji Segawa were to appear. 328 The spread of shogi outside Japan The game of shogi has developed independently inside Japan, and its pieces are differentiated by Japanese characters written on them, factors which have impeded the spread of the game outside Japan. By way of comparison, the game of go has spread internationally for a combination of many reasons, including the facts that it originated in China, its rules are (more or less) unified at an international level, it is played using black and white stones, and that it does not resemble games unique to another country (as is the case with shogi, which is one of many games resembling chess). However, in the 1990s, efforts to make shogi popular outside Japan began in earnest. It has grown to be particularly popular in the People's Republic of China, and especially Shanghai. The January 2006 edition of Kindai Shogi (近代将棋) states that Shanghai has a shogi population of 120,000 people. The game has been relatively slow to spread to countries where Chinese characters are not in common use, although attempts have been made to aid adoption by replacing the names of pieces with symbols indicating how they move. Changes in the shogi population According to the "Leisure White Paper" (レジャー白書) by the Japanese Productivity Center for Socio-Economic Development (財団法人社会経済生産性本部), the "shogi population" (the number of people of 15 years or over who play at least one game of shogi a year) fell from 16.8 million in 1985 to 9 million in 2004, and 8.4 million in 2006, and is continuing to fall gradually. During the above period, in which the shogi population fell by a half, shogi has often appeared in the general media, for example Yoshiharu Habu's achievement of taking all seven titles in one year (1996), the airing of the NHK TV novel Futarikko (ふたりっ子) (1996), the reporting of the affair between Makoto Nakahara (中原誠) and Naoko Hayashiba (林葉直子), Shōji Segawa taking the professional entrance exam (2005), and the debate about the management of the meijin-sen being passed to a different body (2006). However, none of these led to the birth of a "shogi boom", and in some cases unfavourable media reports accelerated the decline in the number of shogi fans. The number of 10 to 19 year olds playing go is said in the "Leisure White Paper" above to have increased due to the story "Hikaru no Go", serialised in Weekly Shōnen Jump. (The overall go population is decreasing.) However, the 2006 Leisure White Paper reports that go is most popular among those in their 60's, while shogi is most popular between those aged 10 to 19. From around 1996, internet shogi programs such as Java Shogi (Java将棋) and The Great Shogi (ザ・グレート将棋), which allow users to play games over the internet without the need for an actual shogi set, grew to be widely used. At present, many games are played using services such as Shogi Club 24 (将棋倶楽部24), Kindai Shogi Dojo (近代将棋道場) and Yahoo! Japan Games. History of shogi 329 Computer shogi Computers have steadily improved in playing shogi since the 1980s. Champion Habu estimated the strength of the 2006 world computer shogi champion Bonanza at the level of 2 dan shoreikai. Tools to help shogi programmers are Shogidokoro, annual computer tournaments and the Floodgate shogi server. The Japan Shogi Association restricts professionals from playing computers. Current title holders In Japan, some 200 professional shogi players, all members of Japan Shogi Association, compete in seven title tournaments. The winner of the previous year defends the title against a challenger chosen from knockout or round matches. Current title holders 2010 67th Meijin Yoshiharu Habu won over Hiroyuki Miura 4-0 2009 22nd RyūŌ Akira Watanabe won over Toshiyuki Moriuchi 4-0 2009 80th Kisei 2010 50th Ōi 2009 57th Ōza 2010 58th Ōshō 2009 34th Kiō Yoshiharu Habu won over Kazuki Kimura 3-2 Akihito Hirose won over Kōichi Fukaura 4-2 Yoshiharu Habu won over Takayuki Yamasaki 3-0 Toshiaki Kubo Toshiaki Kubo won over Yoshiharu Habu 4-2 won over Yasumitsu Satō 3-2 References • This article was translated from the history section of the Japanese Wikipedia shogi article, retrieved on September 17, 2006. Meijin 330 Meijin Meijin (名人) is one of the seven titles in Japanese professional shogi, and is the most prestigious title, along with Ryu-oh. The word "meijin" means "an excellent person" in a certain field. ("mei"(名) = excellent, artful) ("jin"(人) = person) The Meijin institution started in the 17th century (Edo period), but the person who assumed the Meijin position was selected by succession. In the 1930s, Kinjiro Sekine (13th Meijin) made a courageous decision. He abandoned his Meijin position and proposed the institution of a tournament. Since 1937, the Meijin title has been given to the person who wins the Meijin Championship each year. The preliminary round of the Meijin tournament is called "Rank Tournament" (Jun-i Sen 順位戦) and involves five league classes (A, B1, B2, C1, C2). The top three players of the C2 league are promoted to next year's C1 league. The top two of the C1, B2, B1 leagues are promoted to next year's B2, B1, and A leagues, respectively. Only the winner of the A-Class league can challenge the Meijin title holder. Therefore, at least five years experience of Rank-Tournament-league is needed for challenging for the title of Meijin after one's professional debut. The player that wins four games out of seven first in the championship will become the new Meijin title holder. Honorary Meijin Honorary Meijin (Permanent Meijin, Eiseimeijin 永世名人) title is given to a person who won Meijin Championship five times. • • • • • • • (1st - 13th : in succession) 14th Honorary Meijin : Yoshio Kimura 15th Honorary Meijin : Yasuharu Oyama 16th Honorary Meijin : Makoto Nakahara 17th Honorary Meijin : Koji Tanigawa 18th Honorary Meijin : Toshiyuki Moriuchi 19th Honorary Meijin : Yoshiharu Habu Winners Year Winner Score Opponent 1935 Yoshio Kimura -1937 1940 1942 Yoshio Kimura Yoshio Kimura Yoshio Kimura Yoshio Kimura 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 Masao Tsukada Masao Tsukada Yoshio Kimura Yoshio Kimura Yoshio Kimura Yasuharu Oyama 4-1 4-0 no match no match 4-2 4-2 3-2 4-2 4-2 4-1 Yoshio Kimura Yasuharu Oyama Masao Tsukada Yasuharu Oyama Kozoh Masuda Yoshio Kimura Doi Ichitaroh Kanda Tatsunosuke Meijin 331 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Hifumi Katoh Koji Tanigawa Koji Tanigawa Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Koji Tanigawa Koji Tanigawa Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Kozoh Masuda Kozoh Masuda Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-0 4-2 4-2 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-0 4-1 4-2 4-1 4-2 4-1 4-0 4-3 4-1 4-3 4-3 4-0 4-3 4-3 4-3 blank 4-2 4-2 4-1 4-1 4-3 4-2 4-1 4-2 4-1 4-2 4-2 4-0 4-2 4-1 Keiji Mori Kunio Yonenaga Kunio Yonenaga Kiyozumi Kiriyama Makoto Nakahara Hifumi Katoh Hidemitsu Moriyasu Koji Tanigawa Yasuharu Oyama Kunio Yonenaga Makoto Nakahara Kunio Yonenaga Koji Tanigawa Kunio Yonenaga Kozoh Masuda Kozoh Masuda Takashima Kazukiyo Hanamura Motoji Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Kozoh Masuda Hifumi Katoh Maruta Yuzoh Tatsuya Futakami Kozoh Masuda Tatsuya Futakami Michiyoshi Yamada Kozoh Masuda Tatsuya Futakami Kozoh Masuda Michio Ariyoshi Rensho Nada Kozoh Masuda Yasuharu Oyama Hifumi Katoh Yasuharu Oyama Nobuyuki Ouchi Kunio Yonenaga Meijin 332 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Makoto Nakahara Kunio Yonenaga Yoshiharu Habu Yoshiharu Habu Yoshiharu Habu Koji Tanigawa Yasumitsu Satoh Yasumitsu Satoh 4-3 4-0 4-2 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-3 Michio Takahashi Makoto Nakahara Kunio Yonenaga Taku Morishita Toshiyuki Moriuchi Yoshiharu Habu Koji Tanigawa Koji Tanigawa Yasumitsu Satoh Koji Tanigawa Tadahisa Maruyama Toshiyuki Moriuchi Yoshiharu Habu Yoshiharu Habu Koji Tanigawa Masataka Goda Toshiyuki Moriuchi Masataka Goda Hiroyuki Miura Tadahisa Maruyama 4-3 Tadahisa Maruyama 4-3 Toshiyuki Moriuchi 4-0 Yoshiharu Habu 4-0 Toshiyuki Moriuchi 4-2 Toshiyuki Moriuchi 4-3 Toshiyuki Moriuchi 4-2 Toshiyuki Moriuchi 4-3 Yoshiharu Habu Yoshiharu Habu Yoshiharu Habu 4-2 4-3 4-0 References • Japan Shogi Association : Meijin Tournament [1] [1] http:/ / www. shogi. or. jp/ kisenhyo/ meizin. html Ryu-oh 333 Ryu-oh Ryu-oh or Ryūō (竜王, lit. "Dragon King") is the name of a promoted piece in shogi, a Japanese professional shogi tournament, and the title of its winner. The basic meaning of "Ryu-oh" is a "promoted rook". It can move as either a rook (hisha 飛車, lit. flying chariot") or a king (gyokushō 玉将, lit. "jade general") during a turn, and is one of the most powerful pieces in shogi. "Ryu-oh" also refers to the annual Ryu-oh Tournament (Ryūō-sen 竜王戦) organized by Yomiuri Shimbun as well as the title awarded to its winner. The Ryu-oh Tournament, which is one of seven Japanese shogi title matches, was first held in 1988. It comprises preliminary The dragon king tournaments in six classes and one final. The final tournament, which determines the challenger, involves competitions among eleven players (the top five players from 1st class, top two from 2nd class, and the top four from 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th classes). The first player to win four out of seven championship games becomes the new titleholder. Cash prizes are ¥32,000,000 for the winner of championship and new Ryu-oh titleholder, and ¥8,000,000 for the loser (approximately US$320,000 and $80,000 respectively). Additional compensation includes ¥14,500,000 for the previous titleholder and ¥7,000,000 for the challenger (approximately US$145,000 and $70,000). Among the seven rankings in the professional shogi titleholder system, Ryu-oh and Meijin are the most prestigious designations. Honorary Ryu-oh Honorary Ryu-oh ("Eisei Ryu-oh" = Permanent Ryu-oh) is the title given to a player who won the championship five times in a row or seven times.[1] Akira Watanabe won the championship five times in a row from 2004 to 2008, which makes him the first honorary Ryu-oh. Winners Year 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Winner Akira Shima Yoshiharu Habu Koji Tanigawa Koji Tanigawa Yoshiharu Habu Yasumitsu Sato Yoshiharu Habu Yoshiharu Habu Koji Tanigawa Koji Tanigawa Score 4-0 4-3 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-2 4-2 4-2 4-1 4-0 Opponent Kunio Yonenaga Akira Shima Yoshiharu Habu Taku Morishita Koji Tanigawa Yoshiharu Habu Yasumitsu Sato Yasumitsu Sato Yoshiharu Habu Keiichi Sanada Ryu-oh 334 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Takeshi Fujii Takeshi Fujii Takeshi Fujii Yoshiharu Habu Yoshiharu Habu 4-0 4-1 4-3 4-1 4-3 Koji Tanigawa Daisuke Suzuki Yoshiharu Habu Takeshi Fujii Takashi Abe Yoshiharu Habu Toshiyuki Moriuchi Kazuki Kimura Yasumitsu Sato Yasumitsu Sato Yoshiharu Habu Toshiyuki Moriuchi Toshiyuki Moriuchi 4-0 Akira Watanabe Akira Watanabe Akira Watanabe Akira Watanabe Akira Watanabe Akira Watanabe 4-3 4-0 4-3 4-2 4-3 4-0 References [1] プロ棋戦の規定に関するご質問(日本将棋連盟) (http:/ / www. shogi. or. jp/ osirase/ qa. html#kisen) External links • 竜王戦:日本将棋連盟 (http://www.shogi.or.jp/kisenhyo/ryuuou.html), Ryūō Tournament: Japan Shogi Association (Japanese) • 第21期竜王戦中継 (http://live.shogi.or.jp/ryuou/), 21st Ryūō Tournament website (Japanese) Computer shogi 335 Computer shogi Computer shogi is a field of artificial intelligence concerned with the creation of computer programs which can play shogi. The research and development of shogi software has been carried out mainly by freelance programmers, university research groups and private companies. Game complexity Shogi has the distinctive feature of reusing captured pieces. Therefore shogi has a higher branching factor than other chess variants. The computer has more positions to examine because each piece in hand can be dropped on many squares. This gives shogi the highest number of legal positions and the highest number of possible games of all the popular chess variants. The higher numbers for shogi mean it is harder to reach the highest levels of play. The number of legal positions and the number of possible games are 2 measures of shogi’s Game complexity. Game Chess Board Size 64 Legal Positions 1047 1048 1071 Possible Games 10123 10150 10226 Average Game Length 80 95 110 Xiangqi 90 Shogi 81 Computers versus humans In the 1980s, due to the immaturity of the technology in such fields as programming, CPUs and memory, computer shogi programs took a long time to think, and often made moves for which there was no apparent justification. These programs had the level of an amateur of kyu rank. In the first decade of the new millennium, computer shogi has taken large steps forward in software and hardware technology. In 2007 champion Yoshiharu Habu estimated the strength of the 2006 world computer shogi champion Bonanza. He wrote in the Nikkei Newspaper evening edition on March 26, 2007 about the match between Bonanza and the 2006 Ryuo Champion Watanabe. Yoshiharu Habu rated Bonanza’s game at the level of 2 dan shoreikai.[1] In particular, computers are most suited to brute-force calculation, and far outperform humans at the task of finding ways of checkmating from a given position, which involves many fewer possibilities. In games with time limits of 10 seconds from the first move, computers are becoming a tough challenge for even professional shogi players. With the past steady progress of shogi computers as a guide of the future, the prediction is even computers with a large handicap will be unbeatable in the future. Larry Kaufman, one of the strongest western shogi players said in 2008, “In 10 years I predict a computer will be able to give lance handicap (kyo-ochi) to the Meijin”.[2] Bonanza Vs Watanabe The Japan Shogi Association (JSA) started restricting professionals from playing computers in 2005. In 2007, the JSA granted permission to one professional to play one game against a computer. The Japan Shogi Association gave reigning Ryuo Champion Watanabe permission to compete in a showdown against the reigning World Computer Shogi Champion Bonanza on 21 March 2007. Daiwa Securities sponsored the match. Hoki Kunihito wrote Bonanza. The computer was an Intel Xeon 2.66 GHz 8 core with 8 gigabytes of memory and 160-gigabyte hard drive. The game was played with 2 hours each and 1 minute byo-yomi per move after that. Those conditions favor Watanabe because longer time limits mean there are fewer mistakes from time pressure. Longer playing time also means human players can make long-term plans beyond the computer’s calculating horizon. The 2 players were not at the same playing level. Watanabe was 2006 Ryuo Champion and Bonanza was at the level of 2 dan shoreikai.[1] Computer shogi Bonanza was a little stronger than before due to program improvements and a faster computer. Watanabe prepared for a weaker Bonanza as Watanabe studied old Bonanza game records. Bonanza moved first and played fourth file rook anaguma as Watanabe expected. Watanabe thought some of Bonanza’s moves were inferior. However, Watanabe deeply analyzed these moves thinking that maybe the computer saw something that Watanabe did not see.[3] Watanabe commented after the game that he could have lost if Bonanza had played defensive moves before entering the endgame. But the computer choose to attack immediately instead of taking its time (and using its impressive endgame strategies) which cost it the match. Bonanza resigned after move 112. Hidetchi reviews this game.[4] After Bonanza’s loss Watanabe commented on computers in his blog, “I thought they still had quite a way to go, but now we have to recognize that they’ve reached the point where they are getting to be a match for professionals.” Ryuo champion Akira Watanabe clarifies his position on computers playing shogi. Yomiuri Shimbun newspaper quoted Akira Watanabe on June 27, 2008. Watanabe said "I think I'll be able to defeat shogi software for the next 10 years". Another indication Bonanza was far below the level of professional Watanabe came 2 months after the match at the May 2007 World Computer Shogi Championship. Bonanza lost to the 2007 World Computer Shogi Champion YSS. Then YSS lost to amateur Kato Yukio in a 15-minute game. 336 Akara vs Shimizu The Computer program Akara defeated the women’s Osho champion Shimizu Ichiyo. Akara contained 4 computer engines, Gekisashi, GPS Shogi, Bonanza and YSS. Akara ran on a network of 169 computers. The 4 engines voted on the best moves. Akara selects the move with the most votes. If there is a tie vote then Akara selects Gekisashi’s move. Researchers at the University of Tokyo and the University of Electro-Communications developed Akara. Shimizu moved first and resigned in 86 moves after 6 hours and 3 minutes. Shimizu said she was trying to play her best as if she was facing a human player. She played at the University of Tokyo on 11 October 2010. The allotted thinking time per player is 3 hours and 60 seconds byoyomi. 750 fans attended the event. This is the second time since 2005 that the Japan Shogi Association granted permission to a professional to play a computer, and the first victory against a female professional. However, a computer has never defeated a male professional under standard time controls. Hidetchi reviews this game.[5] Akara aggressively pursued Shimizu from the start of the game. Akara played with a ranging rook strategy and offered an exchange of bishops. Shimizu made a questionable move partway though the game, and Akara went on to win.[6] Ryuo champion, Akira Watanabe, criticized Shimizu’s game. On 19 November 2010, the Daily Yomiuri quoted Watanabe. Watanabe said, "Ms. Shimizu had plenty of chances to win".[7] Annual CSA tournament exhibition games The winners of CSA tournaments played exhibition games with strong players. These exhibition games started in 2003.[8] Computer shogi 337 Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2008 2009 Program IS Shogi YSS Gekisashi Bonanza YSS Human Handicap Time Byoyomi Winner Computer Computer Computer Human Human Computer Computer Canceled Pro 5 Dan Katsumata 2 Piece Handicap 25 Min None Pro 5 Dan Katsumata Rook Pro 5 Dan Katsumata Bishop Yukio Kato Yukio Kato None None None None None 25 Min None 25 Min None 15 Min 30 Sec 15 Min 30 Sec 15 Min 30 Sec 15 Min 30 Sec 1 hour 1 min Tanase Shogi Yukio Kato Gekisashi GPS Shogi Shimizugami Toru Amateur champion In each succeeding year, the human competition was stronger to match the stronger programs. Kato Yukio was the Asahi Amateur Meijin champion. Shimizugami Toru was the Amateur Meijin champion. The current winning program does not play humans in public tournaments or on a game server such as the Shogi Club 24. Therefore, its strength relative to humans is unknown. Computers Bonanza and Akara beat Amateurs Kosaku and Shinoda On July 24 2011, there was a two game amateur versus computer match. Two computer Shogi programs beat a team of two amateurs. One amateur, Mr. Kosaku, was a Shoreikai three Dan player. The other amateur, Mr. Shinoda, was the 1999 Amateur Ryuo. The allotted time for the amateurs was main time 1 hour and then 3 minutes per move. The allotted time for the computer was main time 25 minutes and then 10 seconds per move.[9] [10] [11] Game Computer Sente (first) Gote (second) Moves Computer Time 24 min 41 sec Amateur Time 2 hours 2 min Hardware Winner 1 Bonanza Kosaku & Shinoda Akara Bonanza 93 17 processors, 132 cores, 300 Bonanza GB Intel Xeon W3680 with 6 cores Akara 2 Akara Kosaku & Shinoda 150 25 min 54 sec 1 hour 42 min Programmer tools • Shogidokoro[12] is a graphical user interface (GUI) that calls a program to play shogi and displays the moves on a board. Shogidokoro was created in 2007. Shogidokoro uses the Universal Shogi Interface (USI). The USI is an open communication protocol that Shogi programs use to communicate with a user interface. USI was designed by Norwegian computer chess programmer Tord Romstad in 2007. Tord Romstad based USI on Universal Chess Interface (UCI). UCI was designed by computer chess programmer Stefan Meyer-Kahlen in 2000. Shogidokoro can automatically run a tournament between 2 programs. This helps programmers to write shogi programs faster because they can skip writing the user interface part. It is also useful for testing changes to a program. Shogidokoro can be used to play Shogi by adding a Shogi engine to shogidokoro. Some engines that will run under shogidokoro are Blunder, GPS Shogi, Laramie, Lightning, ponanza, Spear, Ssp and TJshogi. Bonanza can also run with an adapter (u2b). • WinBoard/XBoard and BCMShogi are other GUIs that support Shogi. This support was added to WinBoard in 2007 by H.G. Muller. WinBoard uses its own protocol (Chess Engine Communication Protocol) to communicate with engines, but can connect to USI engines through the UCI2WB adapter. Engines that can natively support WinBoard protocol are Shokidoki, TJshogi, GNU Shogi and Bonanza.[13] Unlike Shogidokoro, WinBoard is open source, and also available under Linux as XBoard. BCMShogi[14] is a graphical user interface for the USI Computer shogi protocol and the WinBoard shogi protocol. • Floodgate[15] is a computer shogi server for computers to compete and receive ratings. Programs running under Shogidokoro can connect to Floodgate. The GPS team created Floodgate. Floodgate started operating continuously in 2008. The most active players have played 4,000 games. From 2008 to 2010, 167 players played 28,000 games on Floodgate. Humans are welcome to play on Floodgate. 338 Floodgate Annual Highest Rating Date Program Rating 3054 May 23, 2011 Bonanza_expt • The annual computer vs computer world shogi championship[16] is organized by the Computer Shogi Association (CSA) of Japan. The computers play automated games through a server. Each program has 25 minutes to complete a game. The first championship was in 1990 with 6 programs. In 2001, it grew to 55 programs. The championship is broadcast on the Internet. At the 19th annual CSA tournament, 4 programs (GPS Shogi, Otsuki Shogi, Monju and KCC Shogi) that had never won a CSA tournament defeated 3 of the previous year’s strongest programs (Bonanza, Gekisashi and YSS).[17] The top three winners of the 2010 CSA tournament are Gekisashi, Shueso and GPS Shogi.[18] In 2011, Bonkras won the CSA tournament with 5 wins out of 7 games. Bonkras ran on a computer with 3 processors containing 16 cores and 6 gigabytes of memory. Bonanza won second place on a computer with 17 processors containing 132 cores and 300 gigabytes of memory. Shueso won third place. The 2010 CSA winner, Gekisashi, won fourth place. Ponanza won fifth place. GPS Shogi won 6th place on a computer with 263 processors containing 832 cores and 1486 gigabytes of memory.[19] [20] Computer shogi programs Components of computer shogi programs: • Opening book : An opening book of moves puts the program in a good position and saves time. The problem is professionals do not always follow an opening sequence as in chess but make different moves to create good formation of pieces. • Search algorithm : The Search algorithm that looks ahead more deeply in a sequence of moves allows the program to better evaluate a move. The search is harder in shogi than in chess because of the larger number of possible moves. A program will stop searching when it reaches a stable position. The problem is many positions are unstable because of the drop move. • Endgame : The endgame starts when the king is attacked and ends when the game is won. In chess there are fewer pieces which leads to perfect play by endgame databases. In shogi pieces can be dropped so there are no endgame databases. A Tsumeshogi solver is used to quickly find mating moves. Computer shogi programs that have played at the annual World Computer Shogi Championships: • Bonanza won first place the first time it was entered in the championships in 2006. Programmer Kunihito Hoki was living in Canada. • YSS won in 1997, 2004 and 2007. YSS won 2nd place in 1999, 2000, 2003, 2006 and 3rd place in 1994. Programmer is Hiroshi Yamashita. YSS entered the first time in the 1991 tournament. • IS Shogi won in 1998, 2000, 2001 and 2003. Yasushi Tanase was part of the Tokyo University team that wrote IS Shogi. • Tanase shogi won 2nd place in 2007 and 2008 also written by Yasushi Tanase. • Gekisashi won 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2010. The Gekisashi team is led by Yoshimasa Tsuruoka. • KCC Shogi came in second place in 2005 and is from North Korea. Computer shogi • • • • • • • Shogi Kakinoki won 2nd place in 1990, 1992, 1993 and 1996 and written by Yoshikazu Kakinoki. Kiwame won in 1992, 1993 and 1994 and written by Shinichirou Kanazawa. Shogi Kanazawa won in 1996 and in 1999 also written by Shinichirou Kanazawa. Morita Shogi won in 1991 and written by Kazurou Morita. Shotest won 3rd place in 1998, 1999 and written by British programmer Jeff Rollason. Spear a free program written by Reijer Grimbergen has won 9th place of 24 in the 2009 upper division contest. GPS Shogi is free software written by students of the University of Tokyo and won in 2009. 339 Computer Shogi programs that play in video game systems: • • • • Habu Meijin no Omoshiro Shōgi plays on the Super Famicom. Clubhouse Games includes Shogi plays on the Nintendo DS. Shotest Shogi plays on the Xbox. List of shogi video games. GNU Shogi is a free software program by the Free Software Foundation that plays Shogi. Restrictions On 18 September 2005 a Japan Shogi Association professional 5 dan played shogi against a computer. The game was played at the 29th Hokkoku Osho-Cup Shogi Tournament in Komatsu, Japan. The Matsue National College of technology developed the computer program Tacos. Tacos played first and chose the static rook line in the opening. Professional Hashimoto followed the opening line while changing his bishop with the bishop of Tacos. Tacos had a good development with some advantages in the opening and middle game even until move 80. Many amateur players expected Tacos to win. However, professional Hashimoto defended and Tacos played strange moves. Tacos lost.[21] On 14 October 2005, the Japan Shogi Association banned professional shogi players from competing against a computer.[22] The Japan Shogi Association said the rule is to preserve the dignity of its professionals, and to make the most of computer shogi as a potential business opportunity. The ban prevents the rating of computers relative to professional players. Since 2005, the Japan Shogi Association has permitted one game between a male professional and a computer. Milestones • 2005, At the Amateur Ryo tournament, program Gekisashi defeated Eiji Ogawa in a 40 minute game of the first knock out round. • 2005, Program Gekisashi defeated amateur 6-dan Shinoda Masato in a 40 minute exhibition game. • 2007, Highest rating for a computer on Shogi Club 24 is 2744 for YSS.[23] • 2008 May, computer program Tanase Shogi beat Asahi Amateur Meijin title holder Kato Yukio. 75 moves played in 15 minute exhibition game. • 2008 May, computer program Gekisashi beat Amateur Meijin Shimizugami Toru. 100 moves played in 15 minute exhibition game.[24] • 2008 November, Gekisashi beat Amateur Meijin Shimizugami in a 1 hour game with 1 minute byoyomi.[25] • 2010 October, first time a computer beat a Shogi champion. Akara beat the women’s Osho champion Shimizu in 6 hours and 3 minutes. • 2011 May, Highest rated player on Shogi Club 24 is computer program Ponanza, rated 3211.[26] Computer shogi 340 Notes [1] Yoshiharu, Habu (2007-03-27). "Yoshiharu Habu rates computer at the level of 2 dan shoreikai" (http:/ / lists. topica. com/ lists/ shogi/ read/ message. html?sort=d& mid=812686165& start=1928). Shogi-L mailing list. . Retrieved 2008-11-13. [2] Kaufman, Larry (2008-05-07). "Computer with a lance handicap will beat a Meijin" (http:/ / lists. topica. com/ lists/ shogi/ read/ message. html?sort=d& mid=813103510& start=2563). Shogi-L mailing list. . Retrieved 2008-08-12. [3] "Watanabe comments on his game with Bonanza" (http:/ / lists. topica. com/ lists/ shogi/ read/ message. html?mid=812678696& sort=d& start=1965). . [4] Hidetchi. "Famous Shogi Games: Bonanza Vs Watanabe (Mar. 21st, 2007)" (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=H1YrSkDxXYQ) (video). . [5] Hidetchi. "Famous Shogi Games: Shimizu Vs Akara (Oct. 11th, 2010)" (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=lUnbzhnDIvA) (video). . [6] "Shogi computer beats female champ Shimizu" (http:/ / blog. chess. com/ view/ shogi-computer-beats-female-champ-shimizu). The Mainichi Newspapers. 12 October 2010. . [7] "Will shogi software beat male pros?" (http:/ / www. yomiuri. co. jp/ dy/ national/ T101118005564. htm). The Daily Yomiuri. 19 November 2010. . [8] Reijer Grimbergen. "Report on the Annual Computer Shogi Championships" (http:/ / www. teu. ac. jp/ gamelab/ SHOGI/ articlesmain. html). . [9] "The University of Electro-Communications" (http:/ / entcog. c. ooco. jp/ entcog/ event/ event2011_comvshum. html) (in Japanese). 3 August 2011. . [10] "Shogi programs crush Amateurs" (http:/ / www. asahi. com/ shougi/ topics/ TKY201108020334. html) (in Japanese). The Asahi Shimbun. 2 August 2011. . [11] "Museum of Abstract Strategy Games" (http:/ / www. nakajim. net/ index. php?å°æ£-æ¦ç¥çãªã¢ããããåè°ã¯ã³ã³ãã¥ã¼ã¿ã«åã¦ãã) (in Japanese). 3 August 2011. . [12] "Shogidokoro Shogi Graphical User Interface" (http:/ / www. geocities. jp/ shogidokoro/ index. html) (in Japanese). . [13] "WinBoard for Shogi" (http:/ / home. hccnet. nl/ h. g. muller/ shokidoki. html). . [14] "BCMShogi Shogi Graphical User Interface" (http:/ / home. arcor. de/ Bernhard. Maerz/ BCMShogi/ ). . [15] "Floodgate is a computer shogi server for computers" (http:/ / wdoor. c. u-tokyo. ac. jp/ shogi/ logs/ LATEST/ players-floodgate. html) (in Japanese). . [16] "Computer Shogi Association" (http:/ / www. computer-shogi. org/ index_e. html). . [17] Reijer Grimbergen. "Upset at the 19th CSA Computer Shogi Championship" (http:/ / www. teu. ac. jp/ gamelab/ SHOGI/ CSA2009/ 19csa. html). . [18] "Winners of 2010 CSA tournament" (http:/ / www. computer-shogi. org/ wcsc20/ index_e. html). . [19] "Winners of 2011 CSA tournament" (http:/ / www. computer-shogi. org/ wcsc21/ index_e. html). . [20] "Teams in 2011 CSA tournament" (http:/ / www. computer-shogi. org/ wcsc21/ team. html) (in Japanese). . [21] "Hashimoto vs Tacos in 2005" (http:/ / www. jaist. ac. jp/ rccg/ menu/ topic. htm). . [22] "Shogi pros warned not to play computers" (http:/ / search. japantimes. co. jp/ member/ member. html?nn20051016a4. htm). . [23] Hiroshi Yamashita. "Computer Shogi Program YSS On Shogi Club 24" (http:/ / www32. ocn. ne. jp/ ~yss/ 24rating. html) (in Japanese). . [24] Reijer Grimbergen. "Exhibition Games at the 18th CSA Computer Shogi Championships" (http:/ / www. teu. ac. jp/ gamelab/ SHOGI/ CSA2008/ 18csa. html). . [25] "Gekisashi beat Amateur Meijin Champion in a 1 hour game" (http:/ / www. computer-shogi. org/ kifu/ gpw2008/ vs_shimizugami. sjis. csa). . [26] "Computer program Ponanza highest rated player on Shogi Club 24" (http:/ / www. shogidojo. com) (in Japanese). . External links • Computer versus Human Shogi Events (http://www.junichi-takada.jp/computer_shogi/comvshuman.html) in Japanese Shogi variant 341 Shogi variant Many variants of shogi have been developed over the centuries, ranging from some of the largest chess-type games ever played to some of the smallest. A few of these variants are still regularly played, though none are nearly as popular as shogi itself. The drop rule, often considered the most notable feature of shogi, is absent from most shogi variants, which therefore play more like other forms of chess, with the board becoming less crowded as pieces are exchanged. Predecessors of modern shogi Some form of chess had almost certainly reached Japan by the 9th century, if not earlier, but the earliest surviving Japanese description of the rules of chess dates from the early 12th century, during the Heian period. Unfortunately, this description does not give enough information to play the game, but this has not stopped people from trying to reconstruct this early form of shogi, which is usually referred to as Heian shogi (平安将棋). Piece movements were as in modern shogi, but there was no rook or bishop. The board appears to have been 9×8 or 8×8. The setup is unknown, but can reasonably be assumed to have been the same as in modern shogi (minus the rook and bishop, and minus a gold general in the 8×8 case), but possibly the pawns started on the second rank rather than the third. It can safely be assumed that the game was played without drops. By the 16th century the game had taken a form closer to the modern game: it was played on a 9×9 board with the same setup as in modern shogi except that an extra piece (a drunken elephant) stood in front of the king. This form of the game is known as sho shogi (小将棋), which means "little shogi". (While 9×9 may not seem 'little', it was smaller than the other shogi variants prevalent at the time.) The drunken elephant was eliminated by the Emperor Go-Nara (reign 1526-1557), and it is assumed that the drop rule was introduced at about the same time, giving rise to shogi as we know it today. Large-board variants There are a number of shogi variants played on boards larger than 9×9. These variants are all quite old, and were probably all played without drops. It is thought that the really huge games (dai shogi and up) were never really played to any significant extent and were devised merely so that the creators could have the fun of inventing enormous games, amazing their friends and confounding their enemies. However, the games up to Tenjiku shogi at least appear to be quite playable, assuming one has the time.[1] The same 12th century document which describes the Heian form of shogi also describes a variant played on a 13×13 board, which is now called Heian dai shogi (平安大将棋). As with the smaller Heian shogi, the rules for this game have not been completely preserved. The most popular large-board variant is chu shogi (中将棋), played on a 12×12 board. The name means middle shogi, and the game is sometimes so called in English. Chu shogi has existed since at least the 14th century; there are earlier references, but it's not clear that they refer to the game as we now know it. Chu shogi is best known for a very powerful piece called the lion, which moves like a king but twice per turn. The game was still commonly played in Japan in the early 20th century, but has now largely died out. It has, however, gained some adherents in the West. The main reference work in English is the Middle Shogi Manual by George Hodges. Other large medieval shogi variants were wa shogi (11×11, possibly played with drops), dai shogi (大将棋, "great shogi", 15×15), tenjiku shogi (天竺将棋, literally "Indian shogi", but probably meant in the sense of "exotic shogi", 16×16), dai-dai shōgi (大大将棋, "great great shogi", 17×17), maka dai-dai shōgi (摩訶大大将棋, "ultra great great shogi", 19×19) and tai shogi (泰将棋, "grand shogi", 25×25). These variants date back at least to the 17th century. Tai shogi was thought to be the world's largest chess variant, but recently records of an even larger variant, taikyoku shogi (大局将棋, "ultimate shogi", 36×36), was discovered. Shogi variant The most recent large board variant is kō shōgi (廣将棋 or 廣象棋 "wide (elephant) chess", 19×19), which is played on a Go board and incorporates elements of Chinese chess. Ko shogi is unusual for the interdependence of its pieces and the complex rules of promotion. 342 Modern variants These are some of the new and old shogi variants which have been invented. Time will show which if any of the many recently-invented variants stand the test of usage and competition from other games, and stay in use. Small variants name board size 1×2 1 pieces each when invented invented by notes Bushi Shogi[2] Gufuu Shogi[3] Nana shogi[4] Dōbutsu shōgi Micro shogi 2000? Georg Dunkel The pieces are cubes, and move only by being rotated and set another face up. The players have a king each, & 2 shared pieces. 2×3 2 2000? Georg Dunkel 3×3 3 1998/2001 Georg Dunkel The pieces are cubes, and each piece's power and moves varies according to which of its 6 sides is up. Children's game. Dōbutsu shōgi (official site, rules, in Japanese) [5] . Also sold as "Let's Catch the Lion!" 3×4 4 recently Madoka Kitao 4×5 5 modern, before 1982 c. 1970 Oyama Yasuharu? Minishogi 5×5 6 Shigenobu Kusumoto He actually may have rediscovered it instead of inventing it. Comparatively popular. Kyoto shogi Judkins shogi Whale shogi 5×5 6×6 5 7 c. 1976 before April 1998 1981 Tamiya Katsuya Paul Judkins of Norwich, England R. Wayne Schmittberger of USA Ōhashi Sōei All pieces named after cetaceans. 6×6 12 Tori shogi 7×7 16 late 18th century 1981 All pieces named after birds. Uses the drop rule. One of the more popular shogi variants Yari shogi 7×9 14 Christian Freeling, Netherlands early form of shogi Heian shogi 8×8 or 9×8 16 or 18 c. 1120 or before Standard-size variants Shogi variant 343 name board size 9×9 9×9 pieces each 21 20 when invented 16th century February 1998 invented by notes Sho shogi Cannon shogi Hasami shogi Ancestor of modern shogi. Peter Michaelsen Shogi plus xiangqi-type cannons. 9×9 9 or 18 Like ludus latrunculorum. Not much like shogi. Hand shogi 9×9 19 pieces early 1997 John William Brown, Lewisville, Arizona Starts with 10 pieces each side in hand. Annan shogi Unashogi 9×9 20 A Korean variation of standard shogi where pieces gain the powers of the pieces behind them. Popular in Japan. 1994 Edward Jackman Starts with all pieces in hand. 9×9 20 Large variants name board size 10×10 pieces each 22 when invented invented by notes Okisaki shogi c. 1996 Masayuki Nakayachi All pieces are named after animals. Wa shogi Chu shogi Heian dai shogi Dai shogi Tenjiku shogi Dai-dai shōgi Maka-dai-dai shōgi Kō shōgi Hishigata shogi 11×11 12×12 13×13 15×15 16×16 17×17 19×19 27 46 34 65 76 96 96 early 14th century? early 14th century about AD 1230 15th or 16th century 15th or 16th century 15th century 19×19 19×19 90 39 turn of the 18th century 2005 or a bit before Sean Humby Based partly on xiangqi & projectile weapons. maka-dai-dai shogi with fewer pieces & different start [6] setup Tai shogi Taikyoku shogi 25×25 36×36 177 209 15th century around the mid 16th century Shogi variant 344 Three- and four-player variants name board size pieces each when invented circa 1930 1993 invented by notes Sannin shogi 7×7×7 hexagonal 18 Yonin shogi 9×9 9 Tanigasaki Jisuke three-person shogi Ota Mitsuyasu four-person shogi References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] See http:/ / www. cs. caltech. edu/ ~mvanier/ hacking/ gnushogi/ gnushogi_17. html http:/ / www. kolumbus. fi/ geodun/ bushi/ bushi. htm http:/ / www. kolumbus. fi/ geodun/ gufuu/ gufuu. htm http:/ / www. kolumbus. fi/ geodun/ nana/ nana3. htm http:/ / doubutsushogi. jp http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ shogivariants. dir/ hishigata. html Hishigata shogi External links • Shogi Variants Program (http://www.netspace.net.au/~trout/) • International Chu Shogi Ladder (http://www.shogi.net/chu-ladder/) • Richard's Play-By-EMail Server (http://www.gamerz.net/pbmserv/) - supports many shogi variants and chess variants. • Shogi variants (http://history.chess.free.fr/shogivar.htm) (French) Micro shogi Microshogi (五分摩訶将棋 gofun maka shōgi "5-minute (scarlet) poppy chess") is a modern variant of shogi (Japanese chess), with very different rules for promotion, and depromotion. Kerry Handscomb of NOST (knights Of the Square Table) gave it this English name. Although not confirmed, he credits its invention to the late Oyama Yasuharu, a top level shogi player. The game was invented before 1982. Rules of the game The game is identical to standard shogi with the following exceptions. Game equipment Two players play on a board ruled into a grid of 5 ranks (rows) by 4 files (columns). The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. Each player has a set of 5 wedge-shaped pieces. The pieces are of slightly different sizes. From largest to smallest (or most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • 1 king 1 bishop 1 gold general 1 silver general 1 pawn Micro shogi 345 Setup 4 3 2 1 4 K P 3 B 2 G 1 S a b c P d S G B K e 王 角 金 銀 一 将 行 将 将 歩 兵 二 三 歩 四 兵 銀 金 角 玉 五 将 将 行 将 Each side places his pieces in the following positions, pointing toward the opponent. For more information click here [1] . • In the rank nearest the player: • • • • The king is placed in the right corner The bishop is placed in the adjacent file to the king. The gold general is placed adjacent to the bishop. The silver general is placed adjacent to the gold general in the left corner. That is, the first rank is |S|G|B|K|. • In the second rank, each player places the pawn in the same file as the king. Promotion Unlike standard shogi, microshogi has no promotion zone. Instead, a piece promotes when it captures, and promotion is mandatory. When a promoted piece captures, it demotes—that is, it is flipped back over to show its original unpromoted value. Promotion values are entirely different from standard shogi: • • • • • A king does not promote: K A silver general becomes a lance and vice versa: S ↔ L A bishop becomes a tokin (T) and vice versa: B ↔ T A gold general becomes a rook and vice versa: G ↔ R A pawn becomes a knight and vice versa: P ↔ N Thus when a lance, tokin, rook, or knight makes a capture, it reverts back to its former state. A knight which reaches one of the two far ranks is trapped, as is a pawn which captures and thus promotes there. Likewise, a pawn that reaches the far rank is trapped, as is a knight which captures there. A lance is also trapped at the far rank, but can escape if it captures there and thus demotes to a silver. A silver which captures in the far rank and therefore promotes to a lance is trapped. Any trapped piece may be captured and returned to play as part of the opposing army. A tokin moves the same way as a golden general. Micro shogi 346 Drops Drops are similar to standard shogi, except that: • A player may drop a piece with either side facing up. • Except for dropping in the far rank, there are no other restrictions when dropping pawns. That is, a player may have two unpromoted pawns on the same file, and a pawn can be dropped to give immediate checkmate. External links • Shogi Net [2] • Shogi: Japanese Chess [3] • Chessvariants.com [1] References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ shogivariants. dir/ poppysh. html [2] http:/ / www. shogi. net/ shogi. html [3] http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ shogi. html Minishogi Minishogi (5五将棋 gogo shōgi "5V chess" or "5×5 chess") is a modern variant of shogi (Japanese chess). Shigenobu Kusumoto of Osaka, Japan, invented or rediscovered the game c. 1970. The rules are identical to those of standard shogi, except that it is played with a reduced number of pieces on a 5x5 board, and each player's promotion zone consists only of the rank farthest from the player. Rules of the game Minishogi is identical to standard shogi with the following exceptions: Game equipment Two players play on a board ruled into a grid of 5 ranks (rows) by 5 files (columns). The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. Each player has a set of 6 wedge-shaped pieces. The pieces are of slightly different sizes. From largest to smallest (or most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • • 1 king 1 rook 1 bishop 1 gold general 1 silver general 1 pawn These are identical to the standard pieces of the same names. Minishogi 347 Setup Each side places his pieces in the positions shown below, from the perspective of Black, pointing toward the opponent. In the rank nearest the player: • • • • • The king is placed in the left corner file. The gold general is placed in the adjacent file to the king. The silver general is placed adjacent to the gold general. The bishop is placed adjacent to the silver general. The rook is placed in the right corner, adjacent to the bishop. That is, the first rank is |K|G|S|B|R|. • In the second rank, each player places the pawn in the same file as the king. Promotion and drops These are as in standard shogi, except that the promotion zone is the farthest rank away from you. Pieces promote as they do in shogi. You can drop like you do in shogi as well. External links • Minishogi [1] at chessvariants.com • Website of the Japanese Minishogi Association [2] (in Japanese, but contains game records which can be understood without knowing Japanese) • Mini Shogi [3] 6x5 Mini Shogi iPhone software References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ shogivariants. dir/ minishog. html [2] http:/ / www. geocities. co. jp/ Playtown-Spade/ 8662/ [3] http:/ / www. cascadiagames. com/ game_minishogi. html Kyoto shogi 348 Kyoto shogi Kyoto shogi (京都将棋 kyōto shōgi "Kyoto chess") is a modern variant of shogi (Japanese chess). It was invented by Tamiya Katsuya c. 1976. Kyoto shogi is played like standard shogi, but with a reduced number of pieces on a 5×5 board. However, the pieces alternately promote and demote with every move, and the promotion values are entirely different from standard shogi. Rules of the game Game equipment Two players play on a board ruled into a grid of 5 ranks (rows) by 5 files (columns). The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. Each player has a set of 5 wedge-shaped pieces, of slightly different sizes. From largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: • 1 king • • • • 1 gold general 1 silver general 1 tokin 1 pawn Piece White king Black king Rook/pawn Kanji 王将 玉将 飛歩 Rōmaji ōshō gyokushō hifu ginkaku kinkei kyōto Silver-general/bishop 銀角 Gold-general/knight Lance/tokin 金桂 香と The names of the pieces combine their promoted and unpromoted values, and are puns in Japanese for words with the same pronunciations but different kanji. For example, the lance/tokin is homonymous with the name of the city 京都 Kyoto, and provides the name of the game. Setup Setup Kyoto shogi 349 5 歩 4 金 3 王 2 銀 1 と 一 二 三 四 5 P 4 G 3 K 2 S 1 T a b c d と 銀 玉 金 歩 五 T S K G P e Each side places his pieces in the positions shown below, pointing toward the opponent. • In the rank nearest the player: • • • • • The king (K) is placed in the center file. The gold general (G) is placed in the adjacent files to the right of the king. The silver general (S) is placed in the adjacent files to the left of the king. The tokin (T) is placed in the left corner. The pawn (P) is placed in the right corner. That is, the first rank is |T|S|K|G|P|. Promotion There is no promotion zone in Kyoto shogi. Every time a piece makes a move it alternately promotes and reverts to its unpromoted state. Promotion is effected by turning the piece over after it moves, revealing the name of its promoted rank; demotion is effected by turning the piece back. The promotion rules and values are reminiscent of microshogi and entirely different from standard shogi: • • • • • A king cannot promote: K A tokin (T) promotes to a lance and vice versa: T ↔ L A silver general promotes to a bishop and vice versa: S ↔ B A gold general promotes to a knight and vice versa: G ↔ N A pawn promotes to a rook and vice versa: P ↔ R Movement and capture A piece is allowed to move, capture or be dropped in a manner that will prevent it from moving on a subsequent turn, which is illegal in standard shogi. For example, a rook can move onto the farthest rank, becoming a pawn and unable to move further. Such pieces may be captured as any other. Drops A captured piece may be dropped with either side facing up. External links • Shogi Net [2] • Benri Shogi (in Chinese) [1] • Shogi: Japanese Chess [3] Kyoto shogi 350 References [1] http:/ / shogi. hk/ Judkins shogi Judkins shogi (ジャドケンス将棋 Jadokensu shōgi "Judkins chess") is a modern variant of shogi (Japanese chess), however it is not Japanese. Credit for its invention has been given to Paul Judkins of Norwich, UK, prior to April 1998. Rules of the game Objective The objective of the game is to capture your opponent's king. Game equipment Two players, Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote), play on a board ruled into a grid of 6 ranks (rows) by 6 files (columns). The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. Each player has a set of 7 wedge-shaped pieces, of slightly different sizes. From largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • • 1 king 1 rook 1 bishop 1 gold general 1 silver general 1 knight Setup • 1 pawn Most of the English-language names are chosen to correspond to rough equivalents in Western chess, rather than as translations of the Japanese names. Each piece has its name in the form of two kanji written on its face. On the reverse side of some pieces are one or two other characters, often in a different color (commonly red instead of black); this reverse side is turned up to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color, but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge, and faces forward, toward the opposing side. This shows who controls the piece during play. Table of pieces Listed here are the pieces of the game with their Japanese representation: Judkins shogi 351 Piece King (reigning) Kanji Rōmaji Unicode Hiragana Meaning king jade general flying chariot dragon king angle mover 王[将] ō[shō] 738b [5c06] おう[しょう] 7389 [5c06] ぎょく[しょう] 98db [8eca] ひ[しゃ] 7adc [738b] りゅう[おう] 89d2 [884c] かく[ぎょう] King (challenging) 玉[将] gyoku[shō] Rook Promoted rook Bishop Promoted bishop Gold general Silver general Promoted silver Knight Promoted knight Pawn Promoted pawn 飛[車] hi[sha] 竜[王] ryū[ō] 角[行] kaku[gyō] [竜]馬 uma (ryūma) [7adc] 99ac うま (りゅうま) dragon horse 金[将] kin[shō] 銀[将] gin[shō] 成銀 narigin 91d1 [5c06] きん[しょう] 9280 [5c06] ぎん[しょう] 6210 9280 なりぎん gold general silver general promoted silver laurelled horse promoted laurel foot soldier reaches gold 桂[馬] kei[ma] 成桂 歩[兵] narikei fu[hyō] 6842 [99ac] けい[ま] 6210 6842 なりけい 6b69 [5175] ふ[ひょう] 3068 [91d1] と[きん] と[金] to[kin] English speakers sometimes refer to promoted bishops as horses and promoted rooks as dragons, after their Japanese names, and generally use the Japanese name tokin for promoted pawns. Silver generals and gold generals are commonly referred to simply as silvers and golds. The characters inscribed on the backs of the pieces to indicate promoted rank may be in red ink, and are usually cursive. The characters on the backs of the pieces that promote to gold generals are cursive versions of 金 'gold', becoming more cursive (more abbreviated) as the value of the original piece decreases. These abbreviated characters have these equivalents in print: 全 for promoted silver, 今 for promoted knight, 仝 for promoted lance, and 个 for promoted pawn (tokin). Another convention has abbreviated versions of the original characters, with a reduced number of strokes: 圭 for promoted knight, 杏 for promoted lance, with promoted silver the same 全 as above, and と for tokin. Setup 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 R 5 B 4 N 3 S 2 G 1 K a P b c d P K G S N B R e f 飛 角 桂 銀 金 王 一 車 行 馬 将 将 将 歩 二 兵 三 四 歩 兵 五 玉 金 銀 桂 角 飛 六 将 将 将 馬 行 車 Each side places his pieces in the positions shown below, pointing toward the opponent. • In the rank nearest the player: Judkins shogi • • • • • • The king is placed in the left corner file. The gold general is placed in the adjacent file to the king. The silver general is placed adjacent to the gold general. The knight is placed adjacent to the silver general. The bishop is placed adjacent to the knight. The rook is placed adjacent to the bishop in the right corner. 352 That is, the first rank is |K|G|S|N|B|R|. • In the second rank, each player places the pawn in the same file as the king on the far left side. Game play The players alternate making a move, with Black moving first. (The traditional terms 'black' and 'white' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game, but are not literally descriptive.) A move consists of moving a single piece on the board and potentially promoting that piece, displacing (capturing) an opposing piece or dropping a captured piece onto an empty square of the board. Each of these options is detailed below. Movement and capture An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is, if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece, the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece (meaning another piece controlled by the moving player). Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is, forward, backward, left, or right, in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign, +), or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign, ×). The knight is an exception in that it does not move in a straight line. The movement categories are: Step movers Some pieces move only one square at a time. (If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square, the moving piece may not move in that direction; if an opposing piece is there, it may be displaced and captured.) The step movers are the king, gold general, silver general and pawn. Jumping piece The knight can jump, that is, it can pass over any intervening piece, whether friend or foe, with no effect on either. Ranging pieces The bishop and rook can move any number of empty squares along a straight line, limited only by the edge of the board. If an opposing piece intervenes, it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board. A ranging piece must stop where it captures, and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. If a friendly piece intervenes, the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece; if the friendly piece is adjacent, it cannot move in that direction at all. Promotion A player's promotion zone consists of the two farthest ranks, at the original line of the opponent's pawn and beyond (that is, the opponent's territory at setup). If a piece crosses the board within the promotion zone, including moves into, out of, or wholly within the zone, but not including drops (see below), then that player may choose to promote the piece at the end of the turn. Promotion is effected by turning the piece over after it moves, revealing the name of its promoted rank. Judkins shogi Promoting a piece has the effect of changing how that piece moves until it is removed from the board. Each piece promotes as follows: • A king or gold general cannot promote, nor can pieces which are already promoted. • A silver general, knight or pawn, when promoted, loses its normal movement and gains the movement of a gold general. • A bishop or rook, when promoted, keeps its normal movement and gains the ability to move one square in any direction (like a king). This means the bishop is now able to reach any square on the board, given enough moves. If a pawn or knight reaches the furthest rank, it must be promoted, since it would otherwise have no legal move on subsequent turns. For the same reason, a knight reaching the penultimate rank must be promoted. When captured, pieces lose their promoted status. 353 Individual pieces Following are diagrams that indicate the movement of each piece. Pieces are pared with their promotion and those with a grey heading start out in the game; promoted pieces have a blue heading. Notation ○ ☆ │ ─ \ / Steps to an adjacent square Jumps to a non-adjacent square, bypassing any intervening piece Ranges along a straight line, crossing any number of empty squares King (reigning) Step: The king can step one square in any direction, orthogonal or diagonal. The king general goes to the superior player. King (challenging) Step: The king can step one square in any direction, orthogonal or diagonal. The jeweled general goes to the inferior player. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 王 ○ ○ ○ 玉 ○ ○ Gold General Step: The gold general can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions; or, one square diagonally forward, giving it six possibilities. The gold general does not promote. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 金 ○ Silver General Step: The silver general can step one square in one of the four diagonal directions; or, one square straight forward, giving it five possibilities. Promoted Silver Step: The promoted silver can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions; or, one square diagonally forward, giving it six possibilities. ○ ○ 銀 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 全 ○ ○ ○ Knight Promoted Knight Judkins shogi 354 Step: The promoted knight can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions; or, one square diagonally forward, giving it six possibilities. Jump: The knight jumps at an angle intermediate between orthogonal and diagonal, amounting to one square forward plus one square diagonally forward, in a single motion, ignoring any intervening piece. That is, it has a choice of two forward destinations. A knight that reaches one of the two furthest ranks must promote. Bishop Range: The bishop can move any number of free squares along any of the four diagonal directions. Because it cannot move orthogonally, an unpromoted bishop can only reach half the squares on the board. ☆ 桂 ☆ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 圭 ○ Dragon Horse Range: The dragon horse can move any number of free squares along any of the four diagonal directions. Step: It can step one square in any of the four orthogonal directions. \ / \ / \ / \ ○ / 角 ○ 馬 ○ / ○ \ / \ / / \ \ Rook Range: The rook can move any number of free squares along any of the four orthogonal directions. Dragon King Range: The dragon king can move any number of free squares along any of the four orthogonal directions. Step: It can step one square in any of the four diagonal directions. │ │ ─ ─ 飛 ─ ─ │ ○ │ ─ ─ 竜 ○ ─ ─ │ │ ○ │ │ ○ Pawn Step: The pawn can step one square forward. A pawn that reaches the furthest rank must promote. There are restrictive rules for where a pawn may be dropped (see below). Tokin Step: The token can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions; or, one square diagonally forward, giving it six possibilities. ○ 歩 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ と ○ Drops Captured pieces are truly captured in Judkins shogi. They are retained "in hand", and can be brought back into play under the capturing player's control. On any turn, instead of moving a piece across the board, a player can take a piece he has previously captured and place it on any empty square, facing the opponent. The piece is now part of the forces controlled by that player. This is termed dropping the piece, or just a drop. A drop cannot capture a piece; that requires an additional move. Pieces that are dropped in the promotion zone do not promote as a result: Promotion requires that piece make a normal movement on a subsequent turn, as detailed under "Promotion", above. Pieces that are promoted when captured lose that promotion; they are unpromoted when dropped back on the board. A pawn or knight may not be dropped on the furthest rank, since it would have no legal move on subsequent turns. Similarly, a knight may not be dropped on the penultimate rank. Judkins shogi There are two restrictions when dropping pawns: A pawn cannot be dropped into the same file (vertical column) as another unpromoted pawn controlled by the same player. (A tokin, or promoted pawn, does not count as a pawn when considering this drop restriction.) A pawn cannot be dropped directly in front of the opponent's king, if the opponent would have no way to prevent his king being captured on the next move. In other words, a pawn cannot be dropped to give immediate mate. 355 Check and mate When a player makes a move, such that the opponent's king could be captured on the following move, the move is said to give check to the king; the king is said to be in check. If a player's king is in check and no legal move by that player will get it out of check, the checking move is also mate, and effectively wins the game. A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. Game end A player who captures the opponent's king wins the game. In practice this rarely happens, as a player will resign when checkmated, as otherwise when loss is inevitable. A player who makes an illegal move loses immediately. (This rule may be relaxed in casual games.) There are two other possible (but fairly uncommon) ways for a game to end: repetition (千日手 sennichite) and impasse (持将棋 jishōgi). If the same position occurs four times with the same player to play, then the game is no contest. Recall, however, the prohibition against perpetual check. For two positions to be considered the same, the pieces in hand must be the same, as well as the position on the board. The game reaches an impasse if both kings have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. If this happens then the winner is decided as follows: each rook or bishop scores 5 points for the owning player, and all other pieces (except kings) score 1 point each. Promotions are ignored for the purposes of scoring. A player scoring less than 12 points loses. If both players have at least 12 points, then the game is no contest. Games which are no contest are usually counted as draws in amateur tournaments, but in professional style tournaments the rules may require the game to be replayed with colors reversed (possibly with reduced time limits). Handicaps Games between players of disparate strength are often played with handicaps. In a handicap game, one or more of White's pieces is removed before the start of play, and White plays the first move of the game. Note that the pieces removed at the beginning play no further part in the game - they are not available for drops. The imbalance created by this method of handicapping is not as strong as it is in chess, because material advantage is not as powerful in Judkins shogi as in chess. Common handicaps, in increasing order of size, are as follows: • Remove White's bishop • Remove White's rook • Two pieces: remove White's rook and bishop Other handicaps are also occasionally used. The relationship between handicaps and differences in rank is not universally agreed upon. Judkins shogi 356 Game notation The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess, but differs in several respects. Minor variations are made for Judkins shogi. A typical example is P-6d. The first letter represents the piece moved: P = pawn, N = knight, S = silver, G = gold, B = bishop, R = rook, K = king. Promoted pieces have a + added in front of the letter. e.g., +P for a tokin (promoted pawn). The designation of the piece is followed by a symbol indicating the type of move: - for an ordinary move, x for a capture, or * for a drop. Next is the designation for the square on which the piece lands. This consists of a number representing the file and a lowercase letter representing the rank, with 1a being the top right corner (as seen from Black's point of view) and 6f being the bottom left corner. (This method of designating squares is based on Japanese convention, which, however, uses Japanese numerals instead of letters. For example, the square 2c is denoted by 2三 in Japanese.) If a move entitles the player to promote the piece, then a + is added to the end to signify that the promotion was taken, or an = to indicate that it was declined. For example, Nx5c= indicates a knight capturing on 5c without promoting. In cases where the above notation would be ambiguous, the designation of the start square is added after the designation for the piece in order to make clear which piece is meant. For example, if Black has two golds (one was captured and dropped) which can be moved to the square 5e in front of the king, and these are distinguished as C6e-5d (moving the left one) and C4e-5d (moving the right one). Moves are commonly numbered as in chess. For example, the start of a game might look like this: 1. P-1c 2. P-1d P-6d P-6c In handicap games White plays first, so Black's move 1 is replaced by an ellipsis. External links • Chessvariants.com [1] References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ shogivariants. dir/ judkin. html Whale shogi 357 Whale shogi Whale Shogi (鯨将棋 kujira shōgi) is a modern variant of shogi (Japanese chess). It is not, however, Japanese: it was invented by R. Wayne Schmittberger of the United States in 1981. The game is similar to Judkins shogi, but with more pieces, and all the pieces are named after a type of whale. Rules of the game Objective The objective of the game is to capture your opponent's white whale. Game equipment Two players, Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote), play on a board ruled into a grid of 6 ranks (rows) by 6 files (columns). The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. Each player has a set of 12 wedge-shaped pieces, of slightly different sizes. From largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • • • 1 white whale (W) 1 porpoise (P) 1 humpback (H) 1 grey whale (G) 1 narwhal (N) 1 blue whale (B) 6 dolphins (D) Each piece has its initial written on its face. On the reverse side of the porpoise is another letter (K for 'killer whale'), often in a different color (commonly red instead of black); this reverse side is turned up to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color, but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge, and faces forward, toward the opposing side. This shows who controls the piece during play. Because this is a Western shogi variant, and kanji for the whales are difficult even for the Japanese, the pieces use Latin letters rather than kanji. Setup 1 B D 2 N D 3 P D 4 5 6 H a D b c d D H D D D P D N D e B f W G D D G W This is the starting setup of a game of whale shogi, from the perspective of Black. Each side places his pieces in the positions shown below, pointing toward the opponent. • In the rank nearest the player: • The white whale is placed just left of center. Whale shogi • • • • • The porpoise is placed in the adjacent file to the right of the white whale. The humpback is placed in the left corner. The grey whale is placed between the white whale and the humpback. The narwhal is placed adjacent to the porpoise. The blue whale is placed adjacent to the narwhal in the right corner. 358 That is, the first rank is: H G W P N B • In the second rank, the six dolphins are placed one in each file. Game play The players alternate making a move, with Black moving first. (The traditional terms 'black' and 'white' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game, but are not literally descriptive.) A move consists of moving a single piece on the board and potentially promoting that piece, displacing (capturing) an opposing piece or dropping a captured piece onto an empty square of the board. Each of these options is detailed below. Movement and capture An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is, if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece, the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece (meaning another piece controlled by the moving player). Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is, forward, backward, left, or right, in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign, +), or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign, ×). Some pieces are capable of more than one kind of movement, with the type of movement most often depending on the direction in which they move. The movement categories are: Step movers Some pieces move only one square at a time. (If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square, the moving piece may not move in that direction; if an opposing piece is there, it may be displaced and captured.) The step movers are the white whale, porpoise, humpback, narwhal, blue whale and killer whale. Jumping piece The narwhal can jump, that is, it can pass over any intervening piece, whether friend or foe, with no effect on either, but only directly forward. Ranging pieces The grey whale and killer whale can move any number of empty squares along a straight line, limited only by the edge of the board. The dolphin can, too, but only on the back rank. If an opposing piece intervenes, it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board. A ranging piece must stop where it captures, and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. If a friendly piece intervenes, the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece; if the friendly piece is adjacent, it cannot move in that direction at all. Whale shogi Individual pieces Below are diagrams indicating each piece's movement. Pieces with a grey heading start out in the game; those with a blue heading only appear on the board after promotion. Notation ○ ☆ │ ─ \ / Steps to an adjacent square Jumps to a non-adjacent square, bypassing any intervening piece Ranges along a straight line, crossing any number of empty squares 359 White Whale (白鯨 hakugei) ○ ○ ○ ○ W ○ ○ ○ ○ • Step: The white whale can step one square in any direction, orthogonal or diagonal. Porpoise (ネズミイルカ nezumi iruka) ○ P ○ • Step: The porpoise can move one square orthogonally sideways. The porpoise promotes to a killer whale upon capture. Narwhal (イッカク ikkaku) ☆ ○ N ○ ○ • • Jump: The narwhal can jump to the second square directly forward; or, Step: It can move one square directly backward or sideways. Blue Whale (シロナガスクジラ shironagase kujira) Whale shogi 360 ○ ○ B ○ ○ • Step: The blue whale can step one square directly forward or backward, or one square diagonally forward, giving it four possibilities. Grey Whale (コククジラ koku kujira) | | G / / \ \ • Range: The grey whale can move any number of free squares directly forward or diagonally backward. Killer Whale (シャチ shachi) │ ○ │ ─ ─ ○ ─ K ─ ○ ○ │ │ • • Range: The killer whale can move any number of free squares along any of the four orthogonal directions. Step: It can move one square in any diagonal direction. Humpback Whale (ザトウクジラ zatō kujira) ○ H ○ ○ ○ ○ • Step: The humpback can step one square in one of the four diagonal directions, or directly backward. Dolphin (イルカ iruka) ○ D Whale shogi 361 D / / \ \ • • Step: The dolphin can step one square forward; or, Range: It can move any number of free squares diagonally backward, but only if it is in the farthest rank. Drops Captured pieces are truly captured in whale shogi. They are retained "in hand", and can be brought back into play under the capturing player's control. On any turn, instead of moving a piece across the board, a player can take a piece he has previously captured and place it on any empty square, facing the opponent. The piece is now part of the forces controlled by that player. This is termed dropping the piece, or just a drop. A drop cannot capture a piece; that requires an additional move. A porpoise cannot be dropped as such. When captured, the porpoise promotes to a killer whale and can only be dropped as a killer whale. There are three restrictions when dropping dolphins: • A dolphin may not be dropped on the furthest rank, even though it has a legal move on subsequent turns. • A dolphin cannot be dropped into the same file (vertical column) as two other dolphins controlled by the same player. For this reason, one may sacrifice a dolphin in order to gain flexibility for drops. • A dolphin cannot be dropped if the opponent would have no way to prevent his white whale being captured on the next move. In other words, a dolphin cannot be dropped to give immediate mate. Check and mate When a player makes a move such that the opponent's white whale could be captured on the following move, the move is said to give check to the white whale; the white whale is said to be in check. If a player's white whale is in check and no legal move by that player will get the white whale out of check, the checking move is also mate, and effectively wins the game. A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. Game end A player who captures the opponent's white whale wins the game. In practice this rarely happens, as a player will resign when checkmated, as otherwise when loss is inevitable. A player who makes an illegal move loses immediately. (This rule may be relaxed in casual games.) There are two other possible (but fairly uncommon) ways for a game to end: repetition (千日手 sennichite) and impasse (持将棋 jishōgi). If the same position occurs four times with the same player to play, then the game is no contest. Recall, however, the prohibition against perpetual check. For two positions to be considered the same, the pieces in hand must be the same, as well as the position on the board. The game reaches an impasse if both white whales have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. If this happens then the winner is decided as follows: each grey whale scores 5 points for the owning player, and all other pieces (except white whales) score 1 point each. Promotions are ignored for the purpose of scoring. A player scoring less than 14 points loses. If both players have at least 14 points, then the game is no contest. Whale shogi Games which are no contest are usually counted as draws in amateur tournaments, but if a professional-style tournament is to be played the rules may require the game to be replayed with colors reversed (possibly with reduced time limits). 362 Handicaps Games between players of disparate strength are often played with handicaps. In a handicap game, one or more of White's pieces is removed before the start of play, and White plays the first move of the game. Note that the pieces removed at the beginning play no further part in the game—they are not available for drops. The imbalance created by this method of handicapping is not as strong as it is in chess, because material advantage is not as powerful in whale shogi as in chess. Common handicaps, in increasing order of size, are as follows: • • • • • Remove White's grey whale Remove White's humpback Remove White's porpoise Remove White's porpoise and grey whale Two pieces: remove White's porpoise and humpback • Three pieces: remove White's porpoise, humpback and grey whale Other handicaps are also occasionally used. The relationship between handicaps and differences in rank is not universally agreed upon. Game notation The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess, but differs in several respects. This notation is modified for use in whale shogi in the letters used to name the pieces. A typical example is P-f6. The first letter represents the piece moved: D = dolphin, B = blue whale, N = narwhal, G = grey whale, H = humpback, P = porpoise, W = white whale. The promoted porpoise is simply K = killer whale. The designation of the piece is followed by a symbol indicating the type of move: - for an ordinary move, x for a capture, or * for a drop. Next is the designation for the square on which the piece lands. This consists of a lowercase letter representing the file and a number representing the rank, with a1 being the top right corner (as seen from Black's point of view) and f6 being the bottom left corner. (This method of designating squares is the reverse of Japanese convention.) In cases where the above notation would be ambiguous, the designation of the start square is added after the designation for the piece in order to make clear which piece is meant. For example, if Black has two humpbacks (one was captured and dropped) which can be moved to the square h5 in front of the White whale, and these are distinguished as Hi6-h5 (moving the left one) and Gi4-h5 (moving the right one). Moves are commonly numbered as in chess. For example, the start of a game might look like this: 1. D-e4 2. D-d4 3. D-d3 D-c3 N-b3 Dxd3 In handicap games White plays first, so Black's move 1 is replaced by an ellipsis. Whale shogi 363 Paulowich Whale Shogi This variant invented by David Paulowich in 2005 uses a 7x7 board and includes a new extra piece, the Pacific Northern Right Whale (A). It moves as a minor Gray Whale in that instead of sliding, it moves only one square, but also directly forwards or diagonally backwards—in other words, just like a dog in tenjiku shogi. It can be captured and dropped and all other Whale Shogi rules are the same. Setup 1 B D 2 N D 3 P D 4 5 6 G D 7 H a D b c d e D H D G D D D P D N D f W A D D A W B g External links • Shogi Net [2] • chessvariants.com [1] • Whale Shogi [2] References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. com [2] http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ shogivariants. dir/ whale. html Tori shogi 364 Tori shogi Tori shōgi (禽将棋 or 鳥将棋, 'bird chess') is a variant of shogi (Japanese chess) attributed to Ōhashi Sōei in the late 18th century. The game is played on a 7×7 board and uses the drop rule; it's the only Japanese variant to do so. This is one of the more popular shogi variants. Rules of the game Objective The objective of the game is to capture your opponent's phoenix. Game equipment Two players, Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote), play on a board ruled into a grid of 7 ranks (rows) by 7 files (columns). The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. Each player has a set of 16 wedge-shaped pieces, of slightly different sizes. From largest to smallest (or most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • • 1 phoenix 1 falcon 2 cranes 2 pheasants 2 quails (a left and a right) 8 swallows In line with the bird theme, each piece is named after a different kind of bird. Each piece has its name in the form of a kanji written on its face. On the reverse side of some pieces is another character, often in a different color (commonly red instead of black) and are usually cursive; this reverse side is turned up to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. (The quail are different: on one side is the character for "quail", while on the other is the character for left or right; some people will play with the "left"/"right" side up instead of the "quail" side up.) The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color, but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge, and faces forward, toward the opposing side. This shows who controls the piece during play. Table of pieces Listed here are the pieces of the game in English and Japanese: Piece Phoenix Falcon Kanji 鵬 鷹 Romaji ootori, hō taka, ō Abbreviation Ph Fa *Mountain Hawk Eagle 鵰 Crane Pheasant Quail (right and left) Swallow *Wild goose 鶴 雉 鶉 燕 鴈 kumataka, shū +Fa tsuru, kaku kiji, chi uzura, jun tsubame, en kari, gan Cr Pt Q (RQ & LQ) Sw +Sw Tori shogi The first pronunciation of each piece is the Japanese pronunciation, while the second is the Sino-Japanese pronunciation. The promoted pieces (*) are usually called eagle and goose in English. 365 Setup Below is a diagram showing the setup of the pieces. Black pieces are in bold face in the first diagram, and bigger in the second, and move first: RQ Pt Cr Ph Fa Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Cr Pt LQ Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Fa LQ Pt Cr Ph Cr Pt RQ 7 鶉 6 雉 5 鶴 4 鵬 鷹 3 鶴 2 雉 1 鶉 一 二 燕 燕 燕 燕 燕 燕 燕 燕 三 四 五 六 七 燕 燕 燕 燕 燕 燕 燕 燕 鷹 鶉 雉 鶴 鵬 鶴 雉 鶉 Game play The players alternate making a move, with Black moving first. (The traditional terms 'black' and 'white' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game, but are no longer literally descriptive.) A move consists of moving a single piece on the board and potentially promoting that piece, displacing (capturing) an opposing piece or dropping a captured piece onto an empty square of the board. Each of these options is detailed below. Movement and capture An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is, if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece, the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece (meaning another piece controlled by the moving player). Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is, forward, backward, left, or right, in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign, +), or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign, ×). Many pieces are capable of several kinds of movement, with the type of movement most often depending on the direction in which they move. The movement categories are: Tori shogi Step movers Some pieces move only one square at a time. (If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square, the moving piece may not move in that direction; if an opposing piece is there, it may be displaced and captured.) The step movers are the phoenix, falcon, crane, and the 8 swallows on each side. Limited ranging piece The eagle can move along a limited number (2) of free (empty) squares along a straight line in certain directions. Other than the limited distance, it moves like ranging pieces (see below). Jumping pieces The pheasant and goose can jump, that is, they can pass over any intervening piece, whether friend or foe, with no effect on either. Ranging pieces The quail and eagle can move any number of empty squares along a straight line, limited only by the edge of the board. If an opposing piece intervenes, it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board. A ranging piece must stop where it captures, and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. If a friendly piece intervenes, the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece; if the friendly piece is adjacent, it cannot move in that direction at all. 366 Promotion A player's promotion zone consists of the two farthest ranks, at the original line of the opponent's falcon and beyond. If a piece crosses the board within the promotion zone, including moves into, out of, or wholly within the zone, but not including drops (see below), then that player must promote the piece at the end of the turn. Promotion is effected by turning the piece over after it moves, revealing the name of its promoted rank. Promoting a piece has the effect of changing how that piece moves until it is removed from the board (see above). Only two pieces promote, as follows: • A falcon promotes to an eagle. • A swallow promotes to a goose. When captured, pieces lose their promoted status. Individual pieces Below are diagrams indicating each piece's movement. Pieces with a grey heading start out in the game; those with a blue heading only appear on the board after promotion. Notation ○ ☆ │ \ / Steps to an adjacent square or has a limited range Jumps to a non-adjacent square, bypassing any intervening piece Ranges along a straight line, crossing any number of empty squares Tori shogi 367 Phoenix Step: The phoenix can step one square in any direction, orthogonal or diagonal. The phoenix is the "royal" or "objective" piece. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 鵬 ○ ○ Falcon Step: The falcon can step one square in any direction, orthogonal or diagonal except directly backwards. Eagle Range: The eagle can move any number of free squares diagonally forward or directly backward; or, Limited range: It can move one or two squares diagonally backward; or, Step: It can step one square directly forward or sideways. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ \ / ○ 鷹 ○ \ ○ / ○ 鵰 ○ │ ○ ○ ○ │ ○ Crane Step: The crane can move one square in the four diagonal directions; or, It can move one square orthogonally forward or backward. That is, it can move to any of the six adjacent squares ahead or behind it, but not directly to the side. Pheasant Jump: The pheasant can jump to the second square directly forward; or, Step: It can move one square diagonally backward. Because of its unusual movement, a pheasant can only reach half the squares on the board. Right Quail Range: The right quail can move any number of free squares directly forward or diagonally backward to the left; or, Step: It can move one square diagonally backward to the right. ○ ○ 鶴 ○ ☆ 雉 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Left Quail Range: The left quail can move any number of free squares directly forward or diagonally backward to the right; or, Step: It can move one square diagonally backward to the left. │ │ │ 鶉 / / ○ │ 鶉 ○ \ \ Swallow Step: The swallow can step one square forward. ○ 燕 Goose Jump: The goose can jump to the second square directly backward or diagonally forward. ☆ 鴈 ☆ ☆ Tori shogi 368 Drops Captured pieces are truly captured in tori shogi. They are retained "in hand", and can be brought back into play under the capturing player's control. On any turn, instead of moving a piece across the board, a player can take a piece he has previously captured and place it on any empty square, facing the opponent. The piece is now part of the forces controlled by that player. This is termed dropping the piece, or just a drop. A drop cannot capture a piece; that requires an additional move. Pieces that are dropped in the promotion zone do not promote as a result: Promotion requires that piece make a normal movement on a subsequent turn, as detailed under "Promotion", above. Pieces that are promoted when captured lose that promotion; they are unpromoted when dropped back on the board. There are three restrictions when dropping swallows: A swallow may not be dropped on the furthest rank, since it would have no legal move on subsequent turns. A swallow cannot be dropped into the same file (vertical column) as two other unpromoted swallows controlled by the same player. (A goose, or promoted swallow, does not count as a swallow when considering this drop restriction.) A swallow cannot be dropped where the opponent would have no way to prevent his phoenix being captured on the next move. In other words, a swallow cannot be dropped to give immediate mate. Check and mate When a player makes a move such that the opponent's phoenix could be captured on the following move, the move is said to give check to the phoenix; the phoenix is said to be in check. If a player's phoenix is in check and no legal move by that player will get the phoenix out of check, the checking move is also mate, and effectively wins the game. A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. This is not a rule in itself, but arises from the repetition rule. Repetition The rule for repetition (千日手 sennichite) in tori shogi is that if the same position occurs three times with the same player to play by repetition of moves, the player starting the sequence must vary the move. For two positions to be considered the same, the pieces in hand must be the same, as well as the position on the board.[1] Game end A player who captures the opponent's phoenix wins the game. In practice this rarely happens, as a player will resign when checkmated, as otherwise when loss is inevitable. A player who makes an illegal move loses immediately. (This rule may be relaxed in casual games.) Another possible (but fairly uncommon) way for a game to end is impasse (持将棋 jishōgi). The rules for impasse and tournaments are of modern origin and may be ignored for traditional game play. The game reaches an impasse if both phoenixes have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. If this happens then the winner is decided as follows: each falcon scores 5 points for the owning player, and all other pieces (except phoenixes) score 1 point each. Promotions are ignored for the purposes of scoring. A player scoring less than 17 points loses. If both players have at least 17 points, then the game is no contest. Games which are no contest are usually counted as draws in amateur tournaments, but in professional style tournaments the rules may require the game to be replayed with colors reversed (possibly with reduced time limits). Tori shogi 369 Handicaps Games between players of disparate strength are often played with handicaps. In a handicap game, one or more of White's pieces is removed before the start of play, and White plays the first move of the game. Note that the pieces removed at the beginning play no further part in the game—they are not available for drops. The imbalance created by this method of handicapping is not as strong as it is in chess, because material advantage is not as powerful in tori shogi as in chess. Common handicaps, in increasing order of size, are as follows: • • • • Remove White's left quail Remove White's falcon Two pieces: remove White's falcon and left quail Three pieces: remove White's falcon and both quails Other handicaps are also occasionally used. The relationship between handicaps and differences in rank is not universally agreed upon. Game notation The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess, but differs in several respects. Modifications have been made for tori shogi. A typical example is Sw-6d. The first letter represents the piece moved: Sw = swallow, Q = quail, Pt = pheasant, Cr = crane, Fa = falcon, Ph = phoenix. Promoted pieces have a + added in front of the letter, as +Sw for a goose (promoted swallow). The designation of the piece is followed by a symbol indicating the type of move: - for an ordinary move, x for a capture, or * for a drop. Next is the designation for the square on which the piece lands. This consists of a number representing the file and a lowercase letter representing the rank, with 1a being the top right corner (as seen from Black's point of view) and 7g being the bottom left corner. (This method of designating squares is based on Japanese convention, which, however, uses Japanese numerals instead of letters. For example, the square 2c is denoted by 2三 in Japanese.) If a move requires the player to promote the piece, then a + is added to the end to signify that the promotion was taken. For example, SWx4a+ indicates a swallow capturing on 4a and promoting. In cases where the above notation would be ambiguous, the designation of the start square is added after the designation for the piece in order to make clear which piece is meant. For example, if Black has a crane at both 3c and 5c, which can be moved to the square 4b in front of the phoenix, then these are distinguished as Cr5c-4b (moving the left one) and Cr3c-4b (moving the right one). Optionally, a prefix may be added to the quail to distinguish the left quail from the right quail, LQ and RQ, when the left quail appears to the right of the right quail. Moves are commonly numbered as in chess. For example, the start of a game might look like this: 1. Swx3c 2. Fax5e 3. Cr-5f Swx5e Fax3c Q-1b In handicap games White plays first, so Black's move 1 is replaced by an ellipsis. Tori shogi 370 References [1] Rules for Tori Shogi (http:/ / www. shogi. net/ rjhare/ tori-shogi/ tori-intro. html#rules) by Roger Hare External links • Shogi Net (http://www.shogi.net/shogi.html) • Shogi.net/tori shogi (http://www.shogi.net/rjhare/tori-shogi/tori-intro.html) • Online play on Little Golem (http://www.littlegolem.net) Yari shogi Yari shogi (槍将棋 yari shōgi, spear chess, where 'spear' is another name for the lance piece) is a modern variant of shogi (Japanese chess), however it is not Japanese. It was invented in 1981 by Christian Freeling of the Netherlands. This game accentuates shogi’s intrinsically forward range of direction by giving most of the pieces the ability to move any number of free squares orthogonally forward like a shogi lance. The opposite is true of promoted pieces which can move backward with the same power. Rules of the game Objective The objective of the game is to capture your opponent's general. Game equipment Two players, Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote), play on a board ruled into a grid of 9 ranks (rows) by 7 files (columns). The squares are undifferentiated by markings or color. Each player has a set of 14 wedge-shaped pieces, of slightly different sizes. From largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • 1 general 2 yari rooks 2 yari bishops 2 yari knights 7 pawns Most of the English names were chosen to correspond to rough equivalents in Western chess, rather than as translations of the Japanese names. Setup Each piece has its name in the form of two kanji written on its face. On the reverse side of some pieces are one or two other characters, often in a different color (commonly red instead of black); this reverse side is turned up to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color, but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge, and faces forward, toward the opposing side. This shows who controls the piece during play. Yari shogi Table of pieces Listed here are the pieces of the game with their Japanese representation: Piece General Yari rook Rook 将 香飛[車] 飛[車] Kanji shō kyō hi[sha] hi[sha] kyō kaku[gyō] Rōmaji しょう きょうひ[しゃ] ひ[しゃ] きょうかく[ぎょう] Hiragana general incense flying chariot flying chariot incense angle mover Meaning 371 Yari bishop 香角[行] Yari gold 成香角[行] narikyō kaku[gyō] なりきょうかく[ぎょう] promoted incense angle mover kyō kei[ma] narikyō kei fu[hyō] kyō gin[shō] きょうけい[ま] なりきょうけい ふ[ひょう] きょうきん[しょう] incense laurelled horse promoted incense laurel foot soldier incense silver general Yari knight 香桂[馬] Yari gold Pawn Yari silver 成香桂 歩[兵] 香銀[将] Setup 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 飛 桂 桂 将 車 馬 馬 角 角 飛 一 行 行 車 二 YR YN YN G YB YB YR a b P P P P P P P c d e f P P P P P P P g h YR YB YB G YN YN YR i 歩 歩 歩 兵 兵 兵 歩 兵 歩 歩 歩 三 兵 兵 兵 四 五 六 歩 歩 歩 兵 兵 兵 歩 兵 歩 歩 歩 七 兵 兵 兵 八 飛 角 角 将 車 行 行 桂 桂 飛 九 馬 馬 車 Each side places his pieces in the positions shown, pointing toward the opponent. • In the rank nearest the player: • • • • The general is placed in the center file. The two yari bishops are placed in the adjacent two files to left of the general. The two yari knights are placed in the two adjacent files to the right of the general. The two yari rooks are placed in the far corners. That is, the first rank is: YR YB YB G YN YN YR • In the third rank, the seven pawns are placed one in each file. Yari shogi 372 Gameplay The players alternate making a move, with Black moving first. (The traditional terms 'black' and 'white' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game, but are not literally descriptive.) A move consists of moving a single piece on the board and potentially promoting that piece, displacing (capturing) an opposing piece or dropping a captured piece onto an empty square of the board. Each of these options is detailed below. Movement and capture An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is, if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece, the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece (meaning another piece controlled by the moving player). Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is, forward, backward, left, or right, in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign, +), or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign, ×). The knight is an exception, in that it is not required to move in a straight line. If a piece that cannot retreat or move aside advances across the board until it can no longer move, it must promote. This applies to the pawn, yari knight, yari bishop and yari rook upon reaching the farthest rank, and to the yari knight upon reaching either of the two farthest ranks. Many pieces are capable of several kinds of movement, with the type of movement most often depending on the direction in which they move. The movement categories are: Step movers The king and pawn move only one square at a time. (If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square, the moving piece may not move in that direction; if an opposing piece is there, it may be displaced and captured.) Jumping piece The yari knight can jump, that is, it can pass over any intervening piece, whether friend or foe, with no effect on either. Ranging pieces Many pieces can move any number of empty squares along a straight line, limited only by the edge of the board. If an opposing piece intervenes, it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board. A ranging piece must stop where it captures, and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. If a friendly piece intervenes, the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece; if the friendly piece is adjacent, it cannot move in that direction at all. The ranging pieces are the yari rook, yari bishop and yari knight. Promotion A player's promotion zone consists of the three farthest ranks, at the original line of the opponent's pawns and beyond (that is, the opponent's territory at setup). If a piece crosses the board within the promotion zone, including moves into, out of, or wholly within the zone, but not including drops (see below), then that player may choose to promote the piece at the end of the turn. Promotion is effected by turning the piece over after it moves, revealing the name of its promoted rank. Promoting a piece has the effect of changing how that piece moves until it is removed from the board. Each piece promotes as follows: • A general cannot promote, nor can pieces which are already promoted. Yari shogi • A yari bishop or yari knight loses its normal movement and gains the ability to move one square orthogonally forward or sideways, diagonally forward and any number of free squares orthogonally backward. • A pawn, when promoted, keeps its normal movement and gains the ability to move one square diagonally forward or any number of free squares backward. • A yari rook, when promoted, keeps its normal movement and gains the ability to move any number of free squares backward. If a yari bishop, yari knight or pawn reaches the farthest rank, it must be promoted, since it would otherwise have no legal move on subsequent turns. When captured, pieces lose their promoted status. 373 Individual pieces Below are diagrams indicating each piece's movement. Pieces are paired with their promotion. Pieces with a grey heading start out in the game; those with a blue heading only appear on the board after promotion. Notation ○ Steps to an adjacent square ☆ Jumps to a non-adjacent square, bypassing any intervening piece │ ─ Ranges along a straight line, crossing any number of empty squares General Step: The general can step one square in any direction, orthogonal or diagonal. The general is the "royal" or "objective" piece. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 将 ○ ○ Yari Knight Jump: The yari knight jumps at an angle intermediate between orthogonal and diagonal, amounting to one square forward plus one square diagonally forward, in a single motion, ignoring any intervening piece; or, Range: It can move any number of free squares straight forward. A yari knight that reaches the farthest rank must promote. Yari Gold Range: The yari gold can move any number of free squares directly backward. Step: It can step one square directly forward or sideways; or, one square diagonally forward. ☆ │ │ 桂 ☆ ○ ○ ○ ○ 成桂 ○ │ │ Yari Rook Range: The yari rook can move any number of free squares orthogonally forward or sideways. Rook Range: The rook can move any number of free squares along any of the four orthogonal directions. │ │ │ ─ ─ 成飛 ─ ─ │ ─ ─ 飛 ─ ─ │ │ Yari Bishop Yari Gold Yari shogi 374 Range: The yari gold can move any number of free squares directly backward. Step: It can step one square directly forward or sideways; or, one square diagonally forward. Range: The yari bishop can move any number of free squares directly forward; or, Step: It can move one square diagonally forward. A yari bishop that reaches the farthest rank must promote. │ ○ │ 角 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 成角 ○ │ │ Pawn Step: The pawn can step one square forward. A pawn that reaches the farthest rank must promote. There are restrictive rules for where a pawn may be dropped (see below). Yari Silver Range: The yari silver can move any number of free squares directly backward; or, Step: It can move one square forward, orthogonally or diagonally. ○ 歩 ○ ○ 銀 │ │ ○ Drops Captured pieces are truly captured in yari shogi. They are retained "in hand", and can be brought back into play under the capturing player's control. On any turn, instead of moving a piece across the board, a player can take a piece he has previously captured and place it on any empty square, facing the opponent. The piece is now part of the forces controlled by that player. This is termed dropping the piece, or just a drop. A drop cannot capture a piece; that requires an additional move. Pieces that are dropped in the promotion zone do not promote as a result: Promotion requires that piece make a normal movement on a subsequent turn, as detailed under "Promotion", above. Pieces that are promoted when captured lose that promotion; they are unpromoted when dropped back on the board. A pawn, yari knight, or yari bishop may not be dropped on the farthest rank, since it would have no legal move on subsequent turns. A pawn cannot be dropped into the same file (vertical column) as another unpromoted pawn controlled by the same player. (A yari silver, or promoted pawn, does not count as a pawn when considering this drop restriction.) A player who has an unpromoted pawn on every file is therefore unable to drop a pawn anywhere. For this reason, it is common to sacrifice a pawn in order to gain flexibility for drops. Unlike shogi, a pawn can be dropped when the opponent would have no way to prevent his general being captured on the next move. In other words, a pawn can be dropped to give immediate mate. Check and mate When a player makes a move such that the opponent's general could be captured on the following move, the move is said to give check to the general; the general is said to be in check. If a player's general is in check and no legal move by that player will get the general out of check, the checking move is also a mate, and effectively wins the game. A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. Game end A player who captures the opponent's general wins the game. In practice this rarely happens, as a player will resign when checkmated, as otherwise when loss is inevitable. A player who makes an illegal move loses immediately. (This rule may be relaxed in casual games.) Yari shogi There are two other possible (but fairly uncommon) ways for a game to end: repetition (千日手 sennichite) and impasse (持将棋 jishōgi). If the same position occurs three times with the same player to play, then the game is no contest. (Recall, however, the prohibition against perpetual check.) For two positions to be considered the same, the pieces in hand must be the same, as well as the position on the board. The game reaches an impasse if both generals have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. If this happens then the winner is decided as follows: each yari rook or yari bishop scores 5 points for the owning player, and all other pieces (except generals) score 1 point each. Promotions are ignored for the purposes of scoring. A player scoring less than 26 points loses. If both players have at least 26 points, then the game is no contest. Games which are no contest are counted as draws in tournament style games. 375 Handicaps Games between players of disparate strength are often played with handicaps. In a handicap game, one or more of White's pieces is removed before the start of play, and White plays the first move of the game. Note that the pieces removed at the beginning play no further part in the game - they are not available for drops. The imbalance created by this method of handicapping is not as strong as it is in chess, because material advantage is not as powerful in yari shogi as in chess. Common handicaps, in increasing order of size, are as follows: • • • • • Remove White's left yari bishop Remove White's left yari rook Two pieces: remove White's left yari rook and left yari bishop Four pieces: remove White's yari rooks and yari bishops Six pieces: remove White's yari rooks, yari bishops and yari knights Other handicaps are also occasionally used. The relationship between handicaps and differences in rank is not universally agreed upon. Game notation The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess, but differs in several respects. It has been modified for use in yari shogi. A typical example is P-7f. The first letter represents the piece moved: P = pawn, YN = yari knight, YB = yari bishop, YR = yari rook, G = general. Promoted pieces have a + added in front of the letter. e.g., +P for a yari silver (promoted pawn). The designation of the piece is followed by a symbol indicating the type of move: - for an ordinary move, x for a capture, or * for a drop. Next is the designation for the square on which the piece lands. This consists of a number representing the file and a lowercase letter representing the rank, with 1a being the top right corner (as seen from Black's point of view) and 7i being the bottom left corner. (This method of designating squares is based on Japanese convention, which, however, uses Japanese numerals instead of letters. For example, the square 2c is denoted by 2三 in Japanese.) If a move entitles the player to promote the piece, then a + is added to the end to signify that the promotion was taken, or an = to indicate that it was declined. For example, YNx7c= indicates a yari knight capturing on 7c without promoting. In cases where the above notation would be ambiguous, the designation of the start square is added after the designation for the piece in order to make clear which piece is meant. For example, in the initial position Black has Yari shogi two yari bishops which can be moved to the square 5h, and these are distinguished as YB6i-5h (moving the left one) and YB5i-5h (moving the right one). Moves are commonly numbered as in chess. For example, the start of a game might look like this: 1. P-7f 2. P-2f P-3d YB-3b 376 In handicap games White plays first, so Black's move 1 is replaced by an ellipsis. Strategy and tactics Drops are the most serious departure from Western chess. They entail a different strategy, with a strong defensive position being much more important. A quick offense will leave a player's home territory open to drop attacks as soon as pieces are exchanged. Because pawns attack head on, and cannot defend each other, they tend to be lost early in the game, providing ammunition for such attacks. Dropping a pawn behind enemy lines, promoting, and dropping a second pawn behind it so they protect each other is a strong attack; it threatens the opponent's entire defense, but provides little of value if the attack fails and the pieces are captured. Players raised on Western chess often make poor use of drops, and dropping is half the game. If a player has more than a couple captured pieces in hand, it is likely that dropping attacks are being overlooked. However, it is wise to keep a pawn in hand, and often to exchange pieces if necessary to get one. Attacking pieces can easily become trapped behind enemy lines, as the opponent can often drop a pawn in a protected square to cut off a line of retreat. For this reason, yari rooks are commonly kept at a safe distance in the early parts of the game, and are used to support attacks by weaker pieces. There are various ranging yari rook openings, where the yari rook moves to the center or left of the board to support an attack. However, as the most powerful piece on the board it invites attack, and it is a good idea to keep your general well away from your yari rook. Advancing a yari rook pawn can open up the side of the board for attack. Therefore, when a player first advances a yari rook pawn, it is usual for the opponent to answer by advancing the opposing pawn, in order to avoid complications later in the game. External links • Chessvariants.com / yari shogi [1] • MindSports / yari shogi [2] References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ ms. dir/ yarishogi. html [2] http:/ / mindsports. nl/ index. php/ side-dishes/ more-games-by-cf?start=5 Heian shogi 377 Heian shogi Heian shōgi (平安将棋 "Heian era chess") is a predecessor of modern shogi (Japanese chess). Some form of chess almost certainly reached Japan by the 9th century, if not earlier, but the earliest surviving Japanese description of the rules dates from the early 12th century (c. 1120, during the Heian period). Unfortunately, this description does not give enough information to actually play the game, but this has not stopped people attempting to reconstruct this early form of shogi. Rules of the game Piece movements were as in modern shogi, but there was no rook or bishop. The board appears to have been 9×8 or 8×8. The setup is unknown, but can reasonably be assumed to have been the same as in modern shogi (minus the rook and bishop, and minus a gold general in the 8×8 case), although it's possible that the pawns started on the second rank rather than the third. It can safely be assumed that the game was played without drops. This article outlines a fairly complete set of rules that can make the game playable in modern times. Objective The objective of the game is to either capture your opponent's king or all the other pieces. Game equipment Two players, Black and White (先手 sente and 後手 gote), play on a board ruled into a grid of 8 or 9 ranks (rows) by 8 or 9 files (columns). The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. Each player has a set of 16 or 18 wedge-shaped pieces, of slightly different sizes. From largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • • 1 king 1 or 2 gold generals 2 silver generals 2 knights 2 lances 8 or 9 pawns Most of the English names were chosen to correspond to rough equivalents in Western chess, rather than as translations of the Japanese names. Each piece has its name in the form of two kanji written on its face. On the reverse side of some pieces are two other characters, often in a different color (commonly red instead of black); this reverse side is turned up to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color, but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge, and faces forward, toward the opposing side. This shows who controls the piece during play. Table of pieces Listed here are the pieces of the game with their Japanese representation. Heian shogi 378 Piece King Gold general Kanji 玉将 金将 Rōmaji Unicode Abbreviation Meaning jade general gold general silver general laureled horse incense chariot foot soldier gyokushō 7389 5c06 玉 kinshō ginshō keima kyōsha fuhyō 91d1 5c06 金 9280 5c06 銀 6842 99ac 桂 9999 8eca 香 6b69 5175 歩 Silver general 銀将 Knight Lance Pawn 桂馬 香車 歩兵 Silver generals and gold generals are commonly referred to simply as silvers and golds, parallel to their abbreviations in Japanese. The characters inscribed on the backs of the pieces to indicate promoted rank may be in red ink. All pieces except the king and gold general promote to gold. Setup Below is the board setup for a 9x9 board. Smaller boards, of size 9x8, 8x9, or 8x8, can be obtained from this size board by removing the e-row (五-row), the sixth column, or both. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 9 L 8 N 7 S 6 G 5 K 4 G 3 S 2 N 1 L a b 香 桂 銀 金 玉 金 銀 桂 香 一 車 馬 将 将 将 将 将 馬 車 二 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 三 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 四 五 六 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 七 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 八 香 桂 銀 金 玉 金 銀 桂 香 九 車 馬 将 将 将 将 将 馬 車 P P P P P P P P P c d e f P P P P P P P P P g h L N S G K G S N L i Each side places his pieces in the positions shown below, pointing toward the opponent. • In the rank nearest the player: • • • • • The king is placed in the center file or left of center. The two gold generals are placed in the adjacent files to the king or one to its right. The two silver generals are placed adjacent to each gold general or gold general and king. The two knights are placed adjacent to each silver general. The two lances are placed in the corners, adjacent to each knight. That is, the first rank is |L|N|S|G|K|G|S|N|L| or |L|N|S|K|G|S|N|L|. • In the third rank, the eight or nine pawns are placed one in each file. Heian shogi 379 Game play The players alternate making a move, with Black moving first. (The traditional terms 'black' and 'white' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game, but are no longer literally descriptive.) A move consists of moving a single piece on the board and potentially promoting that piece or displacing (capturing) an opposing piece. Movement and capture An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is, if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece, the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece (meaning another piece controlled by the moving player). Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is, forward, backward, left, or right, in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign, +), or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign, ×). The knight is an exception in that it does not move in a straight line. If a lance or pawn, which cannot retreat or move aside, advances across the board until it can no longer move, it must be promoted upon reaching the farthest rank. This also applies to the knight upon reaching either of the two farthest ranks. The movement categories are: Step movers Some pieces move only one square at a time. (If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square, the moving piece may not move in that direction; if an opposing piece is there, it may be displaced and captured.) The step movers are the king, gold general, silver general and pawn. Jumping piece The knight can jump, that is, it can pass over any intervening piece, whether friend or foe, with no effect on either. Ranging piece The lance can move any number of empty squares along a straight line, limited only by the edge of the board. If an opposing piece intervenes, it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board. A ranging piece must stop where it captures, and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. If a friendly piece intervenes, the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece; if the friendly piece is adjacent, it cannot move in that direction at all. Individual pieces Below are diagrams indicating each piece's movement. ○ - Steps to a square. ☆ - Leaps to a square (jumping over any intervening piece). │ - Ranging movement (may cross any number of empty squares). Heian shogi 380 King Step: The king can step one square in any direction, orthogonal or diagonal. Gold General Step: The gold general can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions; or, one square diagonally forward, giving it six possibilities. ○ ○ ○ ○ 玉 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 金 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Silver General Step: The silver general can step one square in one of the four diagonal directions; or, one square straight forward, giving it five possibilities. Knight Jump: The knight jumps at an angle intermediate between orthogonal and diagonal, amounting to one square forward plus one square diagonally forward, in a single motion, ignoring any intervening piece. That is, it has a choice of two forward destinations. A knight that reaches one of the two farthest ranks must promote. ○ ○ ○ 銀 ☆ 桂 ☆ ○ ○ Lance Range: The lance can move any number of free squares straight forward. A lance that reaches the farthest rank must promote. Pawn Step: The pawn can step one square forward. A pawn that reaches the farthest rank must promote. │ │ 香 ○ 歩 Promotion A player's promotion zone consists of the three farthest ranks, at the original line of the opponent's pawns and beyond (that is, the opponent's territory at setup). If a piece crosses the board within the promotion zone, including moves into, out of, or wholly within the zone then that player may choose to promote the piece at the end of the turn. Promotion is effected by turning the piece over after it moves, revealing the name of its promoted rank. Promoting a piece has the effect of changing how that piece moves until it is removed from the board. Each piece promotes as follows: • A king or a gold general cannot promote, nor can pieces which are already promoted. • A silver general, knight, lance or pawn, when promoted, loses its normal movement and gains the movement of a gold general. If a pawn, knight or lance reaches the farthest rank, it must be promoted, since it would otherwise have no legal move on subsequent turns. For the same reason, a knight reaching the penultimate rank must be promoted. Heian shogi 381 Check and mate When a player makes a move such that the opponent's king could be captured on the following move, the move is said to give check to the king; the king is said to be in check. If a player's king is in check and no legal move by that player will get the king out of check, the checking move is also mate, and effectively wins the game. A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. Game end A player who captures the opponent's king or all of the other pieces (bare king) wins the game. In practice this rarely happens, as a player will resign when checkmated, as otherwise when loss is inevitable. A player who makes an illegal move loses immediately. (This rule may be relaxed in casual games.) There are two other possible (but fairly uncommon) ways for a game to end: repetition (千日手 sennichite) and impasse (持将棋 jishōgi). If the same position occurs four times with the same player to play, then the game is no contest. (Recall, however, the prohibition against perpetual check.) The game reaches an impasse if both kings have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. Game notation The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess, but differs in several respects. A typical example is P-8f. The first letter represents the piece moved: P = pawn, L = lance, N = knight, S = silver, G = gold, K = king. Promoted pieces have a + added in front of the letter. e.g., +P for a tokin (promoted pawn). The designation of the piece is followed by a symbol indicating the type of move: - for an ordinary move or x for a capture. Next is the designation for the square on which the piece lands. This consists of a number representing the file and a lowercase letter representing the rank, with 1a being the top right corner (as seen from Black's point of view) and 8h or 9h being the bottom left corner. (This method of designating squares is based on Japanese convention, which, however, uses Japanese numerals instead of letters. For example, the square 2c is denoted by 2三 in Japanese.) If a move entitles the player to promote the piece, then a + is added to the end to signify that the promotion was taken, or an = to indicate that it was declined. For example, Nx7c= indicates a knight capturing on 7c without promoting. In cases where the above notation would be ambiguous, the designation of the start square is added after the designation for the piece in order to make clear which piece is meant. For example, in the initial position Black may have two golds which can be moved to the square 5g in front of the king, and these are distinguished as G6h-5g (moving the left one) and G4h-5g (moving the right one). Moves are commonly numbered as in chess. For example, the start of a game might look like this: 1. P-7e 2. P-2e P-3d G-3b Heian shogi 382 External links • Shogi Net [2] • Chessvariants.com/heian shogi [1] References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. com/ shogivariants. dir/ heian. html Sho shogi Shō Shōgi (小将棋 'small chess') is a 16th century form of shogi (Japanese chess), and the immediate predecessor of the modern game. It was played on a 9x9 board with the same setup as in modern shogi, except that an extra piece stood in front of the king: A 'drunk elephant' that promoted into what was effectively a second king. (While 9x9 may not seem 'small', it was smaller than the other shogi variants prevalent at the time.) The drunk elephant was eliminated by the Emperor Go-Nara (reigned 1526-1557), and it is assumed that the drop rule was introduced at about the same time, giving rise to shogi as we know it today. Rules of the game Objective The objective of the game is to capture your opponent's king and crown prince (if present) or all other pieces. Game equipment Two players, Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote), play on a board ruled into a grid of 9 ranks (rows) by 9 files (columns). The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. Each player has a set of 21 wedge-shaped pieces, of slightly different sizes. From largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • • • • • 1 king 1 drunken elephant 1 rook 1 bishop 2 gold generals 2 silver generals 2 knights 2 lances 9 pawns Most of the English names were chosen to correspond to rough equivalents in Western chess, rather than as translations of the Japanese names. Each piece has its name in the form of two kanji written on its face. On the reverse side of some pieces are two other characters, often in a different color (commonly red instead of black); this reverse side is turned up to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color, but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge, and faces forward, toward the opposing side. This shows who controls the piece during play. Sho shogi Table of pieces Listed here are the pieces of the game with their Japanese representation: Piece King (reigning) Kanji 王将 Rōmaji ōshō Abr. 王 Meaning royal general jade general drunken elephant crown prince flying chariot dragon king angle mover dragon horse gold general silver general promoted silver laureled horse promoted laurel incense chariot promoted incense foot soldier reaches gold 383 King (challenging) 玉将 Drunken Elephant Crown prince Rook Promoted rook Bishop Promoted bishop Gold general Silver general Promoted silver Knight Promoted knight Lance Promoted lance Pawn Promoted pawn 酔象 太子 飛車 竜王 角行 竜馬 金将 銀将 成銀 桂馬 成桂 香車 成香 歩兵 と金 gyokushō 玉 suizō taishi hisha ryūō kakugyō ryūma kinshō ginshō narigin keima narikei kyōsha narikyō fuhyō tokin 酔 太 飛 竜 角 馬 金 銀 全 桂 圭 香 杏 歩 と English speakers sometimes refer to promoted bishops as horses and promoted rooks as dragons, after their Japanese names, and generally use the Japanese name tokin for promoted pawns. Silver generals and gold generals are commonly referred to simply as silvers and golds. The characters inscribed on the backs of the pieces to indicate promoted rank may be in red ink, and are usually cursive. The characters on the backs of the pieces that promote to gold generals are cursive versions of 金 'gold', becoming more cursive (more abbreviated) as the value of the original piece decreases. These abbreviated characters have these equivalents in print: 全 for promoted silver, 今 for promoted knight, 仝 for promoted lance, and 个 for promoted pawn (tokin). Another convention has abbreviated versions of the original characters, with a reduced number of strokes: 圭 for promoted knight, 杏 for promoted lance, with promoted silver the same 全 as above, and と for tokin. Sho shogi 384 Setup 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 9 L 8 N R P P P P 7 S 6 G 5 K DE P P P 4 G 3 S 2 N B P P 1 L a b c d e f P P B L N S G P P P DE K G S P P P R N L P g h i 香 桂 銀 金 王 金 銀 桂 香 一 車 馬 将 将 将 将 将 馬 車 飛 車 酔 象 角 行 二 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 三 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 四 五 六 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 七 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 角 行 酔 象 飛 車 八 香 桂 銀 金 玉 金 銀 桂 香 九 車 馬 将 将 将 将 将 馬 車 Each side places his pieces in the positions shown below, pointing toward the opponent. • In the rank nearest the player: • • • • • The king is placed in the center file. The two gold generals are placed in the adjacent files to the king. The two silver generals are placed adjacent to each gold general. The two knights are placed adjacent to each silver general. The two lances are placed in the corners, adjacent to each knight. That is, the first rank is |L|N|S|G|K|G|S|N|L|. • In the second rank, each player places: • The bishop in the same file as the knight on the player's left. • The rook in the same file as the knight on the player's right. • The drunken elephant in th