CI 512: Teaching and Learning. Thursday, 7/21: Week 1 Classical Learning Theories Behaviorism. Class Outline Classical Theories and Behaviorism. Note Taker: Iman Alattar Observer: Martin Rausch Community Standards and Logistics (9:00-9:05) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
CI 512: Teaching and Learning
CI 512: Teaching and LearningThursday, 7/21: Week 1
Classical Learning TheoriesBehaviorismClass Outline Classical Theories and BehaviorismNote Taker: Iman Alattar Observer: Martin Rausch
Community Standards and Logistics (9:00-9:05) Syllabus Questions and Outline of the Course (9:05-9:20)Classical Learning Theories (9:20-9:40) Behaviorism, Drill & PracticeSmall Group Discussion and Break (9:40-10:30)Whole Class (10:30-11:00)Snapshots Work-time (11:00-11:35)Observer Observations (11:35-11:40)Conclusions and Exit Cards (11:40-11:50)
Scoring Guide for Synthesis PaperSummarizes at least three theories of teaching and learning No EvidenceSome EvidenceSubstantial EvidenceArticulates an educational philosophy that includes at least one theory of teaching and learningNo EvidenceSome EvidenceSubstantial EvidenceApplies age-appropriate application of teaching and learning theory within a cultural and community context No EvidenceSome EvidenceSubstantial EvidenceUses knowledge of teaching and learning theories to depict respectful, supportive and challenging learning environments No EvidenceSome EvidenceSubstantial EvidenceCommunity StandardsGoalsPracticesRespectful InteractionInclusion of Diverse PerspectivesActive Participation
Allow time for reflectionDistinguish facts from opinions in discussionUse moderation judiciously to balance between free-flowing conversation and dominationCome to class preparedBe respectfulComments from Exit CardsMany are aware of their role as a listener and a speaker in the classLearning names Community practice of stating your name before you talk Changing SeatsLingering Questions about Course ContentTentative Calendar7/19Introductions, Course Expectations, Theory7/21Work on SnapshotsClassical Learning TheoryBehaviorism 7/26Snapshot Draft 1Procedural vs. Conceptual Understanding7/28Work on SnapshotsLearning and TransferDewey and Realistic Education8/2Snapshot Draft 2Constructivism I8/4Constructivism IIGroup work brainstorm- evaluation criteria8/9Synthesis Draft DueResponse DueSocial Learning TheoryWork on Presentations8/11Snapshots DueResponse DueReactions to constructivismWork on Presentations8/16Presentation Paper DuePresentations
8/18Synthesis Paper DuePresentations and Wrap-upClassical Learning Theories Plato Lock FreudPlato (428?-347 BC)All knowledge rests in an eternal soul, but is forgotten upon birthEr visited the Lethe river in Hades and witnessed souls drinking forgetfulnessKnowledge construction is the process of remembering what was forgotten
Er was a soldier who appeared to die in battle, and two weeks later came back to tell of how souls picked their new lives. The Lethe river is also called the river of forgetfulness. 8Allegory of the CaveHow is learning symbolized in this allegory?How does teaching take place?PlatoLearning is a passive processInstruction should be teacher centered- those with greater wisdom can be a guide for the ignorantEmphasis on the importance of learning virtues and reason
We must reject the conception of education professed by those who say that they can put into the mind knowledge that was not there before rather as if they could put sight into blind eyes The faculty by which he learns is like an eye which cannot be turned from darkness to light unless the whole body is turned; in the same way the mind as a whole must be turned away from the world of change until it can bear to look straight at reality.- Plato, The RepublicJohn Locke (1632-1704)Tabula rasa (blank slate) philosophy maintains that human minds are born completely free of contentThe mind is biologically wired with abilities such as memory, recall, and the capacity to join ideas togetherSimple ideas are formed directly through experience and observationSimple ideas can be combined to form complex ideas.
A study by Rothstein (2008) found the followingOn average, professional parents spoke more than 2,000 words per hour to their children, working-class parents spoke about 1,300, and welfare mothers spoke about 600. At 4 years old, children of professionals had vocabularies that were nearly 50 percent larger than those of working-class children and twice as large as those of welfare children.
How could this be explained through Lockean educational theory?Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Learning is controlled by our psycheLearning is a challenging processes in which a childs natural state is changed Constant conflict between the ego and natural desires
the instinctual life of the child must be taken into account if education is to succeedthis "natural state" of the child which the parents or teachers must struggle to change. One of the most important mistakes of classical pedagogy is to think that development can be a peaceful process. There is conflict between the ego of the child and his instinctive desires. There is, at a later stage, conflict between the libido and the superego, and also, at a still later stage, between the ego and the superego, between new knowledge and the deeply held habits and ways of looking at the world acquired from his parents.
14The child is frightfully inconsiderate of others and egotistic; he is only concerned with getting his own way and satis-fying his own desires; he is quite indifferent as to whether this hurts others or not. He is dirty and odoriferous; he does not mind catching hold of the most disgusting things or even putting them to his mouth. He is quite shameless so far as his own body is concerned and very curious about the things that other people wish to conceal from him. He is greedy and will steal dainties. He is cruel to all living creatures that are weaker than himself and filled with a perfect lust for destroying inanimate objects. He has an abundance of naughty bodily tricks, he sucks his fingers, he bites his nails, he picks his nose and plays with his sexual organs; he does all these things urged by his intense desire for self-fulfillment, and regards the slightest hindrance as intolerable.-Anna Freud (1935)the most important general conceptual messages of Miss Freud is thecontinual presence of conflict in the emotional life of the child. The problem for education, as she emphasizes, is to be neither too repressive nor too permissive, but the wisest message of all is that conflict is inevitable and should not be considered unnatural.
15Small Group Discussion Phillips and Soltis (Behaviorism) What are the primary features of behaviorism?How to the tenants of behaviorism align with current standardized testing practices? Resnick and Ford (Drill and practice) For what types of learning has drill and practice been particularly effective for you? For what types of learning has it been ineffective? Brownell (Reaction to drill and practice)
BehaviorismLens for researchTheory on what consists of learningFocuses on external behaviors of humansViews human learning as biologically similar to animal learning
BehaviorismClassical Conditioning Pavlov (1849-1946)Focuses on involuntary response mechanisms for learningOperant ConditioningThorndike (1874-1949)Reinforcement (positive and negative) to reinforce bondsSkinner (1904-1990)Continuous vs. intermittent reinforcement schedules
Drill & Practice and the role of automaticityWorking memory space is limitedAutomaticity frees up space in working memory to allow for other cognitive function Common examples include talking while driving, reading, and arithmetic Working Memory TheoryMiller (1957) The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information
BarnEngineBayFireTicketKeySwallowHairGreenCabinDuckAngerPlaceGunDataLandHardFeetSpoonLoudHeartWorking Memory TheoryMiller (1957) The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information
Differentiation of Inputs of a single characteristic (loudness, pitch, taste, shades of grey) (72)Memorization of bits of information (72)Bits could be recoded into chunksRecoding Binary Data into Chunks
BarnEngineBayFireTicketKeySwallowHairGreenCabinDuckAngerPlaceGunDataLandHardFeetSpoonLoudHeartWorking Memory and RecodingSidney Smith (1954) was able to recode at a 5:1 ratio and recite a 40 digit binary number to the Eastern Psychological AsociationSnapshotsGroup ActivityThink of a personally significant learning experienceHow might you explain or interpret this experience through the lens of behaviorism?
Snapshot Draft (due Tuesday 7/26)Carefully describe one learning experience in a well written paragraphInterpret this experience through the lens of behaviorismSnapshots GroupsGroup 1Group 2Group 3Group 4Group 5Group 6ImanDerekColinTealeGregMike T.CarlosArielleWestieChadMichaelNickMike P.ChaiKarenSeanKyleLauraCaseyMike M.MartinExit CardsRate your level of participation for today (0-3)What went well for you in class?What could be improved for you in class?