Class 3: Sacraments of InitiationTHE SACRAMENT OF THE HOLY EUCHARIST
From the Prayer Before Study
by Thomas AquinasIneffable Creator...You are proclaimed the true font of light and wisdom,and the primal origin raised high beyond all things.Pour forth a ray of Your brightness into the darkened places of my mind; disperse from my soul the twofold darknessinto which I was born: sin and ignorance.You make eloquent the tongues of infants. Refine my speech and pour forth upon my lips the goodness of Your blessing.
Grant to me keenness of mind, capacity to remember, skill in learning, subtlety to interpret, and eloquence in speech.May You guide the beginning of my work, direct its progress, and bring it to completion.You Who are true God and true Man, Who live and reign, world without end. Amen
Introduction1. Completion of Christian Initiation (CCC 1322)2. Perpetuation of the Sacrifice of the Cross (CCC 1323)3. Source and Summit of Christian life4. Communion in the Divine Life: Sign and Cause (CCC 1325; cf. 260)
The Holy Eucharist: consider.Why did Jesus give us the Holy Eucharist?How is the Eucharist important for Evangelization?What is transubstantiation? Is it biblical?What does the Eucharist do to people?What is the relationship the Eucharist and joy?
Introduction5. Two-fold participation (CCC 1326)A. In the heavenly liturgyB. In Eternal Life/ Resurrection
Names of the EucharistCCC 1328Eucharist -- to give thanksCreationRedemptionSanctification
Names of the Eucharist
Memorial of the Lords Passion and Death
Names of the EucharistHoly SacrificeHoly and Divine LiturgyMost Blessed SacramentHoly CommunionThe Holy ThingsCommunion of Saints (1331)
Names of the EucharistHoly Mass1. Concludes with Ite Missa Est
2. The sending of the prayers to God with Christ
3. The sending of the Sacrifice itself to God
Names of the EucharistHoly MassAnd from this the mass derives its name missa; because the priest sends [mittit] his prayers up to God through the angel, as the people do through the priest. or else because Christ is the victim sent [missa] to us: accordingly the deacon on festival days "dismisses" the people at the end of the mass, by saying: "Ite, missa est," that is, the victim has been sent [missa est] to God through the angel, so that it may be accepted by God. (St Thomas Aquinas)
The Eucharist in the Old TestamentThe Fruit of the Tree of Life (Gen 2-3)The Bread and Wine of Melchizedek (Gen 14:18)The Sacrifice of Isaac and the lamb of God (Gen 22:1-8)The Passover Sacrifice (Ex 12)The Bread from Heaven (Ex 16)The MannaThe QuailThe Tabernacle of Moses (Ex 25)The Bread of the Presence
The Bread of Life Sermon (Jn 6)The context: Passover (Jn 6:4); cf. Ex 12Feeding the five thousandPrefigures superabundance of the Eucharist (CCC 1335)He blessed, he broke, he gave (Matt 14:19; Luke 22:19)When he had given thanks (eucharistesas) Jn 6:11Response of crowd: the New Moses (cf. Deut 18:15-19)
The Bread of Life Sermon (Jn 6)The demand for a sign: Moses and Manna (John 6:30; Exodus 16)
The Bread of Life Sermon (Jn 6)The Bread of life discourse: Two interpretationsMetaphorical (eating = believing)Sacramental (refers to the Eucharist)Caphernetic (cannibalism)
The Bread of Life Sermon (Jn 6)Part One: The Necessity of Faith ( John 6:35-47)Importance of belief in the Son Faith as a gift from the Father
The Bread of Life Sermon (Jn 6)Part two: The necessity of the Eucharist (John 6:48-58)The New Manna comes down from heaven and gives eternal lifeis my fleshJews understand him literally, and he does not correct them
The Bread of Life Sermon (Jn 6)The Necessity of eating his flesh and drinking his blood (John 6:55)The disciples response: a hard saying and they departKey: resurrection and ascension: Jesus risen flesh (CCC 1392)The flesh is useless
John 6Jesus use of the words phagein and trogein
The Last Supper: The Institution of the Eucharist (Lk 22)The context of the Last Supper: The Jewish Passover (GK Pascha) (Ex 12)Kill the lamb (Ex 12:6, 46)Dip a hyssop branch in the blood of the lamb Sprinkle the blood on the doorposts and lintelEat the flesh of the lambSign of the covenant is the blood of the lamb (Ex 21:13; cf. Ezek 9, Rev 7)Passover: a day of remembering to be observed forever (Ex 12:14, 24)A night of watching (Ex 12:40-42)
The Last Supper: The Institution of the Eucharist (Lk 22)The New Passover: transfiguration topic; Behold I make all things new (Rev 21:5)The New Lamb: Jesus himselfThe New Sacrifice: Bread and wineThe New temple: Jesus body (cf. John 2)The New priesthood: Jesus and the twelveThe New Covenant: the family of God restored (Jer 31:31-33)The New Israel: the 12 tribes restored (Luke 22:28-30)The New Creation: bread and wine transformed into Jesus Body and Blood
The Last Supper: The Institution of the Eucharist (Lk 22)What is the link between this new Passover and the crucifixion?
One explanation: the fourth cup in the Passover meal
The Last Supper: The Institution of the Eucharist (Lk 22)THE FOURTH CUP:Jewish passover liturgy had multiple cups 3rd cup: The cup of blessing (cf. 1 Cor 10:16-17)Singing of the final Hallel (Psalm 116)4th cup: The Cup of Consummation
The Last Supper: The Institution of the Eucharist (Lk 22)THE FOURTH CUP:Jesus does not complete the Passover!He vows not to drink of the fruit of the vine again (Mt 26:29)They sing the hymn then leave! (Mt 26:30)Jesus in the garden: Take this cup from me) Mt 26Jesus does not drink on the way to the cross (Mt 27:34)The Crucifixion (John 19:25-30)I thirstHe drinks: It is finished..
Three-fold dimension of the EucharistThanksgiving and Praise to the FatherSacrificial memorialThe Presence of Christ
Thanksgiving and Praise to the Father
CCC 1359Most basic motif: act of thanksgiving for ALL: creation, redemption, sanctificationOffered on behalf of all creation: to the Father, through and with Christ.
Sacrificial MemorialCCC 1362Memorial of Christs passoverAnamnesis: recalling and making present (in memory of his death and resurrection, we offer you Father.This mighty deeds become present and real (CCC 1363)
Sacrificial MemorialSacrificial character in Christs own words:This is my body which is given for youThis cup which is poured out for you is the New Covenant in my blood
Sacrificial MemorialThe Eucharist re-presents the Sacrifice of the cross (makes present) (CCC 1366)This is ONE SINGLE SACRIFICE (CCC 1367)
The Presence of Christ in the Eucharist CCC 1373by the power of his word and the Holy Spirit
The Presence of Christ in the Eucharist CCC 1373by the power of his word and the Holy SpiritVarious modes of Christs presence at MassMost especially in the Eucharistic SpeciesUnique: the end toward of all the other sacramentsIpse Christus
The Presence of Christ in the Eucharist CCC 1374The Eucharist is Jesus Christ:Body, Blood, Soul, and DivinityHumanity and DivinityThe Whole Christ is truly, really, substantially contained. real in the fullest senseSubstantial: whole and entire
TransubstantiationCCC 1376Whole substance of bread and wine into whole substance of ChristCCC 1377Doctrine of Concomitance: whole Christ present in the species and in each of their parts (He is not divided though the species are)
Substance: an appropriate word?Used officially at Fourth Lateran Council in 1215Biblical usage: Our Fatherepi-ousiosSt. Ambroses De Sacramentis (AD 380): We receive the figura of the body and blood of Our Lord Figura= substantia
Council of Trent Formulated our doctrinal language for the Eucharist with precisionCCC 1376cf. 13th session of Trent
Heretical theories of Eucharistic PresenceSymbolic PresenceEucharist is purely symbolicUlrich Zwingli (a father of the reformation)Baptists, many non-denominational protestants
Heretical theories of Eucharistic PresenceSpiritual PresenceChrists SPIRIT is present, not his bodyJohn CalvinAnglican ChurchMany non-denominational ProtestantsModernist Catholics
Heretical theories of Eucharistic PresenceConsubstantiationChrists body and blood exist alongside the bread and wineIncarnational analogy makes it believable Competitive nature of human nature is the problemMartin Luther (impanation)Some Anglicans
Worship of the EucharistPaul VI: The Church has always offered and continued to offer the cult of adoration not only during Mass but outside of it. (CCC 1378)Importance of Eucharistic adoration (CCC 1380-1381)
Holy CommunionRequirements for reception (CCC 1385)Preparation (CCC 1386-88)Minimal requirements (1389)
Fruits of Holy CommunionCCC 1391Augments of Union with ChristNourishes spiritual lifeSeparates us from sinWipes away venial sinsPreserves from future mortal sinsmakes the Church (CCC 1396)Commits us to the poor (e.g., Mother Theresa)
For next time....Read introduction (p. 1-15), Ch 1 (p. 1-23) of the GIRM and familiarize yourself with the layoutRead Catechism section on Sacraments of HealingBe ready for quiz on the Holy Eucharist
*General Instruction of the Roman Missal
Third edition of the Roman Missal promulgated in 2001 (in Latin)November 12, 2002, Bishops in USCCB approved Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani, confirmed by Holy See in 2003It is the authoritative norm of interpreting and celebrating the 2002 Missal
*Layout of GIRMPreamble Importance/Dignity of the MassStructure of the MassDuties and Ministries of the MassDifferent forms of the MassArrangement, FurnishingsRequisites of the MassAlso.
*Layout of GIRMThe choice of the Mass and partsVarious circumstances, Masses for deadAdaptations for Bishops, conferencesIndex
*Highlights of the GIRMCommon issues....