COWASH Training QGIS 1 QGIS GUIDE FOR WASH FACILITY basics.pdf QGIS GUIDE FOR WASH FACILITY DATA

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COWASH Training QGIS 1 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba QGIS GUIDE FOR WASH FACILITY DATA COLLECTORS AND -MANAGERS QGIS (previously known as Quantum GIS) is widely used open source GIS software. Usage is very similar to market leader ArcGIS. This guide teaches the basics of QGIS and demonstrates how to check if the collected WASH facility points are correctly positioned inside the target woreda/kebele boundaries. Training is conducted using the Amhara regions Yilmana Densa woredas database as an example. Data is originally downloaded from National WASH-inventory database (NWI M&E MIS) and it has then been prepared for GIS-use in a way which is learned in OpenOffice CALC- and Excel trainings. CONTENTS Frequently used terms ................................................................................................................................................ 2 Requirements ............................................................................................................................................................. 2 Installing QGIS ............................................................................................................................................................ 2 Preparations ............................................................................................................................................................... 3 How to organize the tools ............................................................................................................................................... 3 Selecting the correct coordinate system for your project .............................................................................................. 4 Adding new vector data .................................................................................................................................................. 5 Basic operations ......................................................................................................................................................... 7 Zooming the view and moving the map ......................................................................................................................... 7 Exercise 1 .................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Attribute table ................................................................................................................................................................ 7 Creating a new shapefile from selection ........................................................................................................................ 8 Exercise 2 .................................................................................................................................................................. 10 Clipping data ................................................................................................................................................................. 11 Exercise 3 .................................................................................................................................................................. 12 Importing the Comma Separated File (CSV) to QGIS ..................................................................................................12 Finalizing the map .....................................................................................................................................................14 Changing the name of the layer.................................................................................................................................... 14 Adjusting layers colors ................................................................................................................................................. 14 Labelling the layer ......................................................................................................................................................... 15 Exercise 4 .................................................................................................................................................................. 15 Changing label text style ............................................................................................................................................... 16 Adjusting the symbol for the map item ........................................................................................................................ 16 Using saved styles ......................................................................................................................................................... 17 EXTRA: Classifying the road-file .................................................................................................................................18 Excercise 5 ................................................................................................................................................................ 18 Preparing the map for printing ..................................................................................................................................19 Print composer preparations ........................................................................................................................................ 19 Adding the map in print composer ............................................................................................................................... 20 Adding the scale bar and north arrow in print composer ............................................................................................ 21 Exercise 6 .................................................................................................................................................................. 21 Adding the legend in print composer ........................................................................................................................... 22 Exercise 7 .................................................................................................................................................................. 23 EXTRA 1: Installing QGIS plugins (basic knowledge on computers is needed) ............................................................24 EXTRA 2: Creating and using KML-file in Google Earth and -Maps .............................................................................26 EXTRA 3: Creating relief from digital elevation model (DEM) ....................................................................................27 EXTRA 4: Check how many points are outside woreda borders (Spatial Query) .........................................................29 COWASH Training QGIS 2 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba FREQUENTLY USED TERMS Vector-file Scalable, computer generated data type Raster-file Data type for images like aerial photographs, scanned maps, satellite images etc Shapefile Format of saved vector file. Generally used in GIS software. Either point-, line- or polygon type. Layer When the data is imported to GIS-software, it is referred as layer in TOC Attribute table Layers information in table-format TOC Table of Content. This is the Layers toolset which is normally on the left side of the screen showing all the layers used on the map REQUIREMENTS - Minimum system requirements: Computer with Windows XP or newer, 1GB of RAM, 1.6GHz processor. - Database-file prepared for QGIS (Instructions to do the preparations can be found in OpenOffice-trainings). There is a test-file from Yilmana Densa for training in the Original DATA-folder. - Shapefiles of woreda- and kebele borders. Data can be found in training package. Important! All data is governments property. Publishing of the maps without permission is prohibited. INSTALLING QGIS QGIS is an open source GIS-software which has an active developer base. With QGIS user can visualize, manage, edit and analyze data as well as compose printable maps. Many of the tools in QGIS are similar to ones in ArcGIS so the skills learned with QGIS can easily be transferred to ArcGIS and vice versa. There is installation file for QGIS in QGIS Training-folder. It is either for 32 or 64 bit depending on your operating system. You can check the amount of bits in your Windows as follows: Computers running Windows XP Click Start, right-click My Computer, and then click Properties. If "x64 Edition" is listed under System, youre running the 64-bit version of Windows XP. If you dont see "x64 Edition" listed under System, youre running the 32-bit version of Windows XP. The edition of Windows XP you're running is displayed under System near the top of the window. Computers running Windows Vista or Windows 7 Click the Start button Picture of the Start button, right-click Computer, and then click Properties. If "64-bit Operating System" is listed next to System type, youre running the 64-bit version of Windows Vista or Windows 7. If "32-bit Operating System" is listed next to System type, youre running the 32-bit version of Windows Vista or Windows 7. The edition of Windows Vista or Windows 7 you're running is displayed under Windows edition near the top of the window. Install the correct QGIS, by double clicking installing package. Follow the instructions. After the installation is finished you can delete all the other new shortcuts from your desktop except QGIS Desktop X.X.X. If you are creating maps, data sources has to be mentioned in the map. Data sources are: Woreda borders, roads, towns: EMA Kebele borders: CSA WASH facilities: NWI, your woredas water office COWASH Training QGIS 3 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba PREPARATIONS Always save your original data separately from your work files. When you start to work, copy the needed original data for your work. This prevents you from losing any original data in case of mistakes or errors. There is a QGIS-Data-folder in Training-QGIS -folder. This will be the storage for all GIS-data used in training. HOW TO ORGANIZE THE TOOLS 1. Launch QGIS by clicking QGIS Desktop -icon in your desktop. You can also find the software in Start -> All Programs -> QGIS Version -> QGIS Desktop X.X.X 2. Click the grey area of toolset bar with your right mouse button (Image 1) and check only toolsets marked in Image 2. You can also move the toolsets freely to where you want from the toolset handle in the top- or left side of the toolset. Image 2. Selecting the correct toolsets for the work Image 1. First arrow showing the gray area and second one toolset handle COWASH Training QGIS 4 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba SELECTING THE CORRECT COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR YOUR PROJECT Coordinates are essential part of mapping. When the data is projected in GIS-software, the program has to be told which coordinate system the data is using. If there is wrong coordinate system used the map will not project correctly. Ethiopian Mapping Agency (EMA) is using Adindan UTM. UTM projection is divided to different zones when major part of Ethiopia situates to zone N37 (Image 3). Numbers (36-38 in Ethiopia) run around Earth from 1 to 60. Letters in alphabetical order (P-N in Ethiopia) indicate the vertical distance from South Pole. GPS-device recognizes correct zones automatically. Select the Adindan 37 N coordinate reference system (CRS) for your map 1. From the bottom right corner of the screen click the CRS status button (Image 4) Image 3. UTM zones in Ethiopia Image 4. Button for adjusting the coordinate system COWASH Training QGIS 5 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba 2. From the opening window check the Enable on the fly CRS transformation -check box. 3. Write Adindan to Filter-field to find the correct CRS and select it from the Coordinate reference systems of the world -section (Image 5) ADDING NEW VECTOR DATA Maps consists of different kinds of data which are stacked upon each other as layers. In this exercise we are adding woreda boundaries -data to the map. This file includes the areas of all the woredas in Amhara in the 2007 (CSA). 1. Click "Add Vector Layer" -tool in your "Manage Layers"-toolset (Image 6). 2. Click "Browse" button (Image 7) and locate the "Amhara_woredas.shp" -shapefile in the QGIS DATA/Shapefiles -folder in Training QGIS-folder. You can also use tools from the top menu bar: Layer -> Add Vector Layer... Latitude/longitude coordinates (degrees) can be converted to coordinates in meters. The mathematic formula is not in the scope of this training course, but you can find converter for example from the webpage: http://www.dmap.co.uk/ll2tm.htm Image 5. How to select the coordinate system in CRS-menu Image 6. Selecting the Add Vector Layer -tool from the Manage Layers toolset http://www.dmap.co.uk/ll2tm.htmCOWASH Training QGIS 6 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba Working with GIS-software often involves lots of different file types. To make it easier to find the needed files it is good to change the folder to show only those file types which are needed. 3. From the opening windows bottom right corner it is good to select ESRI Shapefiles (*.shp *.SHP) as a default to help selecting only shapefiles in future. 4. Select the Amhara_woredas.shp-file (Image 8) 5. After selecting the file, click again Open-button. You will see all the woredas in Amhara according to the year 2007. Same process is always used to add more data to the map. Raster files, like satellite images or orthophotographs are added with Add Raster Layer button next to Add Vector Layer button. Image 7. Click Browse to select the place for saving the file Image 8. Changing the folder to show only shapefile (.shp) types of files COWASH Training QGIS 7 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba BASIC OPERATIONS ZOOMING THE VIEW AND MOVING THE MAP Zoom your map using mouse roll or Zoom In-, Zoom Out-, Zoom to Selection- and Zoom Full tools (Image 9) Get familiar with tools in Map Navigation-toolset (Image 10). Try Zoom In -tool dragging a square around desired area with left mouse button pressed down. Try moving the map by keeping the mouse roll pressed down. If you dont have mouse, use Pan Map-tool. Test also right clicking the layers name in TOC and selecting Zoom to Layer Extent. You can turn the layers visible or non-visible by checking the checkbox on and off in Layers-menu (Image 11) EXERCISE 1 Add the Amhara_kebeles.shp file to the map using the same process which was used for Amhara_woredas-file. ATTRIBUTE TABLE Attribute table shows the data of the layer in table-format. For example woredas WASH-facility Excel-database will be managed in GIS-software as an attribute table. 1. To find the woreda according to its name, right click the Amhara_woredas layer name in the Layers-menu and from the opening menu select Open Attribute Table (Image 12). You can also use hotkeys CTRL + ENTER (or Return). Image 9. Different zooming-buttons Image 10. Map Navigation toolset with "Pan Map" tool selected Image 12. How to open the attribute table Image 11. Changing the visibility of the layers between On and Off COWASH Training QGIS 8 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba 2. Click the W_NAME attribute of the first column from the top row of the attribute table. This will sort the woredas into alphabetical order according to their names (Image 13). You might want to click it again to make the database in reverse alphabetical order (Yilmana Densa is at the end of the alphabet). 3. Select your woreda from the list by clicking the row-number 140 on the left (Image 13). Minimize the attribute table and see the woreda selected on the map. CREATING A NEW SHAPEFILE FROM SELECTION Woreda- and kebele maps are large in size which slows down the usage of the software considerably. In this exercise we will select only the areas what we need. This allows better usability since the amount of data what computer has to calculate is reduced. Check that you have Amhara_woredas-layer active in your Layers-menu. If you have Amhara_kebeles-layer in the TOC you can make it invisible by checking the checkbox on the left side of the layers-menu. 1. Select Yilmana Densa and the surrounding woredas with Select Features by area or single click tool (Image 14) You can select multiple woredas by keeping Control (CTRL) key pressed down from your keyboard (Image 15). Image 13. Listing the woredas alphabetically and selecting one woreda Image 14. Selecting selection tool Image 15. Multiple woredas selected COWASH Training QGIS 9 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba After you have selected all the surrounding woredas around your study woreda you need to save the selected area. 2. Click the title of your Amhara_woredas layer in the Layers-TOC with right mouse button and from the opening menu, select Save As (Image 16) Give a distinctive name to your new shapefile. In this exercise woreda_selection is used. 3. Click Browse button (Image 17). Search the folder where you want to save your new shapefile. In training we use QGIS-DATA-folder. You can also draw a square around the woreda by keeping left mouse button pressed down with Select Feature(s) -tool. Change the selection tool from the tools submenu by clicking the small arrow next to the tool. Try also the other selection methods. Image 16. Saving selected area as a new shapefile COWASH Training QGIS 10 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba 4. Remember to check the Save only selected features and Add saved file to map checkboxes. First assures that you are only saving the area you selected and latter automatically adds new created layer to the map. After clicking Ok, new shapefile is created. 5. Now you can remove the original Amhara_woredas layer from the map by right clicking the name of the layer in TOC (Layers-menu) and selecting Remove. 6. Next remove the selection to be able to do new selection. Click Deselect Features from All Layers -tool which is on the right side of the Select Single Feature tool in toolbar (Image 14) EXERCISE 2 Do the same process to Amhara_kebeles-layer that we did for the Amhara_woredas-layer. Select all kebeles in the Yilmana Densa -woreda. Make sure all the kebeles inside the woreda are selected when you are creating the new shapefile. It doesnt matter if there are some kebeles selected also from the neighboring woredas. Image 17. Saving selection Remember that you can check the layers visible and non-visible with the checkbox next to layer name (Image 11) to help making the selection (too many visible layers can be confusing) Make sure you are making the selection to correct layer! You are selecting kebeles, not woredas now so the respective layer needs to be active in the TOC COWASH Training QGIS 11 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba CLIPPING DATA To make the map more informative add the road- and town data to the map. Add first the Eth_road.shp -shapefile in a same way as was done in section Adding new vector data (Image 6). These files are also too large for our purposes so we will reduce the size of the files according to the area of woreda_selectionlayer. For this we dont need to make the selection ourselves but we learn to use Clip-tool instead. 1. From the top bar, select Vector -> Geoprocessing Tools -> Clip (Image 18) 2. From the Clip-window, select first the layer which is going to be clipped (Eth_roads) as Input vector layer. Then select the layer which is going to be used as a clipping area (woreda_selection) as Clip layer. Next select the folder where you want to save the file by clicking Browse-button and then give a name to your new clipped road-shapefile. In the exercise QGIS-DATA-folder and the name Roads_clip are used (Image 19). Be sure to check the Add result to canvas checkbox which will automatically add the new layer to map. Now when you have the clipped data of your area you can delete Eth_roads-layer to improve usability of the map Image 18. Launching the Clip-tool Image 19. Selecting settings for clipping COWASH Training QGIS 12 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba 3. Right click the Eth_roads layers name in Layers-menu -> Remove EXERCISE 3 Add the Towns.shp-shapefile to the map and do the clipping in a same way that was done to Eth_roads using the same woreda_selection as Clip Layer. Name the new file as Towns_clip. After clipping, remove the original Towns-layer to improve usability of the map IMPORTING THE COMMA SEPARATED FILE (CSV) TO QGIS In this exercise the CSV-database file from Yilmana Densa woreda is used. Database has been prepared same way as instructed in OpenOffice Calc-training part Converting the NWI M&E MIS Excel sheet for GIS. 1. Select Add Delimited Text Layer-tool from the Manage Layers -toolset (Image 20). Image 20. Selecting the tool for importing the Excel-file 2. Select Browse... and search the Yilmana Densa.csv file from the QGIS DATA/Database -folder. Image 21. Choosing the correct settings for importing the Excel-file Check the settings are according to Image 21. You can rename the file if needed. In this exercise yilmana_dens is used. COWASH Training QGIS 13 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba 3. Select CSV (comma separated values) as delimiter since we chose comma when we were saving the file in OpenOffice Calc-exercise. This option tells how the cells are differentiated from each other. When the file is saved in Excel, Excel can separate the cells with semicolons or with commas. 4. For Geometry definition, select GPS - X for the X-field and GPS - Y for Y-field. This is crucial step. It defines which columns are used for coordinates of the GPS-points. When everything is correct, click OK Important! As a result, the table should look similar to one in the window on bottom of the Image 21. (Each data are on their own cells) After approving the settings in the opening window select the Coordinate Reference System (CRS) for the points. 5. In Selected CRS: select Adindan / UTM zone 37N. Then click OK COWASH Training QGIS 14 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba FINALIZING THE MAP It is important that all the features of the map are clearly distinguishable from each other. It is also crucial that the most important information is easily caught by the viewer. In this section some tuning options are practiced. CHANGING THE NAME OF THE LAYER Right click layers name in Layers-menu. From the opening window, select Rename and do the desired change. This affects only the layers name in the Layers-menu it doesnt affect the actual files name in file folder. This is important when finalizing the map. Layer names will be shown in the key (legend) of the map. It is also often beneficial for the usability to have clear, easily understandable names for the layers. ADJUSTING LAYERS COLORS We need to be able to see the kebele-borders under the woreda-borders. The layer which is on top in Layers-menu is the one which is seen. Try changing the order of the layers by dragging and dropping them in the Layers-menu to see the effect. Make sure that woreda-layer is on top of kebele-layer before next phase. Go to the woreda-layers properties. 1. Right click the layers name and from the opening menu, select Properties (Image 22) 2. Select Style-tab from the left-side menu (Image 23) 3. From Symbol layer type-section select Simple fill (Image 23) Change the color of the woreda borders from the Border-section if needed. Clicking small arrow on the right opens the dropdown menu which allows you to select the color freely with Choose color -option From the Fill-sections dropdown menu, select Transparent fill-option. This will make the area inside the borders invisible Image 22. How to reach the properties of the layer COWASH Training QGIS 15 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba Change the Border width to 1,0 millimeter by writing or using small arrows on the right side of the field LABELLING THE LAYER 1. To enable the labels for the map, click the kebele_selection-layer in Layers-menu with right mouse-button (Image 22) and select Properties (as in previous exercise). 2. Select Labels-page from the left-side menu. From the Labels-section (Image 24) check the Label this layer with -checkbox. Select FIRST_RK_N-option from the drop-down menu on the right side of the Label this layer with -text. This column includes the kebele names in the database accordingly to CSA 2007. Click Apply-button and OK. Image 24. Selecting the correct column for the labels EXERCISE 4 Do the labelling for Towns_clip-layer in a same way we did for kebele names. In the Towns-clip -layer there is Name-column to use for labelling. Image 23. Adjusting the layer's appearance COWASH Training QGIS 16 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba CHANGING LABEL TEXT STYLE Next we need to distinguish the town-labels from kebele-labels. 1. Go to Towns_clip-layers properties and to Labels tab and select from lower left side menu the option Text (Image 25). In Text style section, change the font to Arial Black and size to 10 points. 2. After this select Buffer from the lower left side menu. From the Text buffer section check the Draw text buffer-checkbox. This will create white area around the text which will distinguish the text from the background (Image 26). Finally click Apply and OK. ADJUSTING THE SYMBOL FOR THE MAP ITEM It is important to distinguish different layers from each other on a map. For example WASH-facility -symbols needs to be clearly distinguishable from towns. In this exercise the town-symbol is adjusted. Image 25. Choosing the settings for town names Image 26. Creating a glowing buffer-area around the text COWASH Training QGIS 17 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba 1. Double click Towns_clip -layers icon in Layers-menu (this is faster way to get to Properties) 2. Change the appearance of the symbol according to your needs with the options in the Style-tab (Image 27) USING SAVED STYLES The Eth_roads file includes different kinds of road types. Each type can be formatted separately as was done in previous exercise. Styles can be also saved and used in other layers to fasten the work flow. There is already saved style for Eth_roads in QGIS-DATA/Style folder. 1. Open the properties of roads_clip layer by double clicking the layers name or right clicking the layers name and from the opening menu select Properties 2. From the left side panel, go to the Style-page (Image 28) and from the bottom of the window, click Load Style-button and locate the Road-style.qml -file in QGIS-Data/Styles folder. Double click the file to get it into use. 3. You can now see in the Style-page that the icons for each road type have been changed. Click Apply and OK -buttons. Close the window to see the result in the map. Image 27. Changing the appearance of the map symbol Image 28. Loading the style for the layer COWASH Training QGIS 18 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba EXTRA: CLASSIFYING THE ROAD-FILE This exercise demonstrates how the Road-style which was used in section Using saved styles was done. roads_clip-file consists of several different types of roads but they are all shown with the same thin line with same color. In this section the roads_clip-layer is classified and symbolized accordingly to the road type. 1. Right click roads_clip-layer and select Properties from the opening menu. From the drop-down menu on the top of the Style-tab, select Categorized as classification method (Image 29). Select CLASS as a Column, since in roads_clip-database (attribute table) that column defines the road class. Then click Classify-button which is on the left under the white area with the symbols. 2. Next select correct symbol for each road type from the Symbol-section. Double click the symbol for getting to Symbol selector and create the symbol for the road accordingly to your wishes by changing width and color. You can also select default styles from the list on the bottom right side of the Symbol selector window (Image 30). You can also save the style if needed. EXCERCISE 5 Follow the instructions from previous chapter and do following exercises A. Classify the Yilmana Densa water point database accordingly to the type of the facility (Source type column). B. Select different symbol for each water point type. C. Save your classification to QGIS-DATA/Style -folder and name it as Waterpoint_style Image 29. Selecting the correct classification method Image 30. Changing the road symbols accordingly to the road type COWASH Training QGIS 19 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba PREPARING THE MAP FOR PRINTING There is a design tool for map printing purposes in QGIS called Print Composer. If you are familiar with ArcGIS, print composer can be compared to switching from Data-View to Layout-View. With Print Composer you can adjust the layout and add north arrow, scale bar, legend etc. for your map. PRINT COMPOSER PREPARATIONS 1. Before you start to compose your map for printing in Print Composer, position the research area carefully in your normal map-screen in a way you would like it to be in the final map. 2. From the top menu bar, select Project -> New Print Composer 3. In the opening Composer title -window give a name to your print composer. Yilmana Densa -is used in the exercise. Click OK and the Print Composer window opens. Print composer is now automatically saved in top menu bars Projectmenus Print Composers-submenu. When different tools are used in Print Composer, the options for the tool are available in the Item properties tab in the menu on the right side of the screen. Initial map settings can be done in the Composition-page in the same menu (Image 31). 4. Select A4-paper size from the Paper and quality sections Preset-drop down menu. Next select the orientation accordingly to your woredas shape. Yilmana Densa is more wide than high so Landscape is used. When your woreda is higher than wide, use Portrait. From the Orientation-section change the orientation if needed (Image 31). If you are printing the map only as softcopy you can select the size more freely. The bigger the physical size the more details you can show in the map. When you are printing the map as hardcopy then the size depends on your printers capabilities. Image 31. Adjusting the paper settings in Print Composer COWASH Training QGIS 20 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba ADDING THE MAP IN PRINT COMPOSER Add your newly created woreda map to the Print Composer. First it might be a good idea to move all toolsets to the top of the screen. You can freely move them from the toolset handle (Image 1). 1. From the Composer Items -toolset, click Add new map tool (Image 32). 2. Next paint the area from the paper where you want your map to be projected. For example start from top left corner and drag to bottom right corner with your left mouse button pressed down. 3. If you need to move the map contents use the Move item content tool. (Image 33). Image 32. Composer Items toolset with Add new map tool selected Image 33. Move item content tool selected If only digital version of the map is needed you can print the map to a file in XPS-format (XML Paper Specification). Then you can also select larger size for the map for better detail. From the Print Composers top menu bar, select Composer -> Print From the Print-window, select Microsoft XPS Document Writer and check Print to file checkbox. Click Apply when finished. COWASH Training QGIS 21 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba ADDING THE SCALE BAR AND NORTH ARROW IN PRINT COMPOSER 1. Click the Add new scalebar tool in Composer Items toolset 2. Click a point in your map where you want the top left corner of the scale bar positioned 3. Next open the Item Properties tab from the right side menu (Image 34) 4. Open the Units, Segments and Display sections and adjust the settings accordingly to your wishes. In Image 34 are shown the options which were used in the exercise. EXERCISE 6 1. Add the North Arrow by clicking the Add arrow tool in Composer Items toolset. 2. Click and hold left mouse button on the point in your map where you want the bottom part of the North arrow positioned then drag straight to up from that point and release the mouse button (North is straight up in our map files). You can then adjust the arrow from the Item properties (Image 35). You can move the item with left mouse button when you move the cursor above it and when the cursor changes to cross of arrows. You can scale the item from the gray boxes on the corners and sides You can lock the layers from the left side Items-tab by checking the layers name on the list. Locking prevents you accidentally moving or scaling the items Image 34. Item Properties settings used in exercise COWASH Training QGIS 22 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba ADDING THE LEGEND IN PRINT COMPOSER Legend defines what the used symbols mean in the map 1. Add the legend by clicking the Add new legend tool in Composer Items toolset (Image 36). 2. Click a point in your map where you want the top left corner of the legend to be positioned 3. When the legend is selected open the Item Properties tab on the menu on the right. Legend is locked as a default. If you want to edit its content uncheck the Auto update checkbox. You can change the position of the label on the legend list with the blue arrows by first selecting the item and then clicking the arrow up or down. You can alter the name with pen & paper icon and delete or add items with and + -signs (Image 37). Image 36. Composer Item-toolset with Add new legend -tool selected Image 37. Adjusting the settings for the legend Image 35. Adjusting North arrow Item properties COWASH Training QGIS 23 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba After the settings are set you are able to print the map. Printing is done similarly as in any other office-software after selecting from the top menu bar Composer -> Print Final map should look more or less similar to one in Image 38. EXERCISE 7 Print your map as PDF-softcopy and send it to kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com. Image 38. Final map of Yilmana Densa -woreda's WASH facilities COWASH Training QGIS 24 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba EXTRA 1: INSTALLING QGIS PLUGINS (BASIC KNOWLEDGE ON COMPUTERS IS NEEDED) Since QGIS has active developer base there are lots of new tools and features available as plugins. Easiest way of enable plugin is to do it with internet connection. There is lots of information about how to do it in the internet. You can get online help for example from sites: http://www.qgistutorials.com/en/docs/using_plugins.html or http://www.qgisworkshop.org/html/workshop/python_in_qgis_tutorial1.html In this chapter we assume that there is no internet connection available so we install the xytools-plugin manually. Xytools-plugin enables the usage of Excel-files with QGIS. It is originally downloaded from the website: https://plugins.qgis.org/plugins/xytools/ . After downloading it was unzipped (right clicked and selected Extract All). 1. Copy the unzipped xytools-folder from Training package/Software/QGIS/Plugins/xytools. Note that there is also manual for the usage of the plugin. To see the guide open xytools/docs/index.html. 2. Go to folder C:\Users\YOUR USERNAME HERE\.qgis2\python\plugins\ (in Windows XP there is Documents and settings-folder in between) and paste the xytools-folder there. If there is no such path available. You need to create the python and plugins folders first yourself. Check correct writing! Plugin still needs to be activated before it can be used. 3. Restart QGIS 4. From the top toolbar open Plugins -> Manage and Install Plugins (Image 39) Next QGIS tries to connect to plugin-server which is the easiest way of installing plugins. In this exercise it is assumed that the computer does not have internet connection so click Abort fetching button to skip connection attempt. 5. From the opening list of plugins check the one which is being installed. In this exercise it is XyTools (Image 40) Image 39. Opening the plugin-manager Image 40. Activating the installed plugin http://www.qgistutorials.com/en/docs/using_plugins.htmlhttp://www.qgisworkshop.org/html/workshop/python_in_qgis_tutorial1.htmlhttps://plugins.qgis.org/plugins/xytools/COWASH Training QGIS 25 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba You can now found the XY tools-tool from top toolbars Vector-menu or as a last icon in the Digitizing-toolbar (Image 41). If you dont remember how to manage toolbars, check from the chapter How to organize the tools how it was done. After installing XY tools-plugin you can import Excel-files (.xsl) to QGIS without need to change them first to CSV-files. Try bringing the Yilmana Densa.xls file to QGIS (NOTE: Excel-file can only include one sheet when using XY tools!) From the top toolbar open Vector -> XY tools -> Open Excel file as attribute table or Point layer (Image 42). Locate the Excel-sheet in Training-QGIS / QGIS DATA / Yilmana Densa.xls. Next select correct coordinate system (Adindan / UTM zone 37N). In the following ZYTools Coordinate fields window select correct columns for the axels (X: = GPS X, Y: = GPS Y). When the volatile file is in TOC save it as a shapefile as was done in Image 16. Image 41. Icon of the XY tools-plugin in the Digitizing-toolset Image 42. Opening the Excel-file with XY tools COWASH Training QGIS 26 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba EXTRA 2: CREATING AND USING KML-FILE IN GOOGLE EARTH AND -MAPS KML-files are generally used in Googles mapping environments such as Google Maps and Google Earth. In this section we prepare a file that can be easily used in Google Earth. 1. Right click your woredas WASH-facility layer in TOC and from the opening menu select Save As 2. From the Save vector layer as -window select first the place where you want to create your file with Browse-button and give it a name. Next change the file format to KML (Keyhole Markup Language file, generally used in online mapping) from Format-section select Keyhole Markup Language [KML] (Image 43). 3. Remember to change the coordinate reference system to WGS 84 which is generally used in Google Earth. From the CRS-section click the Change-button and find and select WGS 84 (If you dont remember how it was done, you can check the process from the section SELECTING THE CORRECT COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR YOUR PROJECT). You can also uncheck Add saved file to map option this time since there is no need to show the same data again on the map. Usage of the KML-file in Google Earth is easy. Launch Google Earth and now you can just drag the KML-file from your file folder to the main screen of the Google Earth. By double clicking the water point icons you can see the data of them. You can also use the KML-file in Google Maps. You have to log in to Google Maps so that you can start My Maps editing mode. Click Add layer text and from new layer click Import-text (Image 44). Then new windows open where you can drag the KML-file from your file folder. After this all facilities are on Google Map. Image 43. Creating a KML-file Image 44. Add layer- and Import-buttons in Google Maps COWASH Training QGIS 27 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba EXTRA 3: CREATING RELIEF FROM DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM) Since Ethiopia has huge areal differences in elevation, it is often useful to show the relief of the study area on the map. In this section relief is built from 30 meter resolution digital elevation model (DEM) using Relief -tool. 1. Since we are now using raster image instead of vector layer what we have used so far, bring the DEM of the Yilmana Densa area to the map by using Add Raster Layer-tool (Image 45). 2. Open Relief-tool from Raster -> Terrain analysis -> Relief Select DEM as an Elevation layer (Image 46). Give a name Yilmana_Densa_relief to Output layer and save new layer to DEMs-folder with -button. Select GeoTIFF as Output format. Let the Z factor to be default 50000. In Relief colors section click Create automatically button. Check the Add result to project so that the new relief will appear on the map automatically. Then click OK. Image 45. Adding DEM as a raster layer Image 46. Correct settings for relief-image DEMs are normally done with radars from airplanes or satellites and thus expensive. There are still many sources for free DEMs in internet. Data used in training can be found from Training package/ORIGINAL DATA/DEMs. It is good to copy the file first to Training QGIS/QGIS-DATA/DEMsfolder before using it. COWASH Training QGIS 28 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba 3. Next move the relief-layer to the bottom of the layers. Problem now is that it is hidden under kebele-layer so kebele-layer needs to be made transparent as was done earlier to woreda-layer (Image 23). You can also set the Fill style to No brush which gives the same result. Make also kebele-borders wider and color brighter. As a result you will now have map similar to Image 47. Image 47. Map of Yilmana Densa with relief in background COWASH Training QGIS 29 Kimmo Koivumki kimmo.koivumaki@gmail.com MoWIE / COWASH GIS Expert +251 939 175 931 Addis Abeba EXTRA 4: CHECK HOW MANY POINTS ARE OUTSIDE WOREDA BORDERS (SPATIAL QUERY) In this exercise it is inspected if all the collected water points are within woreda borders if they are not, then there is an error in data collection or there has been a mistake when inputting the data to database. There are many ways of doing this and in this exercise calculations are done with the Spatial Query tool. First create a layer where is only Yilmana Densa woreda by following the steps in section Creating a new shapefile from selection. 1. Select the Yilmana Densa woreda from the woreda_selection-layer and save it with the name Yilmana Densa. Remember to check Save only selected features checkbox. 2. Select Spatial Query from Vector-menu from the top toolbar We are selecting points which are not in the Yilmana Densa so next define what is going to be selected from where 3. For the Spatial Query windows Select source features from section select Yilmana_Densa water point layer 4. For the Where the feature section select Is disjoint. This means that all points which are NOT in Yilmana Densa woredas area will be selected. 5. For the Reference features of section select Yilmana_Densa area layer and press Apply (Image 48) Spatial Query tool will now select all Yilmana Densa water points which are not in the Yilmana Densa woreda area. After the processing is done the Spatial Query window shows the results in the Result feature IDs section. It is possible to make a new layer from all points which are not in the woreda-area by clicking the button in Selected features -section To view all water points which are not in woreda, open the attribute table of the Yilmana Densa water point layer To see only those points which are selected change the Show All Features button to Show Selected Features from the bottom left corner of the attribute table Image 48. Setting up the Spatial Query