David Budd University of Colorado Getting Students to think about their learning, attitudes, and motivation Slide 2 Several students score poorly on your first exam. They come to you for help, what advice would you give them? Slide 3 Three Principles of Learning 1.Prior Knowledge and Misconceptions 2.Developing Expert Knowledge Deep foundation Contextual framework Organizational structure 3. Metacognition thinking about learning Bransford et al. (2000) Slide 4 Metacognitive Components of Expert Learners Modified from Ertmer and Newby (1996), Butler (1997), Winne and Hadwin (1998), Pintrich (2000), Lovett (2008) EvaluateMonitor Plan Reflection Metacognitive Control (self-regulation) Metacognitive Knowledge (declarative, procedural, conditional) Personal Resources Prior Knowledge Available Strategies Task Requirements Type of Learning Appropriate Strategies Goals Beliefs Attitudes Motivation Reflection Slide 5 Schoenfeld (1987) Solving a Problem Elapsed Time (mins) 024681012141618 Read Analyze Explore Plan Implement Verify Experts Elapsed Time (mins) 012345678910111213141516171819 Read Analyze Explore Plan Implement Verify Novices Slide 6 adapted from Pintrich and Zusho, 2007 Pedagogical Challenge Many factors influence learning Personal Characteristics of Student (age, gender, academic rank, experience) Course Context (tasks, grading policy, pedagogy, instructional resources) Course Outcomes (eort, interest, performance) Student Metacognition (studying and/or learning behaviors i.e., planning, choosing appropriate strategies, monitoring, evaluation, reection) Student motivations (things that drive learning- i.e., goal orientation, task value, self-ecacy, control of learning) Slide 7 Self-Efficacy is the belief that one will be successful at a given task/course. Students who believe they are capable of doing the coursework and learning the content are much more likely to succeed Predicts performance - (up to of the final grade has been attributed to Self-Efficacy) 5 Predicts learning strategy usage (students are more likely to use more eective learning strategies that lead to deeper comprehension of content. 5 Pintrich & Zusho (2007) Self- Efficacy Slide 8 Control of Learning Control of Learning encompasses the beliefs a student possess about what factors contribute to their success or failure (internal or external; controllable or uncontrollable) David & Jenifer received a similar disappointing grade on an assignment. David knows he didnt do as well as he could because he did not set aside enough time and he vows to make better use of his time Jenifer shrugs her shoulders and says, ugh, this teacher makes everything confusing Both students have had set backs, what differentiates their response is their Control of Learning Beliefs. Slide 9 Goal Orientation predicts how students will approach learning based on their goals for a given topic/course Jackie is interested in the content, wants to work hard in order to learn as much as she can. Paul does the minimum he can to get the grade he needs, learning may or may not happen and thats ok with him. Jackie has more of an intrinsic motivation or a mastery orientation Paul has more of an extrinsic motivation or a performance orientation Intrinsic motivation is generally linked to deeper learning and eective use of learning strategies 5. 5 Pintrich & Zusho (2007) Goal Orientation Slide 10 Task Value reflects whether students see the material and work as interesting, useful, or important to them. In an intro geology class, the instructor talks about coastal erosion and makes an assignment to predict future erosion trends. Heather has a family home on the coast, and so she is very engaged in the topic, asking questions and looking up additional information. Jonathan has never left Boulder, he has no idea what the ocean looks like and doesnt have any plans in the near future to go to the ocean. He sees little value in this material or exercise. Context provides an additional value for Heather, because she can relate the content to something she cares about. Task Value Slide 11 Self- Ecacy Belief in the ability to be successful Control of Learning Attribution of ones success and failures Task Value Valuing of a task Motivation Pie Key determinants in whether a student chooses to engage and persevere Goal Orientation Goals that drive how one responds Slide 12 adapted from Pintrich and Zusho, 2007 Pedagogical Challenge Many factors influence learning Personal Characteristics of Student (age, gender, academic rank, experience) Course Context (tasks, grading policy, pedagogy, instructional resources) Course Outcomes (eort, interest, performance) Student Metacognition (studying and/or learning behaviors i.e., planning, choosing appropriate strategies, monitoring, evaluation, reection) Student motivations (things that drive learning- i.e., goal orientation, task value, self-ecacy, control of learning) Slide 13 Metacognition Modified from Ertmer and Newby (1996), Butler (1997), Winne and Hadwin (1998), Pintrich (2000), Lovett (2008) EvaluateMonitor Plan Reflection Metacognitive Control (self-regulation) Metacognitive Knowledge (declarative, procedural, conditional) Personal Resources Prior Knowledge Available Strategies Task Requirements Type of Learning Appropriate Strategies Goals Beliefs Attitudes Motivation Reflection Knowing what to do Know how to do it well Slide 14 Metacognition EvaluateMonitor Plan Metacognitive Control (self-regulation) Metacognitive Knowledge (declarative, procedural, conditional) Personal Resources Prior Knowledge Available Strategies Task Requirements Type of Learning Appropriate Strategies Goals Beliefs Attitudes Motivation Reflection Knowing what to do Rehearsal reciting or naming items from a list. Activates information in working memory & helps with encoding, but does not help construct connections. Elaboration paraphrasing, summarizing, creating analogies, generative note-taking. Help store info in long-term memory by building internal connections between new and old information. Organization outlining, clustering, concept sketching. Constructs connections and puts information into learners own frameworks. (Pintrich et al. 1991) Rehearsal - naming the fault is rehearsal Elaboration - describing it in your own words Organization - linking the geometry & process to stress types & general tectonic setting Slide 15 Knowing how to Learn - Self-Regulated Learning Cycle Evaluate Progress Monitor Learning Plan, Set Goals Reflection Metacognition Slide 16 Expert Learners are Self-Regulating Savin-Baden and Major (2004) Expert learners are highly motivated, independent, and strive toward self- direction and autonomy. They diagnose their learning needs, formulate learning goals, identify resources for learning, select and implement learning strategies, and evaluate their learning outcomes. Slide 17 Instructor grading of short answer and essay questions On-going assessment through student dialog in small classes Computer grading of multiple choice questions using bubble- sheets Understanding Student Learning More instructor understanding of student learning Less instructor understanding of student learning Learning Assessment System It is difficult for instructors in large classes to recognize student learning difficulties. Students need to know how to assess their own learning and make adjustments. Slide 18 Schoenfeld (1987) Elapsed Time (mins) 024681012141618 Read Analyze Explore Plan Implement Verify Experts Elapsed Time (mins) 012345678910111213141516171819 Read Analyze Explore Plan Implement Verify Novices Solving a Problem But as we have already seen, most students are not Expert learners, many do not know how to self-regulate Slide 19 Underperforming Students are the worse at Self-Assessment Dunning et al., 2003. Current directions in psychological science, v.12 #3, p.83-87 Low scoring students overestimate their own skill level failed to recognize the degree of their insufficient knowledge recognized their lack of skill, only if they are trained to improve Slide 20 Reflect on this In the next minute, write down as much as you can remember about the first part of this presentation Slide 21 Personal Characteristics of Student (age, gender, academic rank, experience) Course Context (tasks, grading policy, pedagogy, instructional resources) Course Outcomes (eort, interest, performance) Pedagogical Challenge What can we do? Task Value Goal Orientation Self- Ecacy Control of Learning Motivation Reflection Metacognitive Knowledge Personal Resources Task Requirement Evaluate Monitor Plan Metacognitive Control Reflection Self-Regulated Learning interventions will impact motivation and outcomes Slide 22 Types of Self-Regulated Learning Interventions ActivityKnowledge or Skills How I Earned an AGoal-setting & Reflection Reading ReflectionsReflection & Monitoring Exam WrappersReflection & Evaluation Reflective JournalingReflection, Monitoring, Evaluation Knowledge SurveysGoal-setting, Monitoring, Evaluation Retrieval PracticeMonitoring & Evaluation Mastery Exercises (quizzes)Monitoring, & Evaluation Slide 23 Instructor Feedback is Key All interventions have minimum impact without feedback Slide 24 Reading Reflections Completed after each reading assignment Short responses to three questions Submitted online before class Credit awarded for reflectivesubmissions Addresses: summarizing, misconceptions monitoring, evaluation, and reflection What is the main point of this reading? What did you find surprising? Why? What did you find confusing? Why? Slide 25 Week 1 Week 14 Impact of Reading Reflections Percent of Students Doing the Reading 100 80 60 40 20 0 With reflection assignment Without reflection assignment Budd, Univ. Colorado Slide 26 Wirth, Macalester College Impact of Reading Reflections Self-Reported Depth of Reading Slide 27 Effect Size = 1.35 (Large) Effect Size = 1.08 (Large) Effect Size = 0.71 (Large) Wirth, Macalester College Impact of Reading Reflections Slide 28 Classroom Reflections After lectures on topic X List y items that are clear List y items that are muddy Do individually for 2-3 min then discuss in small groups (2-3 students) Call upon groups to report out (list on board) Close the feedback loop by clarifying the mud, reflecting on why their might be mud, and offering strategies for students to self-clarify in the future Slide 29 Exam Wrapper Achacoso (2004) Lovett (2008) Pre and Post Exam Self Evaluation Preparation Strategies Performance Analysis Planning Wirth, Macalester College Slide 30 Exam Wrapper Results Low scoring students most likely to overestimate results Must discuss options for next exam to close the feedback loop Wirth, Macalester College Slide 31 Exam Wrapper Results What, if anything, will you do differently in preparing for the second exam? Study More No change Study Differently other I might try to study earlier than the night before. I will study more, a lot more. I will definitely study more by reading something then try to write it. Quiz myself instead of just looking over notes. Study differently. Summarize more. Make sure I understand the visuals. Study longer and actually practice drawing things out. I will use more charts and organizers... I will make sure I understand the learning objectives better. I will make a better outline and study more in small increments. I will try to study more, as well as stopping as I study to test myself on the material I am reviewing. Spend more time preparing and reading over the notes. I have to study more and actually know what material to study. I will take the learning journals more seriously and read them when it comes to studying. McConnell, NC State Univ. Slide 32 Exam Wrapper Results Study Strategies Analysis of Errors Wirth, Macalester College Slide 33 Retrieval Practice Study material for initial study period Put material away and on a blank piece of paper practice retrieval by recalling and writing down as much information as possible. Do it the first time within 24 hours Repeat retrieval process at regular intervals prior to exam (e.g., weekly) Answer the questions that will help you evaluate your responses and monitor your self-efficacy. Slide 34 Medina (2009) Repetition Aids Retention The more effort we put into encoding information at the moment of learning, the more we remember Listening writing drawing/ organizing Long-term memory Remember to repeat Thinking or talking about an event immediately after it occurs enhances memory of the event Reviewing material at fixed, spaced intervals enhances memory (after class reflection, online quizzes, recitations, tutorials, study groups, etc.) Slide 35 The Value of Retrieval Experimental Group: Three 2-minute pauses per lecture, student discussion of lecture content with peer. Control Group: No pauses for discussion in lecture. Ruhl, Hughes, and Schloss., 1987. Teacher Education and Special Education, v.10 #1, p.14-18 Students completed a free recall exercise after lecture Experimental Group number of facts recalled: 23.0* Control Group number of facts recalled: 16.6 Slide 36 Figure from Karpicke and Blunt 2011 (SciencExpress) Careful retrieval practice is more effective than standard study methods. The Value of Retrieval Slide 37 Summary 1.Students motivations (goals, self-efficacy, task value, control of learning) and metacognition (study strategies, planning, monitoring, evaluation, reflection) affect their learning. 2.Not all students have intrinsic motivations and the metacognitive skills of many are lacking 3.Poor-performers in particular need help in learning how to be a self- regulated learner 4.Metacognitive interventions can help Students will learn to test themselves and reflect on their learning, and build self-efficacy Students will learn more and learn more effectively But instructors must monitor students and provide feedback to help them become more independent learners.