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Digital Curation and Digital Preservation: An IntroductionJCDL 2007: Tutorial 10June 19, 2007Dr. Helen R. Tibbo and Carolyn HankSchool of Information and Library ScienceUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill2OutlineTutorial PacketScheduleBibliographyIntroductionKey Reports & IssuesKey Projects & Web SitesDevelopments: Digital Curation TimelineCase StudyAssessmentReadinessWrap-up3Introduction: Why We Are HereDigital preservation (DP) and digital curation (DC) stand as grand opportunities and challenges of the first decade of the 21st century and beyond. 4Introduction: Grand ChallengesLong-term curation and preservation represent a complex set of challenges, which are exceptionally difficult for data centres and institutions to address individually. They will require a step change in current investment and approaches, and concerted effort on fundamental research, development of shared services, expertise and tools to assist organisations in this work.- JISC Circular 6/03 An invitation for expressions of interest to establish a new Digital Curation Centre for research into and support of the curation and preservation of digital data and publications5Introduction: View from the Scientific CommunityThe anticipated growth in both the production and repurposing of digital data raises complex issues not only of scale and heterogeneity, but also of stewardship, curation and long-term access.- NSF. Cyberinfrastructure Council. Cyberinfrastructure Vision for 21st Century Discovery. March 2007. View from the Internet/ BloggerCommunity"WN: The focus of the internet frontier has shifted from the pipes, to search, to community, to blogs, and now video. What's next?Calacanis: Curation. The web and physical world is plagued with abundance -- people need help sorting through all the good and bad stuff out there. The tyranny of choice is causing major psychic pain and frustration for people.- No Stranger to Controversy, Jason Calacanis Starts a New Venture. Wired (June 8, 2007). Definitions and Concepts/ DPJISC:The series of actions and interventions required to ensure continued and reliable access to authentic digital objects for as long as they are deemed to be of value. This encompasses not just technical activities, but also all of the strategic and organisational considerations that relate to the survival and management of digital material.JISC. Digital Preservation: Continued Access to Authentic Digital Assets. Briefing Paper, November 2006. Definitions and Concepts/ DPALAs Preservation and Reformatting Section (PARS) Defining Digital PreservationShort: Digital preservation combines policies, strategies and actions that ensure access to information in digital formats over time.Medium: Digital access to reformatted and born digital content regardless of the challenges of media failure and technological change. The goal of digital preservation is the accurate rendering of authenticated content over time.- PARS: Definitions and Concepts/ DPALAs Preservation and Reformatting Section (PARS)Long: As above plus Digital preservation policies document an organizations commitment to preserve digital content for future use; specify file formats to be preserved and the level of preservation to be provided; and ensure compliance with standards and best practices for responsible stewardship of digital information. Digital preservation strategies and actions address content creation, integrity and maintenance.- PARS: How is Digital Curation Different?11Introduction: Digital CurationThe active management and preservation of digital resources over the life-cycle of scholarly and scientific interest, and over time for current and future generations of users.12Introduction: Definitions and Concepts/ Digital CurationDigital curation involves time-sensitive appraisal by creators and archivists, evolving provision of intellectual access, mid-term preservation including backups and transformations such as migration, and ultimately, for some materials, a commitment to centuries-long archiving. Digital curation is stewardship that provides for the reproducibility and re-use of authentic digital data and other digital assets.13Introduction: The DCC on Digital CurationDigital curation, broadly interpreted, is about maintaining and adding value to a trusted body of digital information for current and future use.Dynamic as well as static digital objectsIssues of volatility and scaleInvestigate appraisal and economicsWhat Is Digital Curation? JISC on Digital Curation"The term digital curation is used in this call for the actions needed to maintain digital research data and other digital materials over their entire life-cycle and over time for current and future generations of users. Implicit in this definition arethe processes of digital archiving and preservation but it also includes all the processes needed for good data creation and management, and the capacity to add value to data to generate new sources of information and knowledge.JISC Circular 6/03 An invitation for expressions of interest to establish a new Digital Curation Centre for research into and support of the curation and preservation of digital data and publications EcologyOCLC. 2003 Environmental Scan: A Report to the OCLC Membership. Available at: Asset TypesTheses/dissertations/other student paperse-PortfoliosPre-prints/e-PrintsConference Proceedings/PresentationsTech reports/working paperse-BooksE-Journal filesNewspapersDatasetsDatabases/SpreadsheetsUniversity electronic records/publicationsDigital images/audio/moving imagesDigitized Musical ScoresExhibitions/performancesDigital materials: either acquired or createdPDF files/GIS file/XML filesSources: van Westrienen, G. & Lynch, C.A. (2005). & Lippincott (2005). Asset TypesInterview transcriptsMaps/plans/blueprintsSoftwareCourse content/learning objectsCampus blogsNewslettersLaboratory protocolManuscriptsWeb pages/sitesEmailSources: van Westrienen, G. & Lynch, C.A. (2005). & Lippincott (2005). File FormatsThousands of them!Select for object creation based on:Open standardsUbiquityStabilityMetadata SupportFeature SetInteroperabilityViabilityThe National Archives. Selecting File Formats for Long-Term Preservation 2003. File FormatsSelect for preservation based on:AuthenticityProcessabilityPresentationThe National Archives. Selecting File Formats for Long-Term Preservation 2003. File FormatsPNG (pronounced 'ping'), the Portable Network Graphics file format, is an open raster image format.JPEG 2000 is an open raster image format described by the ISO/IEC standard 15444, and ITU standard T.800. MrSID stands for Multi-resolution Seamless Image Database. Its file format is given the file extension '.sid'. It is designed to compress huge images seamlessly and allow selective delivery and decompression. DjVu is a screen/Web format and is more suited to 'mixed documents' (i.e. text and image) than to individual images. Technical Advisory Service for Images. New Digital File Formats. File Format RegistriesPRONOM. PRONOM is a resource for anyone requiring impartial and definitive information about the file formats, software products and other technical components required to support long-term access to electronic records and other digital objects of cultural, historical or business value. The National Archives. File Format Registries & ToolsGlobal Digital Format Registry (GDFR). Harvard University and Andrew Mellon Foundation. (pronounced "jove") The JSTOR/Harvard Object Validation Environment. JSTOR and the Harvard University Libraryproject to develop an extensible framework for format validation. Key Issues for Digital CurationIssues & decisions for long-term DC and DP projects: Creating durable digital objectsAppraisal and selectionTechnologies (e.g., obsolescence, migration, emulation, digital repositories)Risk managementRights management and other legal and ethical issuesDigital asset managementMetadata (minimum/optimal/practical)StandardsFile formatsQuality control and trustworthinessResource allocation and costingFunding for development and sustainability24Introduction: ThreatsLack of societal awareness and imperativeLittle national planning and fundingLack of institutional policies or planningLack of institutional support and resourcesLack of local expertiseTechnological obsolescenceProduct/technology development and support25Introduction: Requirements for Digital Curation and PreservationResources not just more, but new onesTrusted and durable digital repositoriesPrinciples of sound metadata constructionUse of open standards for file formats and data encoding and The promotion of information management literacy.26Key Reports: CPA Archiving Task Force ReportGarrett, John & Donald Waters. Preserving Digital Information: Report of the Task Force on Archiving of Digital Information. (The Commission on Preservation and Access and RLG. 1996). ChallengesTechnological ObsolescenceNeed for MigrationLegal IssuesInstitutional IssuesNeed for Deep InfrastructureUncertaintyPeople28CPA: Integrity of Digital InformationContentFixityReferenceProvenanceContext29CPA: Stakeholder InterestsCreatorArchivistUserSociety30CPA: Archival Roles & ResponsibilitiesCreatorsArchivesUsers31CPA: Migration StrategiesChange MediaChange FormatIncorporate StandardsBuild Migration PathsUse Processing Centers32CPA: Managing Costs & FinancesCost ModelingObstacles and ProspectivesSources of Funding33CPA: FindingsThe first line of defense against loss of valuable digital information rests with the creators, providers and owners of digital information.Long-term preservation of digital information on a scale adequate for the demands of future research and scholarship will require a deep infrastructure capable of supporting a distributed system of digital archives.34CPA: FindingsA critical component of the digital archiving infrastructure is the existence of a sufficient number of trusted organizations capable of storing, migrating and providing access to digital collections.A process of certification for digital archives is needed to create an overall climate of trust about the prospects of preserving digital information.35CPA: FindingsCertified digital archives must have the right and duty to exercise an aggressive rescue function as a fail-safe mechanism for preserving valuable digital information that is in jeopardy of destruction, neglect or abandonment by its current custodian.36CPA: Best Practices & BenchmarkingDesign of systems that facilitate archiving at the creation stage.Storage of massive quantities of culturally valuable digital information.37CPA: Best Practices & BenchmarkingRequirements and standards for describing and managing digital information.Migration paths for digital preservation of culturally valuable digital information.38Key Reports: Its About Time, 2003Hedstrom, Margaret et al. It's About Time: Research Challenges in Digital Archiving and Long-term Preservation.(Washington, DC: NSF & LOC, 2003). 39IAT: Research ChallengesTechnical architectures for archival repositoriesAttributes of archival collections Digital archiving tools and technologies andOrganizational, economic, and policy issues40IAT: Preservation ChallengesDigital collections are vast, heterogeneous, and growing at a rate that outpaces our ability to manage and preserve them.Much more digital content is available and worth preserving; researchers increasingly depend on digital resources and assume that they will be preserved.41IAT: ChallengesGovernment, commerce, and personal communications rely on digital information and communications.Time is of the essence!Threat of interrupted management.42IAT: Digital Archiving Research AgendaAttributes of Digital RepositoriesAttributes of Archived CollectionsTools and TechnologiesPolicy and Economic Models43Key Reports: Invest to Save, 2003Hedstrom, Margaret & Seamus Ross. Invest to Save: Report and Recommendations of the NSF-DELOS Working Group on Digital Archiving and Preservation. (Washington, DC: NSF & DELOS, 2003). 44ITS: Research AgendaPreservation StrategiesRe-engineering Preservation ProcessesPreservation of Systems and Technology45ITS: Areas of Most ImpactSelf-Contextualizing ObjectsMetadata and the Evolution of OntologiesMechanisms for Preservation of Complex and Dynamic Objects46ITS: Long-TermA period of time long enough for there to be concern about the impacts of changing technologies, including support for new media and data formats, and of a changing user community, on the information being held in a repository.47ITS: Benefits of Digital PreservationProtection and conservation of cultural memoryGlobal access to open knowledge and support for cross-disciplinary collaboration.Preservation for accountability48ITS: Benefits of Digital PreservationReduction of costs by information re-useFoundation of a knowledge economyDevelopment of digital libraries49ITS: Principles and AssumptionsThe most distinctive characteristic of digital preservation is its long-term perspective.Authenticity and integrity are core requirements.Scalability is essential for digital preservation.Preservation is a continuous and dynamic process.50ITS: Principles and AssumptionsPreservation is done within the context of a lifecycle.Digital preservation requires shared responsibilities.Multiple approaches are needed.Digital preservation requires multi-disciplinary research teams.51ITS: Principles and AssumptionsDigital preservation research does not stand in isolation from practice.Preservation is a high-priority research area.52Key Reports: Mind the Gap, 2006Digital Preservation Coalition, 2006. of the UK Digital Preservation Needs Assessment (UKNA) study carried out for the Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC) to reveal the extent of the risk of loss or degradation to digital material held in the UK's public and private sectors. Findings (1)Volume and total value of digital information needed in the information age is increasing.Organisations often do not have good solutions to the long-term preservation of data.Considerable confusion about how to address the problem.54MTG: Findings (2)Very few organisations have some kind of digital preservation strategy in place.Most organisations are hindered by a lack of clear responsibilities for digital preservation, a problem complicated by the need to involve a range of staff with different skills and the need to involve users at all stages of the information lifecycle.55MTG: Findings (3)Digital preservation is very much a new discipline which is still being developed, and for which there are few people with the necessary skills. As a result it is a complex activity to undertake and is often perceived as risky.56MTG: Findings (4)A successful digital preservation solution needs more than just management buy-in, it needs awareness and commitment at all levels throughout the organisation and often collaboration with other organisations.57MTG: Findings (5)It can be hard to put together a strong cost-benefit justification because the main benefits are often intangible or are public goodsdistributed across time and a range of organisations. The common project-based funding model can hinder digital preservation activities as this often fails to place a value on assets that outlive a project and can be reused elsewhere.58MTG: Recommendations for Organizations (1)Create a long-term proactive information/knowledge management plan.Perform regular information audits to measure (and continue to measure) their digital preservation needs, and to ensure that these are being met.Consider the long-term value of digital material when putting together plans and budgets.59MTG: Recommendations for Organizations (2)Encourage an international market for digital preservation tools by linking up with other projects around the world and engaging with software vendors.Consider the long-term preservation characteristics of the formats they use. They should work together and with software vendors to encourage the development of open file format standards.60Key Projects & Web Sites(1)Arts & Humanities Data Service (AHDS). Cultural, Artistic and Scientific knowledge for Preservation, Access and Retrieval. Federated Digital Preservation Across Time and Space. & for Networked Information (CNI). http://www.cni.orgCOnservation OnLine (CoOl) for Library & Information Resources (CLIR). http://www.clir.org Projects & Web Sites(2)DigCCurr. Digital Curation Curriculum Project. Curation Center (DCC) Preservation Coalition (DPC) Preservation Europe. (DPE) ERPANET. http://www.erpanet.org Projects & Web Sites(3)Library of Congress. Digital Preservation. (Digital Preservation Research and Technology). Preserving Access to Digital Information (PADI) Archives & Records Administration (NARA). Electronic Records Archive (ERA) Advisory Service for Images (TASI) Timeline of Activity (1990-95)arXiv, e-print archives for Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science and Quantitative Biology launched at Los Alamos National Laboratory (now, at Cornell). (1991)Source: McKiernan, G. Scholar-based Innovations in Publishing. Part I: Individual and Institutional Initiatives,Library Hi Tech News 20 no. 2 (March 2003): 19-26.Adobe announces the release of PDF 1.0, which eventually becomes the standard format for electronic publishing. (1992)Source: Timeline: Timeline of Activity (1990-95)National Digital Library Program (NDLP) launched by Library of Congress. (1994)Source: Timeline: International Workshop held in Oxford, England with goal of the development of materials to support development of draft ISO standards effort supporting the long term preservation of digital information obtained from observations of the terrestrial and space environments. OAIS Reference Model published seven years later, in 2002. (1995)Source: Timeline of Activity (1996)Arts and Humanities Data Service established.Source:, or Preserving Access to Digital Information, a National Library of Australia initiative, funded. (Initial call for formation came in 1993). Source: Timeline of Activity (1996)Brewster Kahles Internet Archive is launched. Source: seminal report is published by the CPA and RLG, Preserving Digital Information: Report of the Task Force on Archiving of Digital Information commissioned by the Commission on Preservation and Access and the Research Libraries Group.Source: Timeline of Activity (1997)Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute (HATII) formed at University of Glasgow. Source: Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) was created following merger of the Council on Library Resources (CLR) and the Commission on Preservation and Access (CPA).Source:, the Cognitive Sciences EPrint Archive, is launched by Stevan Harnad at University of Southampton (UK). Source: McKiernan, G. Scholar-based Innovations in Publishing. Part I: Individual and Institutional Initiatives, Library Hi Tech News 20 no. 2 (March 2003): 19-26. Timeline of Activity (1998)The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) debuts.Source: Markup Language (XML) standard is created and Encoded Archival Description (EAD)Version 1.0 is introduced.Source: Timeline: Timeline of Activity (1998)An RLG study finds that 2/3 of archives, libraries, museums, and other repositories had assumed responsibility for digital information, but 42% lacked the capacity to mount, read, and access some of this material.Source: Source: Timeline: broadcasts the CLIR film Into the Future: On The Preservation Of Knowledge In The Electronic Age.Source: Timeline: Timeline of Activity (1999)California Digital Library (CDL) debuts. Source: Description Framework (RDF) is introduced. RDF is intended to provide metadata interoperability across different communities. Source: Timeline: project, International Research on Permanent Authentic Records in Electronic Systems (InterPARES I)begins.Source: Timeline of Activity (1999)Project CAMiLEON begins at the Universities of Michigan and Leeds to study the use of emulation as a digital preservation strategy.Source: Timeline: Dollar writes Authentic Electronic Records: Strategies for Long-Term Access.Source: Timeline: Timeline of Activity (2000)The digital imaging reference book, including information on digital preservation, MovingTheory into Practice, is released. Source: Timeline: National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP) is created, with up to $100 million in funding allocated by the US Library of Congress. Source: Timeline of Activity (2000)Jeff Rothenbergs Using Emulation to Preserve Digital Documents is published.Source: Timeline: project on Risk Management of Digital Information offers first assessment of the risks involved in migration for use in cultural institutions. Source: Timeline: Timeline of Activity (2000)National Archives of Australia implements plan to accept digital records and provide for their continual access over time.Source: Timeline:, an open source, open access repository software created by School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, UK, is released. Source: and Timeline of Activity (2001)METS 1.1 schema debuts as an XML standard for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata within a digital library.Source: Timeline: OCLC/RLG Working Group on Preservation Metadata releases, Preservation Metadata for Digital Objects: A Review of the State of the Art.Source: Timeline: Timeline of Activity (2001)The Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC)founded. Source: National Library of Australia releases the PANDORA Digital Archiving System (PANDAS).Version 2 was released in 2002, followed by version 3 in 2004. Source: Timeline of Activity (2001)ERPANET: Electronic Resource Preservation and Access Network project debuted. Source: Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI)forms, from a meeting of the Open Society Institute (OSI). Source: Timeline of Activity (2002)RLG and OCLC publish, Trusted Digital Repositories: Attributes and Responsibilities.Source: version of PRONOM, on online registry of technical information, is released by the National Archives (UK) digital preservation. releases the Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS): Blue Book CCSDS 650.0-B-1 (2002). Source: Timeline of Activity (2002)eScholarship Repository launched by the California Digital Library (CDL). Source: Guide to Good Practice in the Digital Representation and Management of Cultural Heritage Materials is published. Source: Research on Permanent Authentic Records in Electronic Systems (InterPARES II)begins, following the conclusion of phase I in 2001. Source: Timeline of Activity (2002)European Commission IST Support Measure initiative, DigiCULT: Technology Challenges for Digital Culture, begins.Source:, an open source digital software platform jointly developed by MIT and Hewlett Packard, is released. Source: issues call for proposals for their research initiative, FAIR, Focus On Access to Institutional Repositories, Programme. Timeline of Activity (2003)Fedora 1.0 (Flexible Extensible Digital Object and Repository Architecture), a general purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University and the University of Virginia, is released.Source: OCLC/RLG backed initiative, the PREMIS, the PREservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies working group, formed. Source: Timeline of Activity (2003)The International Internet Preservation Consortiumis formed.Source: Timeline: Timeline of Activity (2003)nestor: Network of Expertise in Long-Term Storage of Digital Resources, debuts. Following this first phase (2003-06), nestorreceived second phase funding for 2006-09). Source: (EPrints on Library and Information Science), a digital repository, launches. Source: Timeline of Activity (2004)The International Organization for Standardization publishes: ISO 15836:2003, Information and Documentation, the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set.Source: Timeline: of the Digital Curation Centre (DCC) by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC).Source:, the network of Digital Academic Repositories, is launched (The Netherlands).Source: Timeline of Activity (2004)Delos: Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries, is formed, with funding from the European Commission. Source: Co-operative Development of a Long-Term Digital Information Archive project launches. Source: European Archive, a digital library of cultural artifacts in digital form, is incorporated. Source: Timeline of Activity (2005)RLG/NARA Taskforce on Digital Repository Certification release the draft, Audit Checklist for Certifying Digital Repositories: Draft for Public Comment (2005). Source: Proposal for a Global Digital Format Registry (GFDR) is published by Stephen Abrams and Dale Flecker. Source: Timeline of Activity (2005)Portico, an electronic archiving service, is formed. Formerly, Portico operated as the Electronic-Archiving Initiative (2002). Source: International Organization for Standardization (ISO) approves the PDF/Archive (PDF/A) file format standard.Source: Timeline of Activity (2005)The National Archives and Records Administration (US) awards a $308 million, six year contract to Lockheed Martin to build the Electronic Records Archives (ERA).Source: Digital Curation Centre (DCC) releases their first chapter for the Digital Curation Manual, Open Source for Digital Curation. Five additional chapters are released through 2006. Source: Timeline of Activity (2005)JISC-funded initiative, Digital Repositories Programme, starts in support of thirty research and development projects. The initiative carries on as the Repositories and Preservation Programme, with funding secured through 2009. Source: Timeline of Activity (2006)In June, the nestor Working Group on Trusted Repository Certification publishes version 1 of their criteria for trusted digital repositories; an English-version, Catalogue of Criteria for Trusted Digital Repositories (CCTDR), is released in December. Source: PLANETS (Digital Preservation Research and Technology) project debuts.Source: (Cultural, Artistic and Scientific knowledge for Preservation, Access, and Retrieval) project starts in April.Source: http://casparpreserves.org Timeline of Activity (2006)DigitalPreservationEurope (DPE) launched website. Source: National Library of New Zealand, the British Library, and Sytec Resources Ltd launch the Web Curator Tool (WCT) as an open-source project. Source: Internet Archives subscription-based service, Archive-It debuts. Source: Preservation Coalition publishes Mind the Gap.Source: Timeline of Activity (2007)DigitalPreservationEurope (DPE) and Digital Curation Centre (DCC) release draft: DRAMBORA: Digital Repository Audit Method Based on Risk Assessment.Source:, CRL, and NARA release, Trusted Repositories Audit and Certification: Criteria and Checklist (TRAC), a follow up-to the RLG/NARA 2005 draft, Audit Checklist for Certifying Digital Repositories.Source: Timeline of Activity (2007)DigCCurr2007, an international symposium on digital curation, is held in Chapel Hill NC, attracting nearly 300 participants.Source: Library Association launched Digital Preservation mailing list. Source: IMLS-funded MIRACLE project releases their institutional repository census (US) findings. Source: TerminologyDigital Repository or Archive:These two terms are often used interchangeably. OAIS uses archive when referring to an organization that intends to preserve information for access and use by a Designated Community. Digital repository often the term used in the DP and DC arenas.95Developments: TerminologyInstitutional Repository a university-based institutional repository is a set of services that a university offers to the members of its community for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution and its community members.Lynch, C. (2002). Institutional Repositories: Essential Infrastructure for Scholarship in the Digital Age. ARL BimonthlyReport 226. Institutional RepositoriesMost essentially an organizational commitment to the stewardship of these digital materials, including long-term preservation where appropriate, as well as organization and access or distribution.While operational responsibility for these services may reasonably be situated in different organizational units at different universities, an effective IR of necessity represents a collaboration among librarians, information technologists, archives and records mangers, facultySee Lynch, C. (2002). Institutional Repositories: Essential Infrastructure for Scholarship in the Digital Age. ARL Bimonthly Report 226. Institutional RepositoriesAt any given point in time, an IR will be supported by a set of information technologies, but a key part of the services that comprise an IR is the management of technological changes, and the migration of digital content from one set of technologies to the next as part of the organizational commitment to providing repository services.An IR is not simply a fixed set of software and hardware.See Lynch, C. (2002). Institutional Repositories: Essential Infrastructure for Scholarship in the Digital Age. ARL BimonthlyReport 226. Digital RepositoriesOAIS Reference Model:Framework for DPRepository systems:In-house (home-grown)Proprietary (hosted or on-site)Open sourcee.g., DSpace, Fedora, EPrintsRepository types:Subject-based repositoriesInstitutional repositories (IRs)99Developments: IR LandscapeCNI Survey (2005) 121 US PhD granting inst.; 81 four-year liberal arts collegesResponses from 97 (78.2%) of PhD institutions:40% report operational IR88% without IR (52% of total respondents) in planning stagesResponses from 35 (43.8%) of liberal arts inst.:6% (2) report operational IR21% without IR in planning stages IR Landscape, continuedARL Survey (Winter 2006) 123 North American academic institutions: 87 respondents (71%)IR Planning and DeploymentNo Current IR Plans: 19 (22%)IR Planning: 31 (35%)Deployed Operational IR: 37 (43%) IR Landscape, continuedMIRACLE (Census, Fall 2006) 2,147 North American academic institutions: 446 respondents (20.8% response rate) IR Planning, Piloting, and DeploymentNo Current IR Plans: 236 (52.9%)IR Planning Only: 92 (20.6%)IR planning and Pilot Testing: 70 (15.7%)Deployed Operational IR: 48 (10.8%) DC and DP in PracticeDSpace at MIT Soton: University of Southampton's Research Repository Tufts Digital Repository (TDR) Program Trusted Digital RepositoriesRLG/OCLC Working Group on Digital Archive Attributes in Trusted Digital Repositories: Attributes and Responsibilities. (2002):Provide reliable, long-term access to managed digital resources to its designated community, now and in the future, regardless of infrastructure adopted (e.g., local, vendor-mediated, etc.).Must meet basic expectations.104Assessment: OCLC/RLG (2002)Expectations for Trust:Meet high-level organizational and curatorial responsibilities and operational responsibilities, including or in addition to:Accepting responsibility for long-term maintenance of content for both contributors and end-usersMaintaining an organization system for long-term viability of repository and its contentMeeting fiscal demands and requirements for continued sustainability105Assessment: OCLC/RLG (2002)More expectations:Designing standards-compliant systemsEvaluating systems to assess trustworthinessBeing explicit and open in meeting contributor and end-user expectationsDeveloping and implementing auditable practices, policies, and services106Assessment: RLG/NARA (2005)Taskforce on Digital Repository Certification, Audit Checklist for Certifying Digital Repositories: Draft for Public Comment( Develop criteria to identify digital repositories capable of reliably storing, migrating, and providing access to digital collections. RLG/NARA (2005) continuedOrganized into four audit activities:(1) The OrganizationGovernance and organizational viabilityOrganizational structure and staffingProcedural accountability and policy frameworkFinancial sustainabilityContracts, licenses, and liabilities(2) Repository Functions, Processes & ProceduresIngest/acquisition of contentArchival storage: Management of archived informationPreservation planning, migration and other strategiesData managementAccess management108Assessment: RLG/NARA (2005) continued(3) Designated Community and the Usability of InformationDocumentationDescriptive metadata appropriate to designated communityUse and usabilityVerifying understandability(4) Technologies and Technical InfrastructureSystem infrastructureAppropriate technologiesSecurity109Assessment: RLG/NARA (2005) continuedAs Resource: Reference to TDR in IR planning (n=36)Use reported by 12 (33%)Non-Use reported 24 (67%)11 (44%): IR planning per TDR-release9 (36%): Unaware of TDRs existence3 (12%): Lack of time, resources, and/or staff1 (4%): TDR not applicable 1 (4%): Other IR planning priorities2 (8%): No use personally, but unsure of all IR planning activities.Hank, C., Tibbo H.R., and Barnes, H. (2007). Building from Trust: Using the RLG/NARA Audit Checklist for Institutional Repository Planning and Deployment. Paper presented at IS&Ts Archiving Conference 2007, May 21-24, 2007, Arlington, VA.110Assessment: TRAC: OCLC/CRL/NARA (2007)OCLC, CRL, and NARA, Trusted Repositories Audit and Certification: Criteria and Checklist (2007). DRAMBORA: DPE/DCC (2007)DPE and DCC. DRAMBORA: Digital Repository Audit Method Based on Risk Assessment. Working toward Long-term Access Cornell Universitys Three-Legged Stool:Organizational CommitmentSupport for persistent access exhibited through policies and procedures e.g., Mission statement, stakeholder agreements, content selection and acquisition, defining service, deposit agreements, documented DP plan.Existing or new administrative structuresTechnological InfrastructureE.g., OAIS Reference ModelResource AllocationSustainable fundingStaffing - Organizational and technical expertise; training113Readiness: Working toward Long-term AccessOrganizational CommitmentSupport for persistent access exhibited through policies and procedures e.g., Mission statement, stakeholder agreements, content selection and acquisition, defining service, deposit agreements, documented DP plan.Existing or new administrative structures114Readiness: Working toward Long-term AccessTechnological InfrastructureDigital object typesExisting archival storage use access copies, master files, and back-up (e.g., online, magnetic tape, removable media CD, DVD, etc.)115Readiness: Working toward Long-term AccessTechnological InfrastructureStorage procedures (e.g., back-up, off-site, disaster recovery, etc.). Obsolescence (e.g., file formats, storage media, storage drives, hardware and software)Security116Readiness: Working toward FundingCostsSystems (e.g., equipment/hardware/software)Staffing (primary/secondary)E.g., Organizational and technical expertise; trainingServices (e.g., back-up/maintenance)Others: Supplies, materials, etc. CategoriesInitial/Start-upSustaining/On-goingContingencies (e.g., damaged equipment)ResourcesE.g., Institutional and/or endowmentsE.g., Public and/or governmentalE.g., Grants (one-time or recurring rewards)117Readiness: Organizational CommitmentExample from UNC-CHs Digital Curation/Institutional Repository Committee (DC/IRC):Develop a feasible plan that will both serve UNC-CHs curation needs and will place the University in the forefront ofsuch efforts in the Triangle, nationally, and internationally;Design a pilot IR and digital preservation program in partnership with ITS, the University Libraries, and SILS that will support ongoing research;And develop policies, procedures, and long-term digital preservation strategies to benefit the entire campus. This will include strategies to educate the campus community.Actual (from MIRACLE findings):Funding for IRs comes or will come from libraries. It is not coming from academic units.118Readiness: Stakeholders and CollaboratorsRecommended:Senior management ... Among librarians, information technologists, archives and records manager, faculty, and university administrators and policymakers. Lynch (2002).Actual (from MIRACLE findings):Libraries 40%Archives, central computing, and other academic units: 12%CIOs office: 6%119Readiness: Collaborators: UNC-CH ExampleUniversity Library, inc.:Library SystemsUniversity ArchivesDocSouthHealth Sciences LibrarySchool of Information and Library Science (SILS)Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI)Information Technology Services (ITS)The Odum InstituteIbiblio.orgUNC PressKenan-Flagler School of BusinessDepartment of Romance LanguagesDepartment of AnthropologyDepartment of Art120Readiness: Partner Roles: UNC-CH ExampleProvost$$$RENCI:Hardware acquisition and managementUniversity Librarys Systems Department:Systems administrationSILS:Requirements consultationPilot collections acquisitionStudent SupportFaculty Support121Readiness: Working toward Long-term AccessAssessmentDC and DP needs assessment in relation to institutions teaching, research, and service rolesEngagementIdentification, recruitment, training, evaluationFlexibleDesigning processes and systems that growE.g., in response to changing needs of community member and digital asset types122Readiness: Resource Recommendations97 valuable planning resources provided:59 (60%) unique titles. Commonalities in selection (n=59)8 (14%) selected by 4-6 respondents6 (10%) selected by 2 respondents45 (76%) only selected by one participant123Readiness: Resource RecommendationsPlanningCCSDS, Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS): Blue Book CCSDS 650.0-B-1 (2002). University Librarys Digital Preservation Management (Implementing Short-term Strategies for Long-term Problems) online tutorial. Handbook, from the DigitalPreservationCoalition. Resource RecommendationsAssessmentDPE and DCC. DRAMBORA: Digital Repository Audit Method Based on Risk Assessment (2007)., CRL, and NARA. Trusted Repositories Audit and Certification: Criteria and Checklist (2007). Taskforce on Digital Repository Certification, Audit Checklist for Certifying Digital Repositories: Draft for Public Comment (2005). Challenges & Future ConsiderationsInstitutional Repository Context:Lack of consensus in defining an IRLack of best practices examplesContradictions between conceptualization and actualizationPlanned: Faculty DepositsActual: Where are the deposits?Planned: Preservation.Actual: Preservation?126Wrap-Up: Challenges & Future ConsiderationsAbby Smith of NDIIPP (in MIRACLE report):It is one of the paradoxical findings of the survey that there is detectable urgency in the part of libraries to implement institutional repositories, even as early adopters report difficulties in achieving the purposes for which they were built.127Wrap-Up: ConclusionsDigital curation involves all stages of the lifecycle or continuumDigital curation impacts society broadlyAppraisal is keyNeed to sustain the objectsNeed to sustain the organizationNew vision for libraries & repositoriesNew workforce with new skillsThere will be different commitments to persistence.128Wrap-Up: ContactDr. Helen R. TibboSchool of Information and Library Science201 Manning HallUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel Hill, NC 27599-3360Tel: 919.962.8063Fax: 919.962.8071Email: tibbo@ils.unc.eduCarolyn HankSchool of Information and Library Science100 Manning HallUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel Hill, NC 27599-3360Tel: 919.259.3191Fax: 919.962.8071Email: hcarolyn@email.unc.edumailto:tibbo@ils.unc.edumailto:hcarolyn@email.unc.eduDigital Curation and Digital Preservation: An IntroductionOutlineIntroduction: Why We Are HereIntroduction: Grand ChallengesIntroduction: View from the Scientific CommunityIntroduction: View from the Internet/ Blogger CommunityIntroduction: Definitions and Concepts/ DPIntroduction: Definitions and Concepts/ DPIntroduction: Definitions and Concepts/ DPIntroduction: Digital CurationIntroduction: Definitions and Concepts/ Digital CurationIntroduction: The DCC on Digital CurationIntroduction: JISC on Digital CurationIntroduction: EcologyIntroduction: Asset TypesIntroduction: Asset TypesIntroduction: File FormatsIntroduction: File FormatsIntroduction: File FormatsIntroduction: File Format RegistriesIntroduction: File Format Registries & ToolsIntroduction: Key Issues for Digital CurationIntroduction: ThreatsIntroduction: Requirements for Digital Curation and PreservationKey Reports: CPA Archiving Task Force ReportCPA: ChallengesCPA: Integrity of Digital InformationCPA: Stakeholder InterestsCPA: Archival Roles & ResponsibilitiesCPA: Migration StrategiesCPA: Managing Costs & FinancesCPA: FindingsCPA: FindingsCPA: FindingsCPA: Best Practices & BenchmarkingCPA: Best Practices & BenchmarkingKey Reports: Its About Time, 2003IAT: Research Challenges IAT: Preservation ChallengesIAT: ChallengesIAT: Digital Archiving Research AgendaKey Reports: Invest to Save, 2003ITS: Research AgendaITS: Areas of Most ImpactITS: Long-TermITS: Benefits of Digital PreservationITS: Benefits of Digital PreservationITS: Principles and AssumptionsITS: Principles and AssumptionsITS: Principles and AssumptionsKey Reports: Mind the Gap, 2006MTG: Findings (1)MTG: Findings (2)MTG: Findings (3) MTG: Findings (4)MTG: Findings (5)MTG: Recommendations for Organizations (1)MTG: Recommendations for Organizations (2)Key Projects & Web Sites(1)Key Projects & Web Sites(2)Key Projects & Web Sites(3)Developments: Timeline of Activity (1990-95)Developments: Timeline of Activity (1990-95)Developments: Timeline of Activity (1996)Developments: Timeline of Activity (1996)Developments: Timeline of Activity (1997)Developments: Timeline of Activity (1998)Developments: Timeline of Activity (1998)Developments: Timeline of Activity (1999)Developments: Timeline of Activity (1999)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2000)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2000)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2000)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2001)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2001)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2001)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2002)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2002)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2002)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2003)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2003)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2003)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2004)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2004)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2005)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2005)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2005)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2005)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2006)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2006)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2007)Developments: Timeline of Activity (2007)Developments: TerminologyDevelopments: TerminologyDevelopments: Institutional RepositoriesDevelopments: Institutional RepositoriesDevelopments: Digital RepositoriesDevelopments: IR LandscapeDevelopments: IR Landscape, continuedDevelopments: IR Landscape, continuedDevelopments: DC and DP in PracticeAssessment: Trusted Digital RepositoriesAssessment: OCLC/RLG (2002)Assessment: OCLC/RLG (2002)Assessment: RLG/NARA (2005)Assessment: RLG/NARA (2005) continuedAssessment: RLG/NARA (2005) continuedAssessment: RLG/NARA (2005) continuedAssessment: TRAC: OCLC/CRL/NARA (2007)Assessment: DRAMBORA: DPE/DCC (2007)Readiness: Working toward Long-term Access Readiness: Working toward Long-term AccessReadiness: Working toward Long-term AccessReadiness: Working toward Long-term AccessReadiness: Working toward FundingReadiness: Organizational CommitmentReadiness: Stakeholders and CollaboratorsReadiness: Collaborators: UNC-CH ExampleReadiness: Partner Roles: UNC-CH ExampleReadiness: Working toward Long-term AccessReadiness: Resource RecommendationsReadiness: Resource RecommendationsReadiness: Resource RecommendationsWrap-Up: Challenges & Future ConsiderationsWrap-Up: Challenges & Future ConsiderationsWrap-Up: ConclusionsWrap-Up: Contact


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