Digital Libraries from Theory to Framework to Application: 5S Model, Open Archives Initiative, and Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.

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Slide 1 Digital Libraries from Theory to Framework to Application: 5S Model, Open Archives Initiative, and Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations December 6, 2000 --- Seoul Edward A. Fox CS DLRL Internet TIC Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA Slide 2 Acknowledgements (Selected) F Mentors: JCR Licklider, Michael Kessler, Gerard Salton F Sponsors: Adobe, IBM, Microsoft, NLM, NSF, OCLC, SOLINET, SURA, UNESCO, US Dept. of Ed. (FIPSE), F VT Faculty/Staff: Tony Atkins, Thomas Dunbar, Debra Dudley, John Eaton, Gwen Ewing, Peter Haggerty, Gary Hooper, Gail McMillan, Len Peters, James Powell, VT Students: Emilio Arce, Fernando Das Neves, Brian DeVane, Robert France, Marcos Goncalves, Scott Guyer, Robert Hall, Neill Kipp, Paul Mather, Tim McGonigle, Todd Miller, Constantinos Phanouriou, William Schweiker, Ohm Sornil, Hussein Suleman, Patrick Van Metre, Laura Weiss, Slide 3 JCDL 2001 First Joint ACM/IEEE Conference on Digital Libraries (+ NSF DLI-2 PI mtg) F F June 24-28, 2001 in Roanoke, VA F Conference Committee: F General Chair: Edward A. Fox, Virginia Tech F Program Chair: Christine Borgman, UCLA F Treasurer: Neil Rowe, Naval Postgraduate School F Posters Chair: Craig Nevill-Manning, Rutgers U. Slide 4 Virginia Tech Background F Largest university in Virginia, land-grant, football, town population 35K plus 25K students F Blacksburg Electronic Village, since 1992, with > 80% of community on Internet F Net.Work.Virginia, largest ATM network, with over 900 sites, for education, research, government F LMDS, Local Multipoint Distribution Service, gigabit wireless networking - 1/3 of Virginia F Math Emporium, 500 workstations F Faculty Development Initiative, round 2 F Torgersen Hall, $30M Advanced Communications and Information Technology Center, opening, w. DLRL Slide 5 Internet Technology Innovation Center Supported by Virginias Center for Innovative Technology Statewide University Partners - Governing Board: F Christopher Newport University William Winter, William Muir, Virginia Electronic Commerce Technology Center / Southeastern Virginia Network (VECTEC/SEVAnet) F George Mason University Scott Martin, Internet Multimedia Center (ICM) Steven Ruth, International Center for Applied Studies in IT (ICASIT) F University of Virginia Alf Weaver, Internet Commerce Group (InterCom) Jim French, Internet Digital Library F Virginia Tech Edward Fox, Digital Library Research Laboratory (DLRL), CC, CS Scott Midkiff, Center for Wireless Telecomm. (CWT), VTISC, ECpE Slide 6 ITIC @ VT Research Areas F Collaboration (e.g., group decision support) F Community networking (e.g., BEV) F Internet access (e.g., statewide network) F Information services (e.g., digital libraries) F Modeling and simulation (e.g., Web traffic) F Usability (e.g., human factors engineering) F Virtual environments (e.g., CAVE, visualization) Slide 7 OUTLINE F Introduction, Grand Challenge F Definitions, 5S F OAI F NDLTD F MARIAN, ENVISION F PetaPlex F For more information Slide 8 Digital Library Courseware F F WWW pages or large PDF copy files F CourseInfo quizzes based on books by Michael Lesk ( and William Arms (MIT Press) F Contents based on books, with other popular topics added (e.g., agents) F Separate pages to supplement: Definitions, Resources (People, Projects), and References Slide 9 Digital Libraries --- Virginia Tech F MARIAN (NLM) F CS DL Prototype - ENVISION (NSF, ACM) F TULIP (Elsevier, OCLC) F BEV History Base (NSF, Blacksburg) F DL for CS Education - EI (NSF, ACM) F WATERS, NCSTRL (NSF) F NDLTD (SURA, US Dept. of Education) F CSTC (NSF, ACM), CRIM (NSF, SIGMM) F WCA (Log) Repository (W3C) F VT-PetaPlex-1 (Knowledge Systems) Slide 10 Libraries of the Future JCR Licklider, 1965, MIT Press World Nation Province City Community Slide 11 DL-Related Timeline 1985 CoRR DLI ETDs 1990 xxx 1995 XML OAI 2000 NCSTRL PDF Proposed Ugrad DL NDLTD DLI2 HyperCard TEI SGML PCs Hypertext Conf. DCRDF CSTR NSDL Scholarly EPub in Us JPEG, MPEG MPEG-7 WWW Java Slide 12 Computing (flops) Digital content Communicat i ons (bandwidth, connectivity) Locating Digital Libraries in Computing and Communications Technology Space Digital Libraries technology trajectory: intellectual access to globally distributed information lessmore (Slide from S. Griffin, NSF) Slide 13 Slide 14 Structured Video Browser (making video into hypermedia) F IBrowse F Expository multimedia F Narrative Structures Slide 15 ICU Information and Communication University Users Web Search Engines WWW Servlet Engine Web Server OS DB Search Server Servlet MPEG-7 Description Module 1 2 3 4 5 3 4 5 MPEG-7 Image Library Systems Tech. t MPEG-7 Image Library Systems Slide 16 t MPEG-7 Video Library Systems Tech. ICU Information and Communication University MPEG-7 Video Library Systems Tech. Video Data Description Generator Description Schemes Design Tool Description Scheme Meta Database Video Database Retrieval Server Module Player Presentation Module Architecture Slide 17 Integrated CCLINC Translingual Information System DARPA Extraction What is the north korean movement in the front line? CCLINC SERVER Info Detection Summarization It seems that North Korea launch a missile again After North Korea launched a Daipodong missile last month, NK is perceived to proceed to an additional test launch. Korea, US and Japan enter into an alert state, and prepare for a joint response policy. Korea estimates that the additional launch will be on 09/05. Japan estimates that NKs missile range is short. US information says that there is no sign of launch yet. Translation What is the status of nk missile launch against japan? BugHanI IlBonE Ddo MiSaIlEul BalSaHan Deus HaDa 2-way Speech Transation Slide 18 Digital Libraries Shorten the Chain from Editor Publisher A&I Consolidator Library Reviewer Slide 19 DL = Users Direct (Organized Artifact Mediated Communication) Author Reader Digital Library Editor Reviewer Teacher Learner LibrarianDr.Patient Slide 20 Digital Libraries --- Objectives F World Lit.: 24hr / 7day / from desktop F Integrated super information systems: 5S: streams, structures, spaces, scenarios, societies F Ubiquitous, Higher Quality, Lower Cost F Education, Knowledge Sharing, Discovery F Disintermediation -> Collaboration F Universities Reclaim Property F Interactive Courseware, Student Works F Scalable, Sustainable, Usable, Useful Slide 21 Benefits F Ease of use F Effectiveness F The benefits of digital libraries will not be appreciated unless they are easy to use effectively. - IITA Workshop report Slide 22 DLs: Why of Global Interest? F National projects can preserve antiquities and heritage: cultural, historical, linguistic, scholarly F Knowledge and information are essential to economic and technological growth, education F DL - a domain for international collaboration wherein all can contribute and benefit which leverages investment in networking which provides useful content on Internet & WWW which will tie nations and peoples together more strongly and through deeper understanding Slide 23 Borgman et al.: Workshop Report on Social Aspects of Digital Libraries: http://www-lis.gseis. Information Life Cycle Slide 24 Grand Challenges Can F Mobilize the community F Spur creativity F Lead to important benefits in society F Push researchers to develop relevant theories F Force people to work in teams/groups F Convince funding agencies to invest F Help bring about integration of systems, interoperability, and seamless interfaces Slide 25 DL Challenges F World Digital Library (Libraries) F Preservation - so people with trust DLs F Scalability, sustainability, interoperability F (Supporting infrastructure - networks, ) F DL industry - critical mass by covering libraries, archives, museums, corporate info, govt info, personal info - quality WWW integrating IR, HT, MM,... Need tools & methods to make them easier to build Slide 26 Licklider Unified Theory? F Not ready in 1960s F Analog unified field theory in physics F Mess today segmented field, specialities Database Knowledge Content Mgmnt Multimedia, Hypermedia, Hypertext Logic, Algebra, Artificial Intelligence, F Expensive, annoying for users Dont know where to look Dont know how to use services Slide 27 OUTLINE F Introduction, Grand Challenge F Definitions, 5S F OAI F NDLTD F MARIAN, ENVISION F PetaPlex F For more information Slide 28 Definitions F Library ++ (library+archive+museum+) F Distributed information system + organization + effective interface F User community + collection + services F Digital objects, repositories, IPR management, handles, indexes, federated search, hyperbase, annotation Slide 29 Definition: Digital Libraries are complex systems that F help satisfy info needs of users (societies) F provide info services (scenarios) F organize info in usable ways (structures) F present info in usable ways (spaces) F communicate info with users (streams) Slide 30 5S Layers Societies Scenarios Spaces Structures Streams Slide 31 Definition: 5S Framework F Societies: interacting people (, computers) F Scenarios: services, functions, operations, methods F Spaces: domains + constraints (e.g., distance, adjacency): 2D, vector, probability F Structures: relations, trees, nodes and arcs F Streams: sequences of items (text, audio, video, network traffic) F (5 Element System: Fire, Wood, Earth, Metal, Water) Slide 32 5S: Combinations F Societies + Scenarios = user model F Societies + Scenarios + Spaces = user interface F Streams + Structures = markup F Streams + Structures + Scenarios = object F Structures + Scenarios = DBMS Slide 33 Core of DL F Collecting Authoring, Repositories, Archives, Museums, F Organizing Packaging of Data and Metadata, Storing Naming/Identifying and Cataloging Classification, Clustering, F Serving Indexing, Linking, Summarizing, Visualizing Browsing, Accessing, Searching, Filtering, Retrieving, Distributing, Using, Slide 34 DL Components User Interfaces Workflow Mgr DBMS Search Engines, Classifiers, Data, MM Info Gateways Repository Rights Mgr MM/ HT Renderer Slide 35 Document Models, Representations, and Accesses F Doc = stream + structure + use-scenario; hybrid (paper/electronic), digital only F Multilingual: content, summary, metadata F Multimedia: structure, quality (oS), search F Structured: MARC, SGML, by user: MVD F Distributed collection: Kleisli, CIMI, Z39.50 F Federated search: collecting, picking site(s), parallel search / fall-back, fusing results F Access: IPR, payment, security, scenarios Slide 36 Architectural Issues F Internet middleware F Independent system / part of federation F Decompositions vary search engine, browser, DBMS, MM support repository, handle server, client information resources + mediators, bus or agent collection + client with workspace/environment F Metrics: e.g., for federated search Slide 37 Standards F Protocols/federation Z39.50, CIMI Dienst, NCSTRL OAi protocol F Metadata TEI: inline, detailed (structure in stream) MARC: two-level, fine-grained Dublin Core: high-level, 15 elements RDF: describing resources/collections, annotation OAMS and others used in OAi Slide 38 (2 slides from Lee Zia, NSF) Presidential Directive - 12/17/1999 Subject: Use of Information Technology to Improve Our Society 13. The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, the Director of the National Science Foundation, the Director of the National Park Service, and the Director of the Institute of Museum and Library Services shall work with the private sector and cultural and educational institutions across the country to create a Digital Library of Education to house this country's cultural and educational resources. Slide 39 Programmatic History Digital Libraries Initiative (DLI 1) - NSF/NASA/ARPA, FY 94-97 DLI 2 - NSF, et al., initiated in FY 98, continuing Education FY 98-99 DLI 2 Special Emphasis in Undergrad NSDL Program NSF: FY 00-02 DL Operational Fall, 2002 DLs & UG Earth Systems Education initiated FY 99, continuing Slide 40 CS -> CSTC -> CRIM -> JERIC F NSF and ACM Education Committee are funding a 2 year project A Computer Science Teaching Center - CSTC - F College of NJ, U. Ill. Springfield, Virginia Tech F Focus initially on labs, visualization, multimedia F Multimedia part is also supported by a 2nd grant to Virginia Tech and The George Washington University: F ACM J. of Educational Resources in Computing Slide 41 Slide 42 Authors tools Slide 43 Slide 44 DL Components User Interfaces Workflow Mgr DBMS Search Engines, Classifiers, Data, MM Info Gateways Repository Rights Mgr MM/ HT Renderer Slide 45 OUTLINE F Introduction, Grand Challenge F Definitions, 5S F OAI F NDLTD F MARIAN, ENVISION F PetaPlex F For more information Slide 46 Open Archives Initiative OAI Slide 47 Open Archives Initiative (OAI) F xxx@LANL, high-energy physics (Ginsparg, 1991) F CSTR + WATERS = NCSTRL (Lagoze,1994) F xxx + NCSTRL = CoRR collaboration (1998) F Universal Preprint Service protoproto, Oct. 21-22, 1999, Santa Fe led by LANL, CNI, DLF, Mellon --> OAi F Santa Fe Convention (see Feb. D-Lib Magazine article) F Follow-on mtgs: 6/3@San Antonio, 9/21@Lisbon (ECDL) F Archives -> Open Archives Support unique archive identifiers Implement Open Archives metadata set (DC, using XML) Implement OA harvesting protocol (derived from Dienst protocol) Register the archive F Build tools, layer other services: linking, searching, Slide 48 Metadata: Complex -> Simple MARC ($50)Dublin Core (DC) Slide 49 OAI Repository Perspective Required: Protocol DO MDO Slide 50 OAI Black Box Perspective OA 1OA 2OA 4OA 3OA 5OA 6OA 7 Slide 51 Black Box OAI-ETD Perspective ISTEC (Ibero America) PhysDisNSYSU (Taiwan) ADT (Australia) BN.PT (Portugal) www.theses.orgCyberTheses (Francophone) VTDissert.Online (Germany) MITOhioLINKCBUC (Catalunya) NDC (Greece) SEALS (S.Africa) CICU. Bergen (Norway) Slide 52 Tiered Model of Interoperability Mediator services Metadata harvesting Document models Slide 53 OAi Philosophy F Self-archiving = submission mechanism F Long-term storage system = archive F Open interface = harvesting mechanism F Data provider + service provider F Start with gray literature e-prints/pre-prints, reports, dissertations, Slide 54 Archive of Digital Objects Archive Access Protocol Handle (ID) Digital object terms and conditions Slide 55 Open Archives (protoproto) F ArXiv & Los Alamos National Lab F CogPrints & U. Southampton F NACA & NASA (reports) F NCSTRL & Cornell U. F NDLTD & Virginia Tech F RePEc & U. Surrey F Total of around 200K records Slide 56 Original Open Archives Members F American Physical Society F California Digital Library F Caltech F Coalition for Networked Info. F Cornell University F Harvard University F Library of Congress F Los Alamos Natl Lab F Mellon Foundation F NASA Langley Research Cntr F Old Dominion University F Stanford University F U. of Ghent F U. of Surrey F U. of Southampton F Vanderbilt University F Virginia Tech F Washington University Slide 57 Open Archives Future F EconWPA (U. Washington) F e-biomed -> PubMed Central (NIH) F PubScience (DOE) F Clinical Medicine Netprints (+ other HighWire Press holdings ) F University ePub (California Digital Library) F All public e-prints (MIT) F Scholars Forum (Caltech) F Intl: CERN, Germany, India, Mexico, F Goal: millions of books/articles/reports / yr Slide 58 Approaches to Open Archives Build By Discipline Build By Institution Slide 59 Approaches to Open Archives Build By Discipline Build By Institution Author Category Interdisciplinary Year Language Query Slide 60 Slide 61 Mechanisms F Sharing Join federation, run software Make metadata and archive available F Aggregating By discipline By institution By genre F Automating Workflow Harvesting and providing services Federated searching Dynamic linking (e.g., with SFX) Slide 62 VT View of the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) F Enable sharing of publication metadata and full- text by digital libraries F Standardize low-level mechanisms to share contents of libraries F Build higher-level user-centric and administrative services in meta-libraries F Install organizational mechanisms to support the technical processes Slide 63 Virginia Tech Projects F MARC XML-DTD F Computer Science Teaching Centre (CSTC) F W3C Web Characterization Repository F OAI Repository Explorer F Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) Slide 64 MARC XML-DTD F XML Transport format for US-MARC records F Standardized metadata exchange format for traditional library services joining OAI Slide 65 CS Teaching Center (CSTC) F Collection of reviewed online resources used to aid in teaching of Computer Science F Supports author submission and peer-review process for new ACM Journal of Educational Resources In Computing (JERIC) F Connected with NSDL (NSF 00-44) F Slide 66 W3C Web Characterization Repository F Online database of metadata related to publications, tools and data sets dealing with Web characterization F Project of the Web Characterization Activity working group of the World-Wide-Web Consortium ( F Slide 67 Slide 68 Slide 69 Slide 70 OAI Repository Explorer F Serves as a compliancy test F Allows browsing of open archives using only OAI protocol F Sends requests on behalf of user, parses and checks responses and displays browsable interface F Will detect most discrepancies in protocol F Slide 71 Slide 72 Slide 73 Slide 74 OUTLINE F Introduction, Grand Challenge F Definitions, 5S F OAI F NDLTD F MARIAN, ENVISION F PetaPlex F For more information Slide 75 A Digital Library Case Study F Domain: graduate education, research F Genre: ETDs = electronic theses & dissertations F Submission: F Collection: Project: Networked Digital Library of Theses & Dissertations (NDLTD remember: ND LTD / NDL TD) (also, newer NUDL: Networked University Digital Library, with e-courseware, etc.) Slide 76 The Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations Leader of the Worldwide ETD (Electronic Thesis and Dissertation) Initiative Training Authors Expanding Access Preserving Knowledge Improving Graduate Education Enhancing Scholarly Communication Empowering Students & Universities Slide 77 Grad Program Library IT Ed. (Tech) Slide 78 Media ETD Web Site ETDs Got Your Interest? Graduate Students Singapore AM Chronicle of Higher Ed. National Public Radio NY Times... U. Laval Slide 79 Key Ideas: Networked infrastructure Scalability Education is the rationale University collaboration Workflow, automation Authors must submit Maximal Access PDF, SGML, MM, MARC, DC, URNs, Federated search Standards 8th graders vs. grads Slide 80 What led to todays meeting? F 1987 mtg in Ann Arbor: UMI, VT, F 1992 mtg in Washington: CNI, CGS, UMI, VT and 10 universities with 3 reps each F 1993 mtg in Atlanta to start Monticello Electronic Library (MEL): SURA, SOLINET F 1994 mtg in Blacksburg re ETD project: std of PDF + SGML + multimedia objects F 1996 funding by SURA, US Dept. of Education (FIPSE) for regional, national projects F 1997 meetings in UK, Germany,... F 1998 1 st symposium Memphis (20) F 1999 2 nd symposium Blacksburg (70) F 2000 3 rd symposium St. Petersburg (225) -> Caltech Slide 81 What are the long term goals? F Attract all TDs/yr: 50K D-US, 25K D-Germany, 10K TD-Canada, F >200K/yr rich hypermedia ETDs that may turn into electronic portfolios (images, video, audio, ) F Dramatic increase in knowledge sharing: literature reviews, bibliographies, F Services providing lifelong access for students: browse, search, prior searches, citation links F Hundreds/thousands of downloads / year / work Slide 82 ETDs: Library Goals F Improve library services Better turn-around time Always available F Reduce work catalog from e-text eliminate handling: mailing to UMI, bindery prep, check-out, check-in, reshelving, etc. F Save space Slide 83 F Aiding universities to enhance graduate education, publishing and IPR efforts F Helping improve the availability and content of theses and dissertations F Educating ALL future scholars so they can publish electronically and effectively use digital libraries (i.e., are Information Literate and can be more expressive) What are we doing? Slide 84 NDLTD Computer Resources Research Literature Student Prepares Thesis/Dissertation Slide 85 Student Defends & Finalizes ETD My Thesis ETD Slide 86 Slide 87 Student Gets Committee Signatures and Submits ETD Signed Grad School Slide 88 Graduate School Approves ETD, Student is Graduated Ph.D. Slide 89 Library Catalogs ETD, Access is Opened to the New Research WWW NDLTD Slide 90 Status of the Local Project F Approved by university governance Spring 1996; required starting 1/1/97 F Submission & access software in place F Submission workshops for students (and faculty) occur often: beginner/adv. F Faculty training as part of Faculty Development Initiative F Over 3000 ETDs in collection some have audio, video, large images, software, Slide 91 Archiving ETDs F Every 15 minutes back-ups made of not- yet-approved submissions F Hourly back-ups of newly approved ETDs F Weekly back-ups of entire ETD collection F Copies stored on-site and off-site Slide 92 VT ETD Cataloging F same as current cataloging policies, except: author-assigned keywords (not LCSH) generic (not LC) call no. fields/subfields as required for computer files full abstracts F time savings cataloger familiar with computer files equipment, software for word processing 5 minutes avg. (10-15 minutes for paper TDs) Slide 93 Library Costs F $12/vol. for paper thesis processing catalog, bind, security strip, label, shelve @950 vols./yr. = $11,466 F $3.20/vol. ETD processing cataloging @950 vols./yr. = $3040 F $.07/vol. shelving F $.04/vol. circulation Slide 94 Costs/Savings at VT F Graduate School stopped shipping to the library 3000 copies of paper TDs/year F Library stopped binding, shelving, and circulating 3000 copies of TDs/year F 166 ft of shelf space saved/year by the library F VT used existing equipment in Library (vs. start-up costs for staff, hardware and software from from a zero-base estimate: $65,000 see Slide 95 Institutional Members F Coalition for Networked Information (CNI) F Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) F F F Dissertationen Online (Germany) F ETDweb, a Division of F Ibero-American Science & Technology Education Consortium (ISTEC) F National Documentation Centre (NDC), Greece F National Library of Portugal (for all universities) F OCLC Online Computer Library Center F Organization of American States (SEDI/OAS) F Southeastern Library Network (SOLINET) F UNESCO ( Slide 96 National / Regional Projects F Australia U. New South Wales (lead) U. of Melbourne U. of Queensland U. of Sydney Australian National U. Curtin U. of Technology Griffith U. F Germany Humboldt University (lead) 3 other universities 5 learned societies: Math, Physics, Chemistry, Sociology, Education 1 computing center 2 major libraries F Consorci de Biblioteques Universitries de Catalunya, as group, Universitat de Barcelona Universitat Autonma de Barcelona Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya Universitat Pompeu Fabra Universitat de Girona Universitat de Lleida Universitat Rovira i Virgili Universitat Oberta de Catalunya Biblioteca de Catalunya F South Africa: ECHEA/SEALS F India, Portugal, Slide 97 OhioLINK F Statewide Consortium F Represents 79 colleges, universities, libraries F Public Universities F Private Universities and Colleges F 2-Year Colleges F Only a few (e.g., Miami U. of Ohio) are also NDLTD members on their own Slide 98 US University Members (44) F Penn. State University F Rochester Institute of Tech. F U. of Colorado Health Science Center F U. of Florida F U. of Georgia F University of Hawaii, Manoa F U. of Iowa F U. of Kentucky F U. of Maine F U. of North Texas required since 8/99 F U. of Oklahoma F U. of South Florida F U. of Tennessee, Knoxville F U. of Tennessee, Memphis F U. of Texas at Austin required in 2001 F U. of Virginia F U. Wisconsin - Madison F Vanderbilt U. F Virginia Commonwealth U. F Virginia Tech - required since 1/97 F West Virginia U. - required fall 1998 F Western Michigan U. F Worcester Polytechnic Inst. F Air University (Alabama) F Baylor University F Brigham Young University (part, whole) F Caltech F Clemson University F College of William & Mary F Concordia University (Illinois) F East Carolina University F East Tenn. State U. require fall 2000 F Florida Institute of Technology F Florida International University F George Washington University F Louisiana State University F Marshall University (W. Va.) F Miami University of Ohio F Michigan Tech F Mississippi State University F MIT F Naval Postgraduate School (CA) F New Mexico Tech F North Carolina State University Slide 99 Other Countries with Members F Belgium F Brazil F Canada F Germany F Hong Kong F India F Italy F Korea F Mexico F Netherland F Norway F Russia F Singapore F S. Africa F S. Korea F Spain F Taiwan F UK Slide 100 For professional societies F Like writing across the curriculum, e.g., Chemical Markup Language, MathML, F Besides writing: computing/communications, information literacy, personal digital library management, tool use, research methods, collaboration, archiving/preservation F Data sets, communities of users of them F Classification systems / browsing / searching F NRCs On becoming a researcher Slide 101 Slide 102 Usage of ETDs in VT Collections 1996199719981999 Jan-Aug Total requests 37,171247,537465,974907,104 Daily Requests 1026851,7223,121 Abstract requests 25,829112,633177,647143,056 Hosts served 9,01522,72528,02252,663 Slide 103 Slide 104 Popular Works 1996 458 Seevers, Gary L. Identification of Criteria for Delivery of Theological Education Through Distance Education: An International Delphi Study (Ph.D., Educational Research and Evaluation, April 1993; 1353Kb) 432 Hohauser, Robyn Lisa. The Social Construction of Technology: The Case of LSD (MS in Science and Technology Studies, Feb. 1995; 244Kb) 390 Childress, Vincent William. The Effects of Technology Education, Science, and Mathematics Integration Upon Eighth Grader's Technological Problem-Solving Ability (Ph.D. in Vocational and Technical Education, July 1994; 285Kb) 310 Kuhn, William B. Design of Integrated, Low Power, Radio Receivers in BiCMOS Technologies (Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering, Dec. 1995; 2Mb) 287 Sprague, Milo D. A High Performance DSP Based System Architecture for Motor Drive Control ( MS in Electrical Engineering, May 1993; 878Kb) 165 Wallace, Richard A. Regional Differences in the Treatment of Karl Marx by the Founders of American Academic Sociology (MS in Sociology, Nov. 1993; 479Kb) 150 McKeel, Scott Andrew. Numerical Simulation of the Transition Region in Hypersonic Flow (Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering, Feb. 1996; 3Mb) Slide 105 Popular Works 1997 9920 Liu, Xiangdong. Analysis and Reduction of Moire Patterns in Scanned Halftone Pictures (Ph.D. in Computer Science, May 1996; 6.6Mb) 7656 Petrus, Paul. Novel Adaptive Array Algorithms and Their Impact on Cellular System Capacity (Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering, March 1997; 5Mb) 2781 Agnes, Gregory Stephen. Performance of Nonlinear Mechanical, Resonant-Shunted Piezoelectric, and Electronic Vibration Absorbers for Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Structures (Ph.D. in Engineering Mechanics, Sept. 1997; ? + 7926Kb) 2492 Gonzalez, Reinaldo J. Raman, Infrared, X-ray, and EELS Studies of Nanophase Titania (Ph.D. in Physics, July 1996; 4607Kb) 1877 Shih, Po-Jen. On-Line Consolidation of Thermoplastic Composites (Ph.D. in Engineering Mechanics, Feb. 1997; 3.3Mb) 1791 Saldanha, Kevin J. Performance Evaluation of DECT in Different Radio Environments (MS in Electrical Engineering, Aug. 1996; 3.2Mb) 1431 DeVaux, David. A Tutorial on Authorware (MS in CS, April 1996; 2.3Mb) 1394 Kuhn, William B. Design of Integrated, Low Power, Radio Receivers in BiCMOS Technologies (Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering, Dec. 1995; 2518Kb) Slide 106 International Use 199619971998 85029928170 United Kingdom 6082,5014223 Australia 34623787373 Germany 71323673970 Canada 38712642201 South Korea 46311614431 France 2507252553 Italy 1918672781 Netherlands 18311301449 Brazil 229671089 Thailand 839581414 Greece Slide 107 NUDL F 1/15/99 Networked University Digital Library (NUDL) proposal to NSF under DLI2 international program VT: Library, Grad School, Industrial&Systems Eng. Partners: UK (2), Singapore, Russia, Korea, Greece, Germany, plus Iberoamerican group (Spain, Portugal, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico) Problems: Multilingual search, multimedia submissions, requirements/usability, international performance, F Start with ETDs, then expand to other student works, portfolios, data sets, (CS) courseware,... Slide 108 NUDL Research Partners F Ricardo A. Baeza-Yates, Universidad de Chile, Chile F Jos Luis Brinquete Borbinha, Biblioteca Nacional, Portugal F Jos Hilario Cans Cerd, Universidad Politcnica de Valencia, Spain F Stavros Christodoulakis, Technical University of Crete, Greece F Eberhard Hilf, University of Oldenburg, Germany F Peter Diepold, Susanne Dobratz, , Humboldt University, Germany F David Garza-Salazar, Monterrey Inst. of Technology (ITESM), Mexico F Sung Hyon Myaeng, Chungnam National University, Korea (+ colleagues) F Ana Maria Beltran Pavani, Prdio Cardeal Leme, Brazil F Lim Ee Peng, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore F Alexander I. Plemnek, St.-Petersburg State Technical University, Russia F Berthier Ribeiro-Neto, Federal U. of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil F J. Alfredo Snchez, Universidad de las Amricas-Puebla, Mexico Slide 109 Who are sponsors / cooperators? F Funding, Donations of hardware/software SURA US Dept. of Education (FIPSE) Adobe Systems IBM Microsoft OCLC F Others Serving on Steering Committee National/Regional Projects: Australia, French speaking group (Montreal, Lyon), Germany, IberoAmerica (ISTEC, OAS), UK (UTOG) CGS, National Lib. Canada, NSF, SOLINET, UMI, UNESCO,... Slide 110 Relationship with publishers F Concern of faculty and students that still wish to publish books or journal articles, voiced: campus, Chronicle, NPR, Times F Solution: Approval Form gives students, faculty choices on access, when to change access condition; use IPR controls in DL F Solution: by case, work with publishers and publisher associations to increase access AAP, AAUP AAAS, ACM, ACS, Elsevier,... Slide 111 Some responses from publishers F ACM: need to acknowledge copyright F Elsevier: need to acknowledge copyright F IEEE-CS: endorse initiative F ACS: After first publication, can release F Textbook publishers: different market, manuscript significantly reworked F General: restricting access to local campus will not cause any problems Slide 112 How does this relate to UMI? F Generally, they are independent decisions. F 1987 UMI workshop was first to explore ETDs. F UMI wrote support letter for US Dept. of Ed. proposal. F UMI is on Steering Committee. F ProQuest Direct pilot of scanning works started 1/1/97, with free 2 yr access to front part. F We are collaborating on: accepting electronic author submissions standards (e.g., representation) Slide 113 ETD Initiative (and UMI) Students Learn about DL, EPub TDs become more expressive N. Amer. (T)Ds are accessible, archived Global TDs become more accessible, archived UMI Universities Slide 114 User Search Support (multilingual, XML) Note: All groups shown are connected with NDLTD. Slide 115 F James Powell student project, D-Lib Magazine description in Sept. 1998 F XML description of each site type of search engine / service language coverage (for resource discovery) F Adding Z39.50 gateway capability and integrating with MARIAN, along with Harvest and Open Archives protocols Slide 116 Interoperability Tests Planned F IBM DL: donated equipment, technical support, powerful IPR (see TOIS, D-Lib) F Z39.50: OCLC SiteSearch / VT tailored s/w university libraries w. catalogs of freely shared MARC records pointing to archival copies via URNs: handles & PURLs F Dienst / NCSTRL - CS depts., DARPA, NSF, CNRI, Cornell UVA, MIT have worked on extensions for ETDs - Portugal is studying use for Europe - VT is working on Dienst to Z39.50 gateway Slide 117 Access Approaches F Goal: Maximize access and services, e.g., by encouraging: F UMI centralized services F VTLS: planned free union collection of metadata F Distributed service: Dienst, Z39.50 F Regional services (e.g., OhioLink, AZ/NM) F Local servers with browse, search From local catalogs to local archives F WWW robot indexing and search services Slide 118 Access Possibilities Web search engines library catalog clients www. theses. org www. openarchives. org 3 rd Party Services (e.g., UMI) Virginia Tech National Library of Portugal CBUC (Spain) Ohio Link MITNational Projects: AU, GE, Slide 119 Why might a university want to be involved? F To improve graduate education / better prepare your students / increase their knowledge and visibility F To unlock university information F To save money for students and for the university / improve workflow F To build an important digital library Slide 120 Multiple objectives F Sharing research results Decrease costs, increase services Increase knowledge of users F Adding to author knowledge/skills Epub, DL, IPR F Enhancing organizations infrastructure CS department, library University, Laboratory Slide 121 DL Submission Software F Similar software developed for W3Cs WCA, CSTC, and NDLTD F CSTC version field-tested to manage papers for ACM Digital Libraries 99 F May generalize for conferences electronic journal resource description (e.g., courses, Web content) Slide 122 How can a university get involved? F Select planning/implementation team Graduate School Library Computing / Information Technology Institutional Research / Educ. Tech. F Send us letter, give us contact names F Adapt Virginia Tech solution Build interest and consensus Start trial / allow optional submission Slide 123 Contact Our Project Team E-mail Phone Call Visit Video Tape Slide 124 Convene Local Planning Group ETD Slide 125 Build Local ETD Site Digital Library Policies Inspection/Approval Workshop/Training ETD Slide 126 Responsibilities F Handle local education and collection Contact information for helpers Archive F Utilize standards Metadata: MARC / DC-based concensus specification F Share metadata Union services, mirrored services F Allow access / Open Archives Initiative ( Slide 127 Type 1 Members University Requires ETDs F Adobe Acrobat and/or XML/SGML tools F Automated submission & processing F Archive/access through UMI, (OCLC,) Virginia Tech,... F (Local) WWW site, publicity F (Local) Assistance provided as requested: email, phone, listserv(s) Slide 128 Type 2 Members University Agrees to Require ETDs F Like Type 1 but set date not reached F Usually has an option or pilot F May: wait for new AY; start with all who enter after; F Build grass roots support Advisory committee: representative? expert? Champions to spread by word of mouth Approval: Senates, Commissions, Deans, Students Publicity to reach community Slide 129 NDLTD Members, Types 3-7 F 3. Part of university requires ETDs F 4. University allows ETDs F 5. University investigating, has pilot F 6. University consortium joins: CIC (Big 10 coordinating body) F 7. Non-university organization joins CNI (Coalition for Networked Info.) Slide 130 Support Services Developed F WWW site with > 300 Mb, CD, videotape F Automated submission system (MySQL, UNIX, WWW scripts - grad school/library) F Student guidelines, style sheets, multimedia training materials, FAQs, press info F SGML and XML DTDs for ETDs F SGML to HTML (web generator) F LaTeX, Word templates, converters F FTP site for PS to PDF conversion with UNIX distiller Slide 131 Special Support F OCLC Hosting Jan. 9-10 DC-XML metadata std meeting Might help with preservation or Worldcat extract F VTLS Machine, software, support staff to run free Union catalog server: multilingual, MARC/DC-XML F UNESCO ETD Guide in English, French, Spanish: book, Web Scholarships to attend Intl ETD Conference Assistance with regional workshops: Columbia, Slide 132 Slide 133 Slide 134 Accessibility Activities / Plans F Interface design (simple, 3D, VR) F Usability studies F Generic multi-lingual support F Support for those with disabilities F Hybrid collection (paper, MARC, abstracts, full-text, multimedia) F Disciplinary classifications, tools F Visualization of results, collection Slide 135 CAVE Experiments F Use a familiar metaphor building / floor / room / shelf / book F Rearrange orderings / shelving use categories, clustering, ranking use visualization: colors and gaps study space mappings: physical, logical F Simplify movement for key tasks Slide 136 Slide 137 CAVE-ETD F CAVE-ETD is a simulation of a library that runs in a CAVE (VR environment). F Populated with a subset of ETD records. Main Foyer room Slide 138 Book Browsing Slide 139 Reading Book Abstract Slide 140 SPIRE Visualization Slide 141 Support Offered F Software, documentation, tech support F Email, listservs (, -eval, -grad, -library, -technical) F Donations: Adobe, Microsoft F Evaluation: instruments, analysis - solutions/statistics F (Temporary storage / archiving; aid - in setting up an intl service & archive) Slide 142 OUTLINE F Introduction, Grand Challenge F Definitions, 5S F OAI F NDLTD F MARIAN, ENVISION F PetaPlex F For more information Slide 143 MARIAN F Multiple Access Retrieval of Information with Annotations F (Marian the Librarian ) F Evolved from CODER system to a distributed Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC), then DL backend, now becoming a full DL system F From C/C++ to Java F Future: NDLTD, NUDL, PetaPlex F Use for campus collection management F Use for as centralized system with gateway services: OAi, Harvest, Z39.50, Slide 144 MARIAN Layers Database Layer Search Engine Layer User Information Layer User Interface Layer User Slide 145 MARIAN Parallelism Slide 146 Slide 147 Slide 148 Slide 149 Slide 150 Slide 151 Slide 152 Slide 153 Slide 154 ENVISION F NSF A User-Centered Database from the Computer Science Literature (1991-93) F Collected bib/typesetter data, converted to SGML F Scanned thousands of page images F MARIAN search engine - can be made available (also applied to the Virginia Tech library catalog) used as part of a prototype object-based DL, with tailored visualization interface (L. Nowell dissertation) Slide 155 Slide 156 Slide 157 Slide 158 Slide 159 OUTLINE F Introduction, Grand Challenge F Definitions, 5S F OAI F NDLTD F MARIAN, ENVISION F PetaPlex F For more information Slide 160 Slide 161 PetaPlex Top View 4 ft. side Slide 162 PetaPlex Side View 4 ft. wide 8 ft. high Roles: * Support * Cooling * Power 15 shelves Slide 163 PetaPlex F Digital Library Machine (super object store): Parallel computer / storage utility F Research: inverted files, video server, F Knowledge Systems Incorporated is supplying VT-PetaPlex-1 with 2.5 terabytes through 100 nodes : u Net connection + 25GB disk + 233 MHz Pentium + Linux Slide 164 PetaPlex Complex FRONT END MACHINE RS/6000, 1G RAM, 4 Proc. Nanoserver Service Machine 1 Service Machine 2 Service Machine 3 Service Machine 4 Slide 165 PetaPlex Service Machine Possibilities F Front-end provides handle/repository abstraction through hashing F Small object server F Large object server video on demand streaming audio F Information retrieval server F Proxy / cache server (e.g., 1 terabyte server of 1000 worldwide for Comsat/Intelsat) Slide 166 Sornil & Mather Dissertations F Mather: efficiently handling very large numbers of objects of varying sizes F Sornil: efficiently handling IR for very large dynamic collections, large numbers of users, high transaction rates, large inverted files modeling and simulation data organization parallelization of algorithms, alone and in combination for retrieval (related) tasks Slide 167 Slide 168 Slide 169 Slide 170 Slide 171 Slide 172 Comparison Network of Workstations (NOW) BeowulfPetaPlex Archi- tecture Cluster of general purpose workstation class machines using off-the-shelf network interconnect General purpose PCs, interconnected with a custo- mized network Special purpose architecture tuned for superstorage. Uses a mix of off-the-shelf PC compo- nents and specialized network interconnects. Cost per node Workstation prices. Between $2000-$2500/node Mid to low-end PC prices. Between $1200- $1800 per node Mass produced components will reduce price to around $100/node Target area Computation Storage, computation is a secondary function Filesystem support UNIX flavors Replaces location dependant files with location independent fine-grained URN named objects Slide 173 OUTLINE F Introduction, Grand Challenge F Definitions, 5S F OAI F NDLTD F MARIAN, ENVISION F PetaPlex F For more information Slide 174 Outline of Online Course - 1 F Section 1. Foundations Early visions, definitions, resources/references, projects F Section 2. Search, Retrieval, Resource Discovery Information storage and retrieval, Boolean vs. natural language Indexing: Phrases, Thesauri, Concepts Federated search and harvesting, OAI, Crawlers/spiders/metasearch Integrating links and ratings Slide 175 NESTOR Map: Intro to DLs Slide 176 Outline of Online Course - 2 F Section 3. Multimedia, Representations Text/audio/image/video/graphics/animation Capture, Digitization, Compression Standards, Interchange: JPEG, MPEG Content-based retrieval, Playback, QoS, SMIL F Section 4. Architectures Modular/componentized, Protocols InfoBus (Stanford, Java), Mediators, Wrappers (TSIMMIS) Slide 177 Outline of Online Course - 3 F Section 5. Interfaces Workflow, Environments, Taxonomy of interface components, Visualization Design, Usability testing F Section 6. Metadata Ontologies, RDF MARC, Dublin Core, IMS Mappings, Crosswalks Slide 178 Outline of Online Course - 4 F Section 7. Electronic Publishing, SGML, XML Authoring, Presenting, Rendering, Document Object Model (DOM) Dual-publishing, Styles (XSL) Structure, Semi-structured information, Tagging/markup, Structure queries F Section 8. Database Issues Extending database technology Structured and unstructured information Multimedia databases, Link databases Performance/replication/storage Slide 179 Outline of Online Course - 5 F Section 9. Agents Distributed issues Protocols, Negotiation F Section 10. Commerce, Economics, Publishers Preservation and archives Terms and conditions, Open collections, Self-archiving Economic models, Micropayments Slide 180 Outline of Online Course - 6 F Section 11. Intellectual Property Rights, Security Legal issues Copyright, Rights management F Section 12. Social Issues Cooperation and collaboration, Ratings, Annotation (PICS) Educational applications (NSDL), Digital divide Museums (AMICO), Cultural heritage, International concerns Organizational acceptance/issues, Personalization Slide 181 Remember F Introduction, Grand Challenge F Definitions, 5S F OAI F NDLTD F MARIAN, ENVISION F PetaPlex F For more information Slide 182 Conclusions F Consider DLs: to use, to teach, to add to, to build F Education is one important application of DLs F Cultural heritage, linguistic diversity, new knowledge all are important to preserve F Technology opens up exciting opportunities in DLs to yield seamless super information systems F Having a framework and theory may lead to better (more effective) systems and broader applicability F Interoperability is part of the DL grand challenge Slide 183 URLs (Courseware) (D-Lib Magazine) and later and (CSTC and JERIC) (JCDL2001 June 24-28)


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