Digital Literacy Computer Basics/ Class Notes

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Digital Literacy Computer Basics/ Class Notes. E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review). Lesson 1: Introduction to Computers What Is A Computer?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Digital LiteracyComputer Basics/Class Notes

    EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Lesson 1: Introduction to ComputersWhat Is A Computer?A computer is an electronic device that receives data, processes data, stores data, and produces a result (output).EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • What Is AComputer System?Hardware: the tangible, physical equipment that can be seen and touched such as:Computer CaseMonitorKeyboard and MouseDisk DriveSpeakers

    Software: the intangible set of instructions that tells the computer what to do; know as programs or software programs. Two types: Systems/Operating SystemApplications

    Data: information entered into the computer to be processed, which consists of the following:Text, numbers, sounds, and images

    People: the users of the computers who enter the data and use the output.

    EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Parts of a Computer: INPUT DevicesInput Device: hardware that allows you to communicate with your computer.

    1.2EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Output device: hardware that allows your computer to communicate with the user

    Parts of a Computer: OUTPUT Devices1.2EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

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  • CPU: Central Processing UnitThe device that interprets and runs the commands that you give to a computer. It is the control unit of the computer. Also known as the Processor1.2EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • System ComponentsCentral Processing Unit (CPU): the microprocessor, the brains of the computer.Housed on a tiny silicon chipChip contains millions of switches and pathways that help your computer make important decisions.CPU knows which switches to turn on and which to turn off because it receives its instructions from computer programs (software).CPU has two primary sections:Arithmetic/logic unitControl unitArithmetic/logic unit (ALU): performs arithmetic computations and logical operations; by combining these two operations the ALU can execute complex tasks.Arithmetic operations include addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division.Logical operations involve comparisons.Control Unit: is the boss and coordinates all of the CPUs activities. Uses programming instructions, it controls the flow of information through the processor by controlling what happens inside the processor.We communicate with the computer through programming languages.COBOL, C++, or VisualBasic.net, HTML, Java Script for example.1.2EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • System ComponentsMemory: found on the motherboard; short term and long term.

    Random Access Memory (RAM): memory on the motherboard that is short term; where data, information, and program instructions are stored temporarily on a RAM chip or a set of RAM chips.When the computer is turned off or if there is loss of power, what ever is stored in RAM disappears.This memory know as the main memory and is considered volatile.The computer can read from and write to RAM.

    Read-Only Memory (ROM): memory on the motherboard that is long term; where the specific instructions that are needed for the computer to operate are stored.This memory is nonvolatile and your computer can only read from a ROM chip.The instructions remain on the chip regardless if the power is turned on or off.Most common is the BIOS ROM; where the computer uses instructions contained on this chip to boot or start the system when you turn on your computer.

    INTEL: Introduction to Computers Lesson 4: How Computers Store Information1.2EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Motherboard: Main circuit board inside the computer where all components are attached.

    Expansion Slots: an opening on the motherboard where a circuit board or expansion board can be inserted.

    Examples: Additional MemoryVideo CardsModem CardsSound CardsNetwork Internet Card (NIC)

    System Components1.2EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Network Internet Card NICCD DriveHard Drive ROMPower BoxMemory RAMMotherboardMicroprocessor CPUEQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Parts of a Computer: STORAGE DevicesStorage device: allows you to store or retrieve information

    1.2EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Serial and Parallel PortsUSBs Universal Serial BusPORTS . . . to connect!Phone/EthernetPower SourceEQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • EQ: What is the Processing component of the IPOS Cycle?Part I. Systems Software: A group of programs that coordinate and control the resources and operations of a computer system.Enables all components of the computer system to communicate.

    Part II. Applications Software: Programs that work with the OS software to help you use your computer to do specific types of work.Types of ProcessingEQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Systems SoftwareA group of programs that coordinate and control the resources and operations of a computer system.Operating System (OS): provide an interface between the user or application program and the computer hardware.PC- Intel Processor Mac-Motorola ProcessorLesson 2/ Operating SystemEQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

    PC-CompatiblesMACSWindows Win 95 Win 98 Win 2000 Win XP Win 7OS Mac System 6 System 7 OS X Snow Leopard

  • GUI (graphical user interface): graphical symbols (icons) represent files, disks, programs, and other objects.WindowsMACWindowsMACOS can run Parallel on MACsSystems SoftwareEQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Part 2. Data CommunicationsThe technology that enables computers to communicateThe transmission of text, numeric, voice or video data from one machine to another.Popular examples:Internet, electronic messages (e-mail), faxes, and electronic or online bankingFour components:Sender: the computer that is sending the message.Receiver: the computer receiving the message.Channel: the media that carries or transports the message. (telephone wire, coaxial cable, microwave signal, or fiber optic)Protocol: the rules that govern the orderly transfer of the data sent.

    EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • SenderChannelReceiverReceiverChannelSenderSender-sends messageChannel-path message travelReceiver-receives messageProtocol-An agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices. Example: Text . Images . SoundWAN Wide Area Network local area networks (LAN) are expanded to include several local area networks within a city, state, region, territory, country, continent, or the world.LAN Local Area Network Computers connected close location-same building/same departmentEQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Modem: allows you to use your computer to communicate with other computers.Data CommunicationsSenderReceiverChannelEQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Data CommunicationsNetwork: when computers are connected to other computers They can share information and sometimes hardware (printers) Local Area Networks (LAN): computers connected together in a relatively close location such as in the same building or department.The data and software for these computers are stored on a central computer called the file server. Wide Area Networks (WAN): when local area networks are expanded to include several local area networks within a city, state, region, territory, country, continent, or the world.

    EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • WAN Wide Area Network local area networks (LAN) are expanded to include several local area networks within a city, state, region, territory, country, continent, or the world.LAN Local Area Network Computers connected close location-same building/same departmentNetwork:When computer are connected to other computers that can share information and sometimes hardware (printers)EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Types of ComputersEQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • The Space Shuttle Columbia SupercomputerFile:Columbia Supercomputer - NASA Advanced Supercomputing Facility.jpg, Retrieved on September 23, 2011, from Wikipedia.orgSupercomputers: most powerfulUsed to do things like predict hurricanes and navigate satellitesEQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Mainframes and minicomputers: used by business, government and school systems to process large amounts of information.EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Personal ComputersDesktop computer: designed to be used on a desktop.Notebook/Tablet computer: designed to be used on a desktop but still small enough to be portable.Laptop computer: designed to be small enough and light enough to be used on your lap.EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Additional Typesof ComputersPDAs (Personal Digital Assistants): a handheld device that is often used in conjunction with a desktop or other PC.May have a special keyboard, some use a pen or stylus for entering data- Data can be transferred to a desktop or laptop computer

    Web TV: provides easy access to the Internet without having to have a traditional computer.Enables you to connect to the Internet and usually includes a keyboard or other device for entering and selecting data.EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Role of MemoryA collection of electronic circuits, which can be on or off (open or closed).-These two states of the circuit are represented by two digits, 0 and 1.Called the Binary SystemCombining bits (0 and 1), you can represent any character or numberEQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Bits to Bytes1 bit is either a 1 or a 0 (on/off)

    8 bits (combination of 1s and 0s) = 1 byte 01010100

    1 byte 01010100 = 1 character T EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Application SoftwareSoftware designed for specific tasks.CategoriesBusiness CommunicationsGraphics and MultimediaEducation and ReferenceEntertainment and LeisureIntegrated Programs EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Business SoftwareWord Processing (WORD)program that allows you to create, edit, and print text documentsReport, flyer, memo

    Spreadsheet (EXCEL)Numbered Rows and Lettered ColumnsIntersection of them = cellGrade book, financial infoDatabase (Access)Lets you set up an electronic filing systemsEnter text and numbersFind, search, and printer info in different waysAddress book, Card CatalogEQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Applications SoftwareCommunicationsWorks with your modems or network hardware and allows your computer to communicate with other computers.Exchange computer files and email . Internet

    Graphics Software - uses pictures or images to help communicate messages. Multimedia: - combines text, graphics, animation, video, and audio.Clip art: - graphical images to be added to documentsDesktop Publishing: - uses both pictures and words to give you the ability to create documentsNewsletters and brochures

    EQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Applications SoftwareEducation & ReferenceAvailable on many topicsHelpEasierQuickerExamples: AR, Encyclopedia, etc.Entertainment & LeisureFunGames and simulationsTests your skillsInteractiveEQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Integrated SoftwareCombine several software applications into one program- Bundle.Include:Business (WP . DB . SS)CommunicationsGraphics and MultimediaEducation and ReferenceEntertainment and Leisure

    Examples:MS OFFICELotus SmartSuiteEQ: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

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