Digital marketing and social media: Why bother?

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BUSHOR-1161; No. of Pages 6Digital marketing and social media:Why bother?Maria Teresa Pinheiro Melo Borges Tiago a,*,Jose Manuel Cristovao Verssimo baBusiness & Economics Department, University of the Azores, Rua da Mae de Deus,9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Portugalb ISEG Lisboa School of Economics & Management, Universidade de Lisboa, Rua do Quelhas 6,1200-781 Lisbon, PortugalBusiness Horizons (2014) xxx, xxxxxxAvailable online at www.sciencedirect.comScienceDirectwww.elsevier.com/locate/bushorKEYWORDSDigital marketing;Budget spending;Social metrics;Digital media trendsAbstract Changes in consumer behavior require firms to rethink their marketingstrategies in the digital domain. Currently, a significant portion of the associatedresearch is focused more on the customer than on the firm. To redress this shortcoming,this study adopts the perspective of the firm to facilitate an understanding of digitalmarketing and social media usage as well as its benefits and inhibitors. The secondgeneration of Internet-based applications enhances marketing efforts by allowing firmsto implement innovative forms of communication and co-create content with theircustomers. Based on a survey of marketing managers, this article shows that firms faceinternal and external pressures to adopt a digital presence in social media platforms.Firms digital marketing engagement can be categorized according to perceivedbenefits and digital marketing usage. To improve digital marketing engagement,marketers must focus on relationship-based interactions with their customers. Thisarticle demonstrates how some firms are already accomplishing just that.# 2014 Kelley School of Business, Indiana University. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rightsreserved.1. The increasing digitalempowerment of consumersOne of the biggest changes in human interaction isthe recent proliferation of online social networks.Rapid growth of Web-based platforms that facilitate* Corresponding authorE-mail addresses: mariaborges@uac.pt (M.T.P.M.B. Tiago),jose.verissimo@iseg.ulisboa.pt (J.M.C. Verssimo)0007-6813/$ see front matter # 2014 Kelley School of Business, Ihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2014.07.002online social behavior has significantly modified thenature of human activities, habitats, and interac-tions. Real-world social relationships have beenmigrated to the virtual world, resulting in onlinecommunities that bring people together from acrossthe globe. This movement into the digital dimensionallows individuals to share knowledge, entertainone another, and promote dialogues among differ-ent cultures (Budden, Anthony, Budden, & Jones,2011; Kumar, Novak, & Tomkins, 2010). The questionis no longer if people are signing in; the question isndiana University. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2014.07.002http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00076813mailto:mariaborges@uac.ptmailto:jose.verissimo@iseg.ulisboa.pthttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2014.07.002BUSHOR-1161; No. of Pages 62 M.T.P.M.B. Tiago, J.M.C. Verssimowhat they are signing in to and why they use certainapplications to do so.From a consumers perspective, the use of infor-mation communication technologies offers a num-ber of benefits, including efficiency, convenience,richer and participative information, a broader se-lection of products, competitive pricing, cost re-duction, and product diversity (Bayo-Moriones &Lera-Lopez, 2007). Online social networking tendsto enhance these benefits, as consumers are able tocommunicate more proactively. For example,through online social networking, individuals canseek out others opinions about specific products.In doing so, consumers have been shown to valuepeer judgments more than firm promotions, indicat-ing a shift in the locus of persuasive power (Berthon,Pitt, Plangger, & Shapiro, 2012; Pitt, Berthon,Watson, & Zinkhan, 2002).2. Social media: Are firms being pulledor pushed?If most customers engage with social media, firmsshould engage with social media as well. In the past,marketers employed e-mail blasts, direct market-ing, telemarketing, informational websites, televi-sion, radio, and other mechanisms to disseminateinformation related to the firm or its products. TheWorld Wide Web was used to present marketingmessages through page views and advertising toreach large numbers of people in a short amountof time. It served as an advertising tool thatshaped surfer behavior (Berthon, Pitt, & Watson,1996) rather than as a medium that facilitatedinteraction between buyers and sellers. Despiteits utility, this type of marketing strategy is toobroad to effectively target connectors, mavens,and salespeople.If firms seek to establish mutually satisfyinglong-term relationships with critical surfers(e.g., salespeople or customers), an alternateWeb-based strategy is needed. Specifically, firmsshould seek to develop digital relationships usingpromotional strategies that emphasize the co-crea-tion of content and meaning. To this end, word-of-mouth communication can be particularly helpful. Ofcourse, firms have always talked to their customers;the critical difference between past and present inthis regard is that now, online communication toolsallow customers to respond to firms (Mangold &Faulds, 2009). This pressures firms to adopt a moredigital presence. In response, some firms have im-plemented Web 2.0 technologies. Web 2.0 is morethan the evolution of Web-based technology: itrepresents a social revolution in the ways in whichthose technologies are used. Of particular impor-tance for firms wishing to communicate with theircustomers is the advent of participatory information-sharing over the Internet. This phenomenon, coupledwith global improvements in communication tech-nology and lower costs for Internet access, sets thestage for major shifts in digital marketing strategies,particularly with respect to the promotional-mixdimension.Although the growth of Web 2.0 provided sometools for relationship-based marketing, the Seman-tic Web has since spread further and new dimensionshave been added (Silva, Mahfujur Rahman, &El Saddik, 2008). The Semantic Web represents anevolution from read-only content to an interfacein which content can be read or written (read-write), and finally to the Executable Web (Rizzotti& Burkhart, 2010). The latter is characterized byindividual-oriented and dynamic relationships basedon personalization, intelligent searches, and behav-ioral advertising (Agarwal, 2009). This phenomenonconstantly builds and evolves, shifting the locus ofmarket power from firms to consumers (Berthonet al., 2012; Pitt et al., 2002). Thus, an online,content-based marketing strategy could bridge bothconsumerfirm and physicalvirtual gaps (Silvaet al., 2008). In doing so, such a strategy wouldallow for not only more effective marketing strate-gies but also a new relationship paradigm.3. Digital marketing engagement: Thecase of Portuguese companiesTo explore the motivations behind firms adoption ofonline communication strategies, in July and Augustof 2011 we conducted an online survey of marketingmanagers from the largest firms in Portugal. Of the2,000 surveys administered, 170 were completed(response rate: 8.5%). Respondents worked forfirms across a variety of industries. The Portuguesemarket is useful for the purposes of this study becauseof the high degree to which information and commu-nication technologies and social networking are em-braced there. In 2005, Portugal was ranked 15thworldwide in mobile communication penetration at81.84% (Union, 2009). By the last quarter of 2012, themobile penetration rate had risen to a record 156.3%,suggesting that the average Portuguese citizen tendsto possess more than one mobile phone (ANACOM,2012). Widespread access to high-speed wirelessnetworks and the growing extent to which mobilephones are used by Portuguese citizens have led toincreased use of the Internet, too. According to Euro-stat (see Seybert, 2012), Portugal has an Internetpenetration rate in excess of 61%.BUSHOR-1161; No. of Pages 6Table 1. Benefits of digital presenceBenefit type %aImproves information gathering and feedback 87User-friendly tool 85Increases knowledge 85Promotes internal and external relationships 82Supports decision-making process 60Increases productivity 58Better outcome measurement 53Note: N = 170a Percentage of respondents rating 4 or 5 on a 15 scalewhere 5 = extremely important.Digital marketing and social media: Why bother? 33.1. Competitive pressure drives digitalmarketing effortsAs revealed by our study, external competitive pres-sure plays the most prominent role in a firms deci-sion to utilize digital media for marketing purposes(56% of surveyed managers rated it as important orextremely important). Internal efficiency repre-sents the second-most influential factor (49% ofmanagers) driving firms to adopt digital marketingstrategies, followed by the facilitation of top-downdirectives (13% of managers).Digital social media brings several advantages tofirms. Ainscough and Luckett (1996), for example,argue that the Web can be used for publishing,online sales, market research, and customer sup-port. Other scholars contend that the Web can assistin brand building, generating word-of-mouth com-munication among consumers, buzz marketing, andcrowdsourcing (Whitla, 2009). In addition to helpingwith the execution of marketing strategies, theInternet may improve the firms overall perfor-mance (Eid & El-Gohary, 2011).Managers rely heavily on digital marketing to buildtheir brand (82% of surveyed managers rated it asimportant or extremely important), improve knowl-edge (78% of managers), and heighten communica-tion flows (70% of managers). Because socialnetworks are largely based on user participation, itwas reasonable to expect that the promotion of socialactivities would emerge as a key motivator for firmsto become involved with social media. However, only41% of respondents define the promotion of socialactivities as the primary driver for their digitalmarketing efforts. In additionand contrary to thefindings of Kaplan and Haenlein (2010)only 37% ofmarketing managers recognize an important linkbetween digital presence and internal marketing.These findings suggest that, among the largest Por-tuguese companies, digital marketing efforts aremainly influenced by external forces.3.2. Information gathering and feedbacktops digital presence benefitsThe Webs potential as a sales channel has been welldocumented (see Kondopoulos, 2011). Benefits de-rived from the Web depend largely on the companysactive engagement in Web-based platforms. There-fore, we asked managers to rate a number of benefitsoffered by digital presence that have been proposedin past research. Eighty-seven percent of respondentsidentified digital presence as an effective vehicle forinformation exchange (see Table 1). One marketingdirector said that digital media is important forestablish[ing] direct dialogue with the consumer.Another stated: [Digital media] helps in evaluatingsuppliers and. . .partners with whom I work.Other benefits of online marketing praised byrespondents include ease of use, its potential forincreasing knowledge, and the promotion of firmsinternal and external relationships. One marketingmanager claimed that the Internet allows forknowing consumers consumption habits [and]preferences and identify[ing] pioneers while an-other argued that the Internet helps to detect oranticipate negative reactions by clients or mar-kets. Although a digital presence has internal pos-itive effects, these are of lesser importance tomarketing managers.Results clearly indicate that communication is akey component in digital marketing. However, digi-tal marketing is not limited to the content of themessage; it extends to links with customers andrepresents a powerful tool for building, consolidat-ing, and maintaining brand awareness. For example,one respondent claimed that the firm for which he/she worked use[s] the Web to create engagementwith customers and promote brand awareness.Another manager reiterated the importance ofthe Web for promoting interaction, claiming thatdigital media enables and improves communica-tion processes.3.3. Digital media investments: Wherethe money goesMarketers recognize the importance of digital mar-keting and thus invest significant financial resourcesin its development and implementation (Weinberg &Pehlivan, 2011; Zhao & Zhu, 2010). No standardformula exists for determining how much a firmshould invest in digital social media; several firm-specific characteristicsincluding internal digitalinfrastructure, media choices, and customer pref-erencesaffect investment decisions (Weinberg &Pehlivan, 2011). Nonetheless, businesses are quicklyBUSHOR-1161; No. of Pages 64 M.T.P.M.B. Tiago, J.M.C. Verssimolearning how to reap the benefits offered by digitaland social media. One marketing director said: Themost important factor for the involvement of com-panies in digital media is the very low investmentrequired when compared with traditional media.However, 18% of surveyed firms intend to increasethe amount they invest in digital social media.Most dramatic changes in communication tech-nologies have been related to user participation. Itis therefore reasonable to expect that firms willdedicate substantial financial resources to facilitateinteraction with their customers (Weinberg &Pehlivan, 2011). Table 2 shows that most partici-pants (81%) plan to invest in social networking sites.One participant noted: More than socializing, it isimportant to convert social networking into realpeople, representing consumers, clients, journal-ists, analysts, current and future employees, part-ners, and other suppliers. Fifty percent ofrespondents claim digital advertising as a priorityarea for investment. This finding matches withworldwide investment trends. ZenithOptimedia an-ticipates that investment in Internet advertising willexceed investment in other media in the near future(Barnard, 2012). In 2013, worldwide Internet adver-tising expenditures were predicted to increase morethan 14% to an all-time record of $101.5 million. InTable 2. Digital investment areasArea of investment %aDigital presenceSocial network/apps 81E-mail marketing 65Digital ads 50Viral campaigns 46Digital brand experiences 39Mobile 38Search engine optimization 32Digital infrastructure 25Blogs 18Games 7Human ResourcesPeople involved in digital marketing 45CompetenciesMobile apps development 39Video content development 28Website design 21Website maintenance and domain 16Blogs edition 13Note: N = 170a Percentage of respondents planning to invest in designatedareas.contrast, monetary investment in traditional mediawas predicted to increase by only 4% from its 2012level. With just 18% of managers planning to investin blogs, this is one of the less important areas ofplanned investment in digital marketing.Employees play a key role in digital marketingbecause they implement the firms strategy. Notsurprisingly, 45% of surveyed firms intend to increasethe number of employees whose focus will be digitalmarketing. One marketing director argued that dig-ital marketing processes should not be outsourced:I personally dont believe in outsourcing what isstrategic. . . .Outsourcing in this [digital marketing]area is like shooting yourself. Although many com-petencies require greater investment, results showthat some areas demand more attention thanothers; developing mobile- and video-based appli-cations, for instance, commands more time andresources than website maintenance or blog editing.Corporate webpages are the most frequently useddigital communication channel (90% of respond-ents), followed by social networking sites likeFacebook (73%), LinkedIn (46%), and Twitter(42%). Digital marketing expenditures currently rep-resent nearly 20% of the total budget among sur-veyed firms. These expenditures will continue togrow, as 77% of firms report an intention to increaseinvestment in digital promotion in the short term.3.4. The rising importance of engagementmetricsGauging the effectiveness of digital marketing canbe quite difficult. As one marketing manager statedbluntly: Im not sure that it is easy to measure thereturn on all investments in digital marketing.Nonetheless, some standard metric is needed tojustify the money spent. New ROI calculators arebeing proposed almost as quickly as new social net-working sites appear (Fisher, 2009). Zhao and Zhu(2010) proposed a model to assess returns on invest-ments made in digital marketing that includes a seriesof measures influenced by competitors actions. Sim-ilarly, Hoffman and Fodor (2010) proposed more than50 metrics for evaluating the effectiveness of socialmedia to promote brand awareness, brand engage-ment, and word-of-mouth buzz.To evaluate how marketing managers go aboutmeasuring digital marketing effectiveness, surveyparticipants were asked to rank several renownedmeasures according to their importance. Brandawareness (89%), word-of-mouth buzz (88%), cus-tomer satisfaction (87%), user-generated content(80%), and Web analytics (80%) were the most pop-ular metrics. Rather than more-conventional met-rics, it seems managers prefer those that promoteBUSHOR-1161; No. of Pages 6Figure 1. Digital engagement matrixDigital marketing and social media: Why bother? 5engagement: page views (66%), cost per thousandimpressions (63%), and click-through rate (58%).Ultimately, the metric employed to measure digitalmarketing effectiveness must suit the firm. With-out clear objectives and strategy definition, onemanager opined, it is better not to use social mediaat all. The popularity surrounding social media isgiving way to a more rational approach.4. A typology of digital mediaengagementSome have argued that investments in digital mar-keting evolve in parallel with perceived benefitssuch that high levels of digital marketing usageare indicative of higher levels of digital interaction,and low levels of digital marketing usage indicate amore traditional Web presence. Therefore, digitalmarketing usage and perceived benefits are dimen-sional variables that may effectively capture a firmsdigital engagement.Using an optimization-partition method on twosynthetic indicatorsperceived benefits and digitalmarketing usagewe performed a cluster analysisto identify groups of firms with similar digital mar-keting usage and benefits perception. To this end,we developed a digital marketing usage syntheticindex. Specifically, we selected a number of Web1.0, Web 2.0, and Web 3.0 activities as indicatorswhose values ranged from 0 (inexistent) to 1 (used).These indicators were: (1) institutional websiteor microsite; (2) website or microsite for clients;(3) chat/voice/video over IP; (4) mobile network;(5) mobile applications; (6) discussion forum; (7)Facebook; (8) Twitter; (9) Orkut; and (10) blogs.Following their selection, we applied weights tomost indicators: indicators (5) and (6) were givena weight of two; indicators (7) through (10) weregiven a weight of three; and all remaining indicatorswere not assigned a weight.We also calculated the perceived benefits dimen-sion with a synthetic index comprised of a set ofbenefits indicators whose values ranged from 1 (notrelevant) to 7 (very important), composed in ageneral index of base twenty. These benefits indi-cators were: (1) information gathering; (2) compe-tition follow-up; (3) customer data obtainment; (4)information supply about innovations; (5) informa-tion/knowledge sharing; (6) communication withcustomers; (7) awareness creation; (8) internalcommunication; (9) socialization; (10) responseto information requests; (11) communication withpartners/suppliers; (12) employees training;(13) conversation/activity monitoring; and (14) em-ployees recruitment. The resulting matrix wascomposed using a multidimensional scale analysiswith the synthetic indicators. The final digital en-gagement matrix suggests four distinct digital mar-keting usage/benefits profiles (see Figure 1): Engagement: Acknowledges high digital market-ing usage and high benefits from it. Interactiveusers are mostly from the IT and telecom sectors.These companies have the lowest digital market-ing budgets (less than 30% of global marketingexpenditures) and show no intention to increasethem. This group emphasizes marketing throughmobile and networking apps, yet does not neglectthe potential of traditional webpages to marketits products: social media engagement enhancesthe relative efficiency of these firms institutionalwebpages. Interactive users received 15 points (ina scale from 1 to 20) on benefits perception (BP),and 19 points for using a large set of digitalmarketing tools (DMU). Relative to interactiveusers, digital users (BP = 18; DMU = 17) perceivedgreater benefits from digital marketing but usedfewer tools. Digital users include a large numberof IT firms, retail firms, and financial services. Qualification: Invests significantly in digital mar-keting tools but has low expectations regardingits benefits. Dubbed digital learners (BP = 8;DMU = 16), firms in this quadrant use mostly in-stitutional websites, although some evidencesuggests they also use social networking as amarketing tool. Firms in the qualification quad-rant include IT and retail firms.BUSHOR-1161; No. of Pages 66 M.T.P.M.B. Tiago, J.M.C. Verssimo Discovery: Has weak digital marketing usage andlow benefit perception. Named digital laggards,firms in this quadrant are typically public servicesand utilities that perceive limited benefits fromdigital marketing (BP = 4) and show low adoptionrates of digital tools (DMU = 2). Most commondigital activities involve the use of institutionalwebpages, chat, and voice-based communicationover IP. Dead-road: Reflects the inefficiency of an unbal-anced approachhigh perceived benefits but,nonetheless, low commitment to digital market-ing. No firms were found in this quadrant.5. Managerial implicationsThe Web can be an extremely useful tool for market-ers in creating strong brands and gaining competitiveadvantages. To effectively utilize the advantagesoffered by the Internet, though, firms must adoptsocial media as a channel of providing information tocustomers; connecting with stakeholders; and, ulti-mately, generating sales.As marketing communications become increas-ingly integrated with the digital space, marketerscan use social media to create digital linkages withcustomers. There are two main methods for devel-oping these linkages: (1) perform as a digital orinteractive firm, thereby maintaining or reinforcingthe high levels of digital marketing usage, or (2)adopt various kinds of social media interaction toincrease usage of digital marketing. All efforts inthis domain should lead to increased engagement,stronger relationships with customers, and subse-quent customer engagement.ReferencesAgarwal, A. (2009, May 30). Web 3.0 concepts explained in plainEnglish. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from http://www.labnol.org/internet/web-3-concepts-explained/8908/Ainscough, T., & Luckett, M. (1996). 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