1. the role ofecosystems inhuman adaptationdisparities & convergence between CBA and EBA Charles Ehrhart CARE Internationalʼs Poverty, Environment and Climate Change Network Presentation during annual Adaptation Theme Team meeting 8th September, 2010Wednesday, November 17, 20101 2. ecosystems and human wellbeing the Millennium Ecosystems Assessment (United Nations, 2001 - 2005) was a milestone in recognising linkages the MA identified critical ecosystem services, namely: Supporting, Provisioning, Regulating and Cultural services... and linked them to key constituents of human well-being including, security, basic material for a good life, health and good social relationsWednesday, November 17, 20102 3. !Wednesday, November 17, 2010 3 4. ecosystems and human wellbeing healthy ecosystems sustain goods and services for humans, provide livelihood opportunities, and enhance human resilience to climate related shocks and stresses in many direct and indirect ways rapidly growing human population, changing lifestyles and socio- economic development often result in unsustainable exploitation of ecosystems climate change is placing major strains on ecosystemsWednesday, November 17, 2010 4 5. Community-Based Adaptation (CBA) the goal of CBA is to build the resilience of individuals, households, communities and societies from the ground up action is based on local priorities (taking into account social heterogeneity) it starts with local knowledge but also seeks to integrate scientific knowledge into decision making processes operates at multiple levels and can be large scale - so long as communities remain at the centre of planning and actionWednesday, November 17, 2010 5 6. Community-Based Adaptation (CBA) the most effective CBA is long-term and: strengthens the resilience of local livelihoods reduces disaster risks creates an enabling environment for effective action at individual, household, and community levels (through good governance, sound environmental stewardship, etc.) improves social equity (i.e. reduces discriminatory structures that would prevent people from adapting to climate change)Wednesday, November 17, 20106 7. ecosystems in the context of CBA CBA frequently deals with natural resources (and often prioritises improved NRM-related activities) CBA is frequently concerned with the continuing flow of environmental goods and services however, it rarely takes a holistic approach to working with complex ecosystems...Wednesday, November 17, 20107 8. CBA in practiceexample of including naturalresource management activities:well... just about any CBA projectthat is promoting resilient livelihoodsis going to be dealing withsustainable natural resourcemanagamentexample of operating at multiplelevels: CARE’s ReducingVulnerability to Climate Change(RVCC) project in Bangladeshworked in communities but ALSOhelped 14 Union Parishads developadaptation plans and undertooknational level advocacy on growingsalinity and decreasing access topotable waterWednesday, November 17, 20108The project took an integrated approach to vulnerability reduction, focusing on raising awareness of climate change and associated vulnerability areas, promotingconcrete actions by households and communities to reduce their vulnerability, and advocating with government at multiple levels for appropriate action to reducevulnerability to climate change.RVCC recognized that grassroots actions are not enough, and worked with local, regional and national government to promote action to reduce climate-relatedvulnerability. 9. EbA in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA)means different things to differentpeople.sometimes, it is about usingbiodiversity and ecosystem servicesas part of an overall adaptationstrategy to help people adapt to theadverse effects of climate.the practice that, “integrates thesustainable use of biodiversity andecosystem services into an overalladaptation strategy”Wednesday, November 17, 2010 9The CBD promotes EbA as, potentially, a cost-effective solution that can “generate social, economic and cultural co-benefits and contribute to the conservation ofbiodiversity.” The emphasis is on the “sustainable management, conservation and restoration of ecosystems to provide services that help people adapt to bothcurrent climate variability, and climate change.” 10. Ecosystem-based Adaptation in practice but, frequently, its about targeting the most valuable conservation areas (e.g. Protected Areas) and focusing on activities that will reduce the vulnerability of species or biological communities to the impacts of climate change.Wednesday, November 17, 201010 11. CBA and EbA, side-by-sideCBAEbA‣ Targets the most vulnerable human ‣ Frequently targets priority conservationcommunities areas (which may be sparsely populated)‣ Often focuses on activities to‣ Often focuses on activities to reduce thereduce the vulnerability of people in vulnerability of endangered species ormarginalised social groupsbiological communities‣ Sometimes incorporates “southern” ‣ In practice, often reflects a “northern”environmental agendas (e.g. environmental agenda (e.g. biodiversityensuring the continuity ofconservation)environmental goods and services)‣ Has an explicit social agenda that‣ Rarely (if ever?) includes an explicit socialfrequently includes goodagendagovernance and social equalityWednesday, November 17, 201011Some people say that EbA and CBA are really the same thing by different names. But while some descriptions of EbA have much in common, EbA currently looksvery different in practice. Moreover, their analysis of the underlying causes of vulnerability are almost inevitably different. 12. conclusions EbA and CBA are not the same thing by different names most development-oriented NGOs would not find it possible to embrace an ecosystem “based” approach to adaptation... for practical and ethical reasons, our “base” is and must remain communities however, most of us would agree that: an “ecosystem perspective” should be applied to all adaptation responses to ensure they are environmentally sound in many cases, ecosystem adaptation has an important part to play in CBAWednesday, November 17, 201012 13. unequal burden and the equity principle “Climate change affects us all, but it does not affect us all equally. The poorest and most vulnerable - those who have done the least to contribute to global warming - are bearing the brunt of the impact.” - UN Secretary General, Ban Ki MoonThe UNFCCC’s equity principle acknowledgesthat:some countries have contributed more thanothers to the problemsome countries are more vulnerable to theimpacts of CC than others......typically, these are poorer countries thathave contributed least to the causes of CC.Wednesday, November 17, 2010 13The unequal burden of the effects of climate change is reflected in article 3 of the UNFCCC (referred to as “the equity article”). It stipulates that parties shouldprotect the climate system “on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities”; thatdeveloped countries “should take the lead in combating climate change and the adverse effects thereof” and that full consideration should be given to the needs ofdeveloping countries, especially “those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change” and “that would have to bear a disproportionate orabnormal burden under the Convention”. Giving operational meaning to the “equity principle” is a key challenge in ongoing climate change negotiations. 14. the equity principle & implications for adaptation action as per the UNFCCC’s “equity principle,” historical high emitters have agreed to help vulnerable [countries/populations] deal with the costs of climate change... for most southern governments and civil society organisations, this is about dealing with the human costs of climate change. CARE and many other development- oriented NGOs believe biodiversity and ecosystem services have a critical role to play in overarching strategies to help people adapt to the adverse effects of climate change.Wednesday, November 17, 2010 14 15. More information:www.careclimatechange.orgWednesday, November 17, 201015

Ecosystem and Community-based Adaptation, 2010

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1. the role ofecosystems inhuman adaptationdisparities & convergence between CBA and EBA Charles Ehrhart CARE Internationalʼs Poverty, Environment and Climate Change…

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