Effective Use of Technology with Early LearnersEDST 497BInstructor: Alice Tunnell
Overview of Course
Technology offers new tools for effective literacy instruction, and also expands the definition of 21st century literacy. As the International Reading Association's position statement on literacy and technology explains, "To become fully literate in today's world, students must become proficient in the new literacies of information and communication technologies. Therefore, literacy educators have a responsibility to effectively integrate these technologies into the literacy curriculum" (IRA, 2001).
Negative Impact of Technology on Early LearnersLeading to childhood obesity
Protect children from internet predators
Leads to poor reading and writing skills
Children have a lack of focus
A lack of appropriate guidance from teachers and the creation of inappropriate computer learning environments do not support the optimal environment that encourages developmental play (Olgun, Bayhan, & Yelland, 2002; Plowman & Stephen, 2005, 2007) Computers are used in ways that are developmentally inappropriate. (Haugland, Mar 2000)
The use of computer and video games has been associated with problems of the neck, tendons, and associated muscle issues with the hands (Ramos, James, & Bear-Lehman, 2005).
The loss of music, art, time for imaginative play and other creative outlets in schools (unknown, Alliance for Childhood)
Positive Effects of using Computers with Early LearnersChildren with access to computers in child- or home-care situations show greater academic and cognitive ability including flexibility, abstract thinking, and vocabulary as long as the software is open-ended (Nir-Gal & Klein, 2004; Shields & Berham, 2000).
Computers are intrinsically motivating for young children, and contribute to cognitive and social development (NationalAssociation for the Education of Young Children [NAEYC], 1996)
Computers can enhance childrens self-concept and improve their attitudes about learning (Sivin-Kachala & Bialo, 1994)
Children demonstrate increased levels of spoken communication and cooperation during computer use (Clements, 1994; Haugland & Wright, 1997)
Children share leadership roles on the computer, and initiate interactions more frequently (Clements, 1994; Haugland & Wright, 1997)
Computer play encourages longer, more complex speech and the development of fluency (Davidson & Wright, 1994). Children tend to narrate what they are doing as they draw pictures or move objects and characters around on the screen (Bredekamp & Rosegrant, 1994). Young children interacting at computers engage in high levels of spoken communication and cooperation, such as turn-taking and peer collaboration. (Clements, Nastasi, & Swaminathan, 1993, p. 60).
Computer play encourages longer, more complex speech and the development of fluency (Davidson & Wright, 1994).
Are children using the computer and the internet from ages 3 to 10?
Statistics for Technology Use with Early LearnersNearly seven in ten kids (69%) have a computer at home
nearly half (45%) have Internet access from home.Among kids eight and older, one in five (21%) has a computer in their bedroom. Media Literacy Clearinghousehttp://www.frankwbaker.com/mediause.htm
Kindergarten: 80% use the computer & 32 % use the internet
Grades 1-5: 91% use the computer & 50% use the internet (http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005111rev.pdf )
Statistics for Technology Use with Early Learners (continued)Based on interviews with 245 children ages 8 to 17, the new study also shows that 35% of kidshave videogame systems in their rooms, 14% have their own DVD player, and 9% have Internetaccess via a PC in their bedrooms. 46% do at least half of their TV viewing on that set;
75% report multitasking while watching TV (vs. 65% of kids without their own sets);
43% have visited a Web site as the result of a TV ad within the past week (vs. 24% of kids without their own TVs); and
50% say they have parental rules for their TV use (vs. 61% of kids without their own sets).
The relatively few kids with own-room Internet access also report substantial effects on their media use:
57% say all of their Internet use takes place in their rooms; and
61% report having parental rules restricting their Web use, compared to 69% of Internet-using kids who do not have own-room Web connections.
Statistics for Technology Use with Early Learners (continued)
Why Use Technology with Early Learners?New interactive technologies make it is easier to create environments in which students can learn by doing Technologies can help people visualize difficult-to-understand conceptshttp://www.netc.org/earlyconnections/byrequest.html
Benefits for kindergarten and primary children:Improved motor skillsEnhanced mathematical thinkingIncreased creativityEnhances childrens self-conceptIncreases levels of spoken communication and cooperationStudents share leadership roles more frequentlyThey develop positive attitudes toward learning(Clements, 1994; Cardelle-Elawar & Wetzel, 1995; Adams, 1996; Denning & Smith, 1997;Haugland & Wright, 1997; Matthew, 1997)
Using computers with supporting activities provides a greater benefit than using any one thing alone. (Mandy Galle)
Technology is a Tool, and as such should be selected because it is the best tool for the job (Murphy, DePasquelle, McNamara)
Learning is a layered process!
Appropriate use of technology in the classroom is to expand, enrich, implement, individualize, differentiate, and extend the overall curriculum. ( Francis Wardle, PhD)Virtual Museum ToursConcept webbingsWriting storiesReading storiesDoing researchCreating with computer art programsRepresenting what the students learnSkill practice, reading, mathYearly Scrap Book
Digital camerasHomework helpMaking graphsMatchingInteractive internet sitesNetsupportDigital record of field tripInserting picturesMake a PowerPoint story or research projectUnderstanding science concepts? What are your ideas?
Van Scoter, J., Ellis, D., (2001). Technology in Early Childhood Early: Finding the Balance. Retrieved from Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory website: http://www.netc.org/earlyconnections/byrequest.pdf
Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. (n.d.). Understanding Technologys Role in Literacy. Retrieved from website: http://www.netc.org/earlyconnections/pub/sec2.pdf
Haugland, S., (March 2000). Computers and Young Children. Champaigne, Il. Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Eric Digest. EDO-PS-00-4. http://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/eecearchive/digests/2000/haugland00.pdf
Tsantis, L. A., Bewick, C. J., Thouvenelle, S., (Nov. 2003). Examining Some Common Myths About Computer Use in Early Years. Beyond the Journal; Young Children on the Web. National Association for the Education of Young Children. Retrieved from http://www.naeyc.org/files/yc/file/200311/CommonTechnoMyths.pdf
Snider, S. Ph D, Hirschy, S., (June 20, 2009). A Self-Reflection Framework for Technology Use by Classroom Teachers of Young Learners. Hekupa. Volume 2, Number 1 - June 2009. Auckland, NZ. Retrieved from http://www.hekupu.ac.nz/Journal%20files/Issue1%20June%202009/A%20Self-Reflection%20Framework%20for%20Technology%20Use%20by%20Classroom%20Teachers%20of%20Young%20Learners.pdf
Hubbell, E. R., (March, 2007). Technology in the Early Childhood Classroom. International Society for Technology in Education. Leading and Learning with Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.mcrel.org/pdf/educationtechnology/9713IR_TechEarlyChildhood.pdf
Stop for group input of positive and negative effects of using technology with early learnersStop for group work. How many hours do your children use the computer and the internet?