Integration, or assimilation, of foreign words implies their adaptation to the rules of therecipient language. The present paper is an analysis of the Tagalog main strategies inmorphologicalassimilationofitsnumerousborrowingsfromSanskrit,Malay,Chinese,Spanish,English,etc.Thefollowingaspectswillbeexamined:
Useof phonologicalcitations astheleastadoptedborrowings:phonological citations are unassimilated borrowings used in the recipient language in theiroriginalform.However,Tagalogtendstopartiallybringthemintoaccordwithitsmorphologicalrules
Annulmentof borrowings grammaticalcharacteristics.GenderandNumber: SpecialCase:Borrowings are adopted as indivisible root words, with all their grammatical characteristicsannulled. However, with more and more borrowings adopted, Tagalog speakers began todistinguishsuchgrammaticalcategoriesasgenderandnumberintheirloanwords
Wronginterpretationofborrowingsmorphemicstructure:Due to differences between the donors and recipientsmorphological systems the borrowingsmay undergo a hypercorrection (wrong interpretation) of their morphemic structure: wordcombinationsbecomemergedsomeelementsareregardedasnativeandomitted
Hybridization ofborrowingsduringtheirassimilation:WhileadoptingaborrowingTagalogmayreplacesomepartofitwiththenativelexicalmaterial,thusmakinga hybridloanword.Heretheproblemof earlyhybridloanswillbediscussed.
AbbreviationsAr ArabHok HokkienChineseEng EnglishJav JavaneseMal MalayMexSp MexicanSpanishSkt SanskritSp SpanishTag Tagalog
cf. compare(with)coll colloquial(word)e.g. forexamplefem. feminine(gender)
Ibid thesame(asabove)i.e. thatisintern internationallit. literallymasc. masculine(gender)old oldoroutdatedwordsmb somebodysmth somethingsuf. suffix:
act.suf.actorsuffix,diminut.sufdiminutivesuf,internat.suf. international suf,gerund.suf.gerundial suf.
AsUrielWeinreichrightlypointedoutinhisfundamentalworkLanguagesinContact,aninterestingpointaboutalanguageisthephonetic,grammatical,semanticandstylisticintegrationofforeignelements into it (Weinreich1966:12). Integration,orassimilationof foreign elements is their adaptation to the norms and needs ofthe recipient language. Following the general patterns of thisintegration,manyborrowingsfromChinese,Sanskrit,Malay,Arab,Spanish,English and other languages undergo phonetic, semanticandmorphologicalassimilationintheTagaloglanguage.
InthepresentpaperIshallattempttoanalyzethemainstrategiesof the morphological assimilation of different borrowings inTagalog, i.e. their adaptation to the grammar rules and wordbuildingpatternsoftherecipient.
1.1. Use of unassimilated borrowings (phonologicalcitations).
UNASSIMILATED LOANWORDS, or socalled phonologicalcitations (Weinreichs term) keep intact their original phonetic,semanticandevengraphicappearanceintherecipientlanguage.InTagalog this group is mostly represented with recent borrowingsfromSpanishandEnglish.Nowadaysunassimilatedloanwordsarewidespread in Tagalog, due to the domination of Spanish in thepast and the mass EnglishTagalog bilingualism at present.Noteworthy, the use of a Spanish or English unassimilatedborrowing does not necessarily imply the lack of the nativeequivalent,e.g.:bigyn ng oportunidad [
maglanngtarget[ niluluto is being cooked, lulutuin will be
cooked magtanggol to defend > pagtatanggol defending,defense. The borrowed unassimilated roots are handledaccordingly to this general Tagalog rule. However theREDUPLICATED part of their first syllable becomes assimilated(changingitsphoneticandgraphicappearancewhereneeded,tofitthe Tagalog alphabet and phonological system), while the rootitself remains UNASSIMILATED and is often separated from theassimilatedpartwithahyphen:Magkoconcert siya sa Cyprus He will give a concert in
Cyprus,Para kaming natatransform sa ibang mundo We are as if
isdifficult,Malay pa ang paggagraduate niya sa Unibersidad. His
UniversitygraduationisstillfarSuch a largescale incorporation of unassimilated borrowings
into Tagalog is maintained and increased by the widespreadLANGUAGE MIXING, or CODESWITCHING, which has becomecommonintheeverydaycolloquiallanguageofeducatedFilipinoswiththeexpansionoftheEnglishlanguageintheArchipelago(seee.g. Pascasio 2004: 7375). There are plenty of unassimilatedborrowingsandeventheirabbreviationsusedinthesocalledMixMix language,whichwassowelldescribedbyDavidZorc(Zorc1990),e.g.:kilig tothebonesoverjoyed(lit.trembletothebones)kadiritodeath gross,coarse(lit.loathingtodeath)b.f.boyfriend,d.o.m.dirtyoldman,o.a. overacting,overreaction.
Tagalogpertainstoagglutinativelanguagesandisnotableforitsmanifold morphological system, which includes such wordbuildingmethodsasaffixation, reduplication,wordcompounding,full duplication, and morphophonemics. Being assimilated byTagalog, borrowed words or wordandparticle combinationsusually undergo SIMPLIFICATION, i.e. become INDIVISIBLEmonomorphemicwords usedby the recipient as roots or rootwords infullaccordancewithitsmorphologicalrules:
Skt dhta to bear to endure > Tag dalit extreme povertytorment>karlitanextremepovertyormisery,
Mal.daratan continent land(fromdarat landhighland)>Tagdalatan cultivatedhighland,
Mal barat laut NorthWest NorthWestern wind > TagbalaklaotNorthWesternwindormonsoon,
Ar sharbat drink > Mal srbat ginger tea, Tag salabtgingertea, magsalabt toprepareordrinkgingertea,
Eng(to)standby>Tagistambytostandby,toidle.Noteworthy, a considerable number of the loanwords, mostly
earlyborrowed,whichthenunderwentderivation,arepreservedbythe modern Tagalog only in their FROZEN DERIVED forms. Thefollowingwordsareexamplesof thesimplificationofborrowingsderivedinvariousways:
REDUPLICATION(ofthefirstsyllableofastem)Sktypa sacrificialcolumn/pole>Tagyupap submission,
resignationtoprostrateoneself,Mal alh to move, to replace to change > Tag halili (with
DUPLICATION(full stem/wordreduplication)Ch giet (scorpion) thng (insect), scorpion > Tag atang
atangscorpion,Ch kut todig,excavate>Tagkutkt todigtoscrape,Sktgala resinpitch >Mal gala,galagalatopitch,calk,Tag
galagalresin,pitchcalker,Skt guna quality > Mal guna advantage, benefit > Tag
gungunahntotakeadvantage,opportunity,Sktmuni sage, ascetic>Tagmagmunimuni to contemplate,
by interest / profit > Tag archaic wili appreciation, fondness,enjoyment > kawilihn, pagkwili pleasant interest in smthenjoyment kawiliwilipleasant,amusing,
Sktaga sun>Tagmaaga early,umaga morning,agahanbreakfast,
Skt rahasya secret > Tag archaic rahuy charm, attractionpersuasion > marahuy to be attracted to be persuaded /induced,
MexSp ciruelas plums > Tag sinigwelas plum (with r>gshift).
Among such frozen derivations we may find simplifiedloanwordswiththenowNONPRODUCTIVEaffixes:
Skt samha collection community > Tag *salamuh >makisalamuhtomingle/mixwithpeople
Ch i (to move, shake, balance) pi (to limp to stagger) toshake,balance>Tagbayubayhanging,dangling,
Mal lisahrestlessanxious>TagbalisaanxietyrestlessnessCh pai to decay, weaken destroy > Tag lupaypy (with
As shown above, even late borrowings (Spanish and English)are mostly assimilated as simplified rootwords grammaticallyclose to nouns or adjectives, irrespective of their originalgrammatical characteristics and forms. For example, the Spanishatadotiedintoabundle isclearlyderivedfromtheverbatar totie,butTagalogadoptsatado asanounmeaningbundle(ofthingstobesold)andthenformstheverbataduhintieintoabundleonthebasisofthisborrowedform.
Sp casar to merry > Tag kasl marriage (cf. Sp bodamarriage),ikasltomerry,
Sp jugar to play > Tag sugl gamble > manunuglgambler,
SpVale!Thatlldo!Allright!(verbinthe3rdpersonsingular,fromvaler to cost, value to fit) >Tag bale worth promissorynote, credit, bumale to buy smth on credit, Hind bale! ItdoesntmatterNevermind!(lit.notworthy)
Engtoholdup >Tag holdapin toholdup,torobEng recording (gerund) > Tag rekording smth. recorded >
There is no grammatical category of Gender or Number inTagalog.Consequently,distinguishingthesecategoriesinborrowedwordswasdifficult even for thoseFilipinoswhowereacquaintedwiththedonorlanguage.Duetothisfactborrowingswereusuallyadopted in the forms, which were most frequently used by thedonor language speakers in the Philippines. Thus, some of theSpanishloanwordsmaybefirstassimilatedinthefemininegender:e.g. guapa beautiful welldressed (fem), nerbyosa nervous(fem).AccordingtoKeithWhinnomSpaniardsusedsuchkindof
adjectivesmorefrequently inrelationtoladies(e.g.Spestamujernerviosathisnervouswoman),whichresultedinthepreservationof the feminine forms in Tagalog [Whinnom 1956: 30]. TheTagalog tendency to assimilate borrowings in any grammaticalforms (e.g. gasta expense Tagbitonesabutton,Spplieguesfolds,pleats,bends>Tagpileges/plegesafold,
At the first stages of borrowing from Spanish a form of aloanworddenotingacreature,oncechosen,was used tonominatebothmasculineandfeminine.However,withadoptionofmoreandmore Spanish loanwords of the type, the patterns of use havegraduallychanged.Atpresentwemayassertthatwithinthesystemof themodern Tagalog a certainGRAMMATICAL SUBSYSTEMOFBORROWINGSexists,whichincludesthegrammaticalcategoriesofgenderandnumber.Thussomeoftheborrowings,whichmightbeoriginallyadopted ineither feminineormasculine,arenowgiventheirpairs,evenifthereisnosuchforminthedonorlanguage:alumno / alumna graduated froma college (masc/fem) [
Part of a loanword may be mistaken as A NATIVE Tagalogmorpheme(on theaccountof their sound similarity).Thus,while
assimilating Skt nirgund plant Vitex negundo Tagalog omittedthe initial ni and adopted the word as lagundi plant Vitextrifoliata/Vitexrepens.Inmyopinion, itmaybeaccountedforthewronginterpretationbytheTagalogspeakersofniastheirnativeaffixin,whichchangesintotheprefixnibeforetheinitiall or y (lipatin nilipat, yar niyar).Thus: Skt nirgund >Tag*nilagundi > lagundi. Other possible examples of the wronginterpretation(hypercorrection)ofborrowingsinTagalogare:
Mal pontianak spirit of a dead pregnant woman > Tagpatiank/tiank evilspirit
Skt paribhoga application, use, consumption>Tag alibughold irresponsible wasteful, prodigal (the initial pari might bemistaken as the Tagalog old prefix ali, as in Tag aliwalasspacious,alitaptpmoth),
Skt paripa investigation, interrogation, examination > Tagalipust despised andmaltreated taunt, insult low [Verstraelen1962:828].Thesamepatternofhypercorrectionmayalsoaccountfor the changes in some Sanskrit borrowings to Malay: Sktprpat dove ?> Mal *perpati or merpati (could the Sanskritpar bemisinterpreted as theMalay prefixes per orme?) tamepigeoncf.TagkalapatiSktdrohakainjusticeharmtreachery>Maldrhaka (wasthechangecausedbythesoundanalogywiththeMalayprefixester,ber,per?)treacheroustreason cf.Tagdulhakoldtomisinterprettreacherous.
Chk(watery)loklok(verywaterysofteneddoughy)>Tagluglg kind ofpansit the noodles are cookedby plunging intowater to rinse with clear water (ka might be mistaken as theTagalogprefix)
Sp limosna alms, charity >Tag lims alms, charityallowances grant (na might be misinterpreted as the Tagalogligaturena/ng)
MexSp zaquisam loft, upper floor > Tag * sakisame >kisam ceiling (samightbe takenas theTagalogpreposition sain,on).
Two similar morphemes of a loanwordmay bemisinterpretedby Tagalog as REDUPLICATION, and one of the similar elementsmaybeomitted:
Sktlalsawish>Tag*lasa>naswish,desireMalagaragar edibleseaweeds jelly>Tagagr/agaragr
2Therightformis paligsa,buttheauthorsofsome Dictionariesmisinterpretedthewordasderivationfromtherootligs[see: English19862002Rubino2000].
Malmblmbl little additions>Tag ambl nickname, petnamedifferentinterpretationofwordfromthatintendedrepetitionofaword/expressionlikedbythespeaker.
Whileadoptingaborrowingtherecipient languagemayreplacesome part of the borrowing (mostly the root or its part)with thenative lexicalmaterial, thusmakingaHYBRIDLOANWORD. Inthecase of Tagalog borrowed morphemes may be substituted withthose ofPREVIOUSLY ASSIMILATED loanwords, thus some of theTagaloghybridloansconsistonlyofborrowedmaterial:
Sp carneromarino seal (lit. ramsea) + Tag dagat sea >karnerongdagatseal,
MexSp (naran)jita small tangerine or grapefruit + Tagdalan(dn)orange>dalanghitatangerine
Splargo(mira)binoculars,telescope+Tagbistasightview,landscape [ largabista (cf. Sp vista larga longsight),
Such recent hybrid borrowings seem to be relatively scarce.There are much more HYBRID NEOLOGISMS (CREATIONS) in themodernTagalog, i.e.newwords inventedbyFilipinoswithuseofsomenativeandalreadyassimilatedborrowedmaterial.However,fargreaternumberofEARLYhybridloansmaybeeventuallyfoundwithin the Tagalog vocabulary itself. Thus, the followinghypothesisofWilliamMaxwellmaybereferredtotheproblemofEARLY HYBRID LOANS (Maxwell 1920). This linguist picked upsomeconsiderableamountofMalaywordswithbu/bung for thefirst syllable, which he considered to be an ancient monosyllabicprefixconveyinganideaofroundness(Ibid:4)(Iwouldalsoaddhere the ideaof fullness):bulan moon(cf.Tagbuwn),buntut buttocks tail (Tag buntt tail), bungkus bundle bunch(Tag bungks bundle bunch), etc. One can easily find thiselementinsomeTagalogwordsaswell,especiallyinthosecreatedby syllable duplication: e.g. bulak cotton > bulaklk cottonflower flowerblossom,bungang gulletmouth(cf.ngangto chew betel), bungisngs giggle (f. ngisngs grinning,showing the teeth). Another probable prefixMaxwell found inMalay is ta/tang a hand/an arm: tangan hand, tangkap toseize, tangkei a stalk. Its also possible to distinguish thiselement insuchTagalogwordsas: tangn held (inhand), tanggp to get accepted, tangky stalk, stem, tangkl coop>tangkakl supportprotection, tangk light touch,aswith the
tip of fingers (f. kuk nail), taguyod united support (cf.guyodbundleofsticks herdthickrope).
Developing this idea, may we suppose that such prefixes /lexical elements, being productive in the early periods of theTagalog language development, could participate in the wordcreation with use of the early borrowings (Chinese, Malay,Sanskrit)?Suchcreations should thenbe regardedas earlyhybridloans.Maywe,forinstance,traceTagtadhanfate,destinytota+dhan[
1. Baklanova, Ekaterina 2004. Interference in Tagalog as aResultofBorrowing.Pilipinas42(March):95116.
2. English, Leo James 1977. TagalogEnglish Dictionary.Manila:NationalBookStorePubl.
4. Maxwell, William E. 1920. A Manual of the MalayLanguage,11thed.London.
5. Pascasio, emy M. 2004. The Filipino Bilingual From ASociolinguistic Perspective. Philippine Journal of Linguistics 34(2)and35(1):6979.
6. Rubino, Carl R. G. 2000. TagalogEnglish, EnglishTagalogDictionary.N.Y.:HippocreneBooks.
The preceding document was presented at the Tenth InternationalConferenceonAustronesianLinguistics(10ICAL). Toproperly referencethiswork,pleaseusethefollowingformat:
For other papers that were presented at 10ICAL, please visithttp://www.sil.org/asia/philippines/ical/papers.html.http://www.sil.org/asia/philippines/ical/papers.html