Ekaterina Varionchik. Underground Museum

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  • Underground Museum Ekaterina Varionchik

    The metro is not just a part of the city's infrastructure, but it is also a public space, a potential home for different types of content. It is a system that can be changed to acquire added value in order to become a living museum. An urban museum is a museum that presents the daily life of the city in a cultural sense.

    First, I would like to analyze the primary reasons for the metro's construction. Actually, there were two of them transportation and ideology. The population of Moscow was intensively increasing at the time. Four million people were living in Moscow by 1930, and the popula-tion kept growing due to an intensive urbanization process. As a result, the existing trans-portation system needed radical transformation. In European cities such as Berlin, London and Paris, subway systems appeared earlier. In Paris, the subway system was created in 1900, when its population numbered 2.7 million people.2 Berlin's transportation system was formed in 1902, when there were 2.5 million people living in the city,3 while London's system was created in1863, when the city's population numbered 2.8 million.4 That means that there was a dramatic demand for a transportation system in Moscow in the late 1920s.

    The second reason for the metro's creation was ideological. The basic idea was to demon-strate the advantages of the Soviet project to the rest of the world through the creation of the best and most beautiful metro in the world in the capital of USSR. It also aimed to indoctri-nate Soviet people with visual propaganda. Metro became not just transportation infrastruc-ture but also an underground palace for the working class5.

    The whole history of metro construction is connected to foreign experience.6 Examples in the three main European capitals--London, Paris and Berlin--were taken into consideration while developing the Moscow metro. Russian specialists went to Europe to study technolo-gies, and European and American specialists were invited to work on the Moscow project.

    Moscows expansion, transportation problems and traffic jams are probably the most disput-able issues in Moscow and even the Moscow region. Metro is the main transportation system in Moscow; it provides 56% of the entire public transportation capacity. The Moscow metro is also often considered one of the most beautiful and fast1 transportation systems in the world. Nevertheless, the transportation function was not the only priority during the Moscow metro construction; it also had great ideological significance.

    The question is: what are the priorities of the metro today?

    The metro network was not only designed to solve transportation issues but also to develop the public space as a space of self representation of the country. The metro has become a museum, an underground museum that presents the daily life of the city in a cultural sense.

    How is the metro perceived today? What are the priorities of the Moscow metro? There is no doubt that the metro's main function is transport, as it has 2.4 billion passengers per year. The second feature that everyone notices is the beauty of the metro, which leads one to believe that metro stations and platforms actually form an informal museum. Hosting content and a constantly changing audience of commuters, the Moscow metro is tantamount to the Hermitage. A key part of daily life for Moscow's residents, the metro is integral to the city's urban culture, and in this way it could be said to be an urban museum. Although the content remains within the stations regardless of their location, most cultural events and institutions in metro are located in the stations located in the center of the city. The stations on the periphery remain untouched by adornment or special events. In this project, I propose models for content development for newly built and existing stations. And after studying two stations located on the outer edge of Moscow, I created a proposal that includes social engagement, involves local citizens and adds another layer of value to the metro.

    Image source: Dushkina Natalya.Aleksey

    Nikolaevich Dushkin. Architecture of 1930-1950

    years.Moscow:A-fond,2004.

    METRO HISTORY AND RATES OF CONSTRUCTION

    s t a l i n k h r u s h c hevb r e z h n e v p u t i ny e l t s i ngorbachevandropov

    chernenkomalenkov1950194019301910 1960 1970 1990 2000 2010 20201980

    medvedev

    e x a m p l e sb e r l i nl o n d o np a r i sp r o j e c t ss p e c i a l i s t sd u b e l i rb a l i n s k yk n o r r ea n t o n o v i c hr o z a n o vm i s h e n k o vg e r b k oh o fu t k i ng u s h k o vvishegradskys i e m e n s -b a u n i o ne x p e r i m e n tt r a n s p o r tp o p u l a t i o nm o s c o wk a g a n o v i c hfast and cheapp a l a c e smasterp iecec o n s t r u c -tion stagesp y a t i l e t k a

    e x a m p l e snew yorkp a r i shong kongp r o j e c t ss p e c i a l i s t sexper imen t -fast and cheapu t i l i t a r i a nc o n t e n tconstruct iont u n n e l ss h i e l ds t a t i o n sb u d g e tr a t e sm e t r o -g i p r o t r a n ss h u m a k o va r c h i t e c t se n g i n e e r snew modelm e t r otechnologiesb l o g g e r sm e t r om e t r om e t r om e t r om e t r o

    shipilovskayazyablikovo

    novokosinonijnyaya maslovka

    hodinskoe polepetrovsky park

    butirskayafonvizinskaya

    okrujnayajulebinokotelniki

    luberezkie polyabrateevo

    seligerskayaverhnie lihobori

    lubyanka ohotny ryad

    mayakovskayabaumanskayaizmaylovskaya

    stalinskayanovokuznezkaya

    park kulturi

    oktyabrskayafrunzenskayasportivnayauniversitet

    dobrininskaya

    ugo zapadnayaakademicheskaya

    profsouznayapervomayskayaschelkovskayapionerskaya

    novie cheremushkikolomenskayakashirskaya

    varshavskayaproletarskaya

    ryazansky prospekt

    kalujskayabelyaevotverskaya

    pushkinskayanovogireevo

    avaiamotornayaschosse entuziastov

    suharevskayabotanichesky sadkuznezky most

    planernayashodnenskayapolejaevskaya

    begovaya

    polyankazvetnoy bulvarsavelovskaya

    orehovoborovizkayateply stanbelyaevotulskaya

    nagatinskayanagornaya

    serpuhovskayachertanovskayachehovskaya

    mariunouliza podbelskogo

    dubrovkaaltufievo

    dmitrovskayabibirevo

    kojuhovskayalublino

    pechatnikikrestianskaya zastava

    mititnovolokolamskaya

    myakininoslavyansky boulvar

    aninotrubnaya

    sretensky boulvarmejdunarodnayavistavochnayapark pobedi

    strogino

    76

  • Underground Museum Ekaterina Varionchik

    The metro is not just a part of the city's infrastructure, but it is also a public space, a potential home for different types of content. It is a system that can be changed to acquire added value in order to become a living museum. An urban museum is a museum that presents the daily life of the city in a cultural sense.

    First, I would like to analyze the primary reasons for the metro's construction. Actually, there were two of them transportation and ideology. The population of Moscow was intensively increasing at the time. Four million people were living in Moscow by 1930, and the popula-tion kept growing due to an intensive urbanization process. As a result, the existing trans-portation system needed radical transformation. In European cities such as Berlin, London and Paris, subway systems appeared earlier. In Paris, the subway system was created in 1900, when its population numbered 2.7 million people.2 Berlin's transportation system was formed in 1902, when there were 2.5 million people living in the city,3 while London's system was created in1863, when the city's population numbered 2.8 million.4 That means that there was a dramatic demand for a transportation system in Moscow in the late 1920s.

    The second reason for the metro's creation was ideological. The basic idea was to demon-strate the advantages of the Soviet project to the rest of the world through the creation of the best and most beautiful metro in the world in the capital of USSR. It also aimed to indoctri-nate Soviet people with visual propaganda. Metro became not just transportation infrastruc-ture but also an underground palace for the working class5.

    The whole history of metro construction is connected to foreign experience.6 Examples in the three main European capitals--London, Paris and Berlin--were taken into consideration while developing the Moscow metro. Russian specialists went to Europe to study technolo-gies, and European and American specialists were invited to work on the Moscow project.

    Moscows expansion, transportation problems and traffic jams are probably the most disput-able issues in Moscow and even the Moscow region. Metro is the main transportation system in Moscow; it provides 56% of the entire public transportation capacity. The Moscow metro is also often considered one of the most beautiful and fast1 transportation systems in the world. Nevertheless, the transportation function was not the only priority during the Moscow metro construction; it also had great ideological significance.

    The question is: what are the priorities of the metro today?

    The metro network was not only designed to solve transportation issues but also to develop the public space as a space of self representation of the country. The metro has become a museum, an underground museum that presents the daily life of the city in a cultural sense.

    How is the metro perceived today? What are the priorities of the Moscow metro? There is no doubt that the metro's main function is transport, as it has 2.4 billion passengers per year. The second feature that everyone notices is the beauty of the metro, which leads one to believe that metro stations and platforms actually form an informal museum. Hosting content and a constantly changing audience of commuters, the Moscow metro is tantamount to the Hermitage. A key part of daily life for Moscow's residents, the metro is integral to the city's urban culture, and in this way it could be said to be an urban museum. Although the content remains within the stations regardless of their location, most cultural events and institutions in metro are located in the stations located in the center of the city. The stations on the periphery remain untouched by adornment or special events. In this project, I propose models for content development for newly built and existing stations. And after studying two stations located on the outer edge of Moscow, I created a proposal that includes social engagement, involves local citizens and adds another layer of value to the metro.

    Image source: Dushkina Natalya.Aleksey

    Nikolaevich Dushkin. Architecture of 1930-1950

    years.Moscow:A-fond,2004.

    METRO HISTORY AND RATES OF CONSTRUCTION

    s t a l i n k h r u s h c hevb r e z h n e v p u t i ny e l t s i ngorbachevandropov

    chernenkomalenkov1950194019301910 1960 1970 1990 2000 2010 20201980

    medvedev

    e x a m p l e s b e r l i n l o n d o np a r i sp r o j e c t ss p e c i a l i s t sd u b e l i rb a l i n s k yk n o r r ea n t o n o v i c hr o z a n o vm i s h e n k o vg e r b k oh o f u t k i n g u s h k o vvishegradskys i e m e n s -b a u n i o ne x p e r i m e n tt r a n s p o r tp o p u l a t i o nm o s c o wk a g a n o v i c hfast and cheapp a l a c e smasterp iecec o n s t r u c -tion stagesp y a t i l e t k a

    e x a m p l e s new yorkp a r i shong kongp r o j e c t ss p e c i a l i s t sexper imen t -fast and cheapu t i l i t a r i a nc o n t e n tconstruct ion t u n n e l ss h i e l ds t a t i o n sb u d g e tr a t e sm e t r o -g i p r o t r a n ss h u m a k o va r c h i t e c t se n g i n e e r snew modelm e t r otechnologiesb l o g g e r sm e t r om e t r om e t r om e t r om e t r o

    shipilovskayazyablikovo

    novokosinonijnyaya maslovka

    hodinskoe polepetrovsky park

    butirskayafonvizinskaya

    okrujnayajulebinokotelniki

    luberezkie polyabrateevo

    seligerskayaverhnie lihobori

    lubyanka ohotny ryad

    mayakovskayabaumanskayaizmaylovskaya

    stalinskayanovokuznezkaya

    park kulturi

    oktyabrskayafrunzenskayasportivnayauniversitet

    dobrininskaya

    ugo zapadnayaakademicheskaya

    profsouznayapervomayskayaschelkovskayapionerskaya

    novie cheremushkikolomenskayakashirskaya

    varshavskayaproletarskaya

    ryazansky prospekt

    kalujskayabelyaevotverskaya

    pushkinskayanovogireevo

    avaiamotornayaschosse entuziastov

    suharevskayabotanichesky sadkuznezky most

    planernayashodnenskayapolejaevskaya

    begovaya

    polyankazvetnoy bulvarsavelovskaya

    orehovoborovizkayateply stanbelyaevotulskaya

    nagatinskayanagornaya

    serpuhovskayachertanovskayachehovskaya

    mariunouliza podbelskogo

    dubrovkaaltufievo

    dmitrovskayabibirevo

    kojuhovskayalublino

    pechatnikikrestianskaya zastava

    mititnovolokolamskaya

    myakininoslavyansky boulvar

    aninotrubnaya

    sretensky boulvarmejdunarodnayavistavochnayapark pobedi

    strogino

    77

  • stories about restoration made by metrogiprotrans

    stories about restoration made by metrogiprotrans

    based on the register of cultural heritage

    made by the department of cultural heritage of

    moscow

    STATIONS WITH SPECIFIC CULTURALLY VALUABLE

    CATEGORIES

    2020

    145,5

    67 new stations

    1 000 000 000 rub

    2012

    104 281 616 300 rub

    Although all foreign projects per se were rejected, the developers decided to use island plat-forms as in London and Berlin because they give more opportunities to passengers. At the same time, island platforms are more expensive and require more architectural work than and Paris-style boarding platforms, which are cheaper and more simple in terms of construc-tion. Both types of stations were used, but most of them, namely 147 stations,7 have island platforms.

    The main resolution on metro was adopted at the June Plenary assembly of the Central Com-mittee of VKP (b) in 1931 and was dedicated to reconstruction and further development of cities. Due to this document, the metro had to become the main transportation system and the top-priority construction site for the whole country8. Although foreign engineers were involved in designing the metro, architecture and design were made exclusively for each station by the best Soviet architects, such as A.Dushkin, B. Vilensky, A. Schusev, V. Schuko, V. Gelfreih, I. Fomin, L. Polyakov and L. Pavlov.

    The whole process of metro construction was strictly observed and controlled by the govern-ment, and metro development was always strictly connected to city planning. It means that maps of metro development were always following the city's master plan. Metro was built and developed over the years at different speeds, with varied beauty, architecture and qual-ity.9

    What I faced later is the contradiction between metro as a cultural and ideological monu-ment and metro as a tool of transportation. These two lines or discourses intersected during the 1990s, after the collapse of the USSR, when the ideological significance vanished to trans-form into cultural significance. At that time, metro was for the first time considered heritage and included in cultural preservation documents.

    According to documents from Moscows Department of Cultural Heritage,10 only 23% of all metro stations are considered culturally valuable, preserved sites (objects of cultural value or objects of regional value).11 The preservation issue is very important, but the heritage is not always preserved properly. Restoration, time and the necessity to modernize stations has led to destructive changes that are different for each station: escalators and lamps are being changed, and some details like lamp pendants are completely disappearing (as happened at Oktyabrskaya metro station). There are also lots of stories about floor renovation. Restoration of the Mayakovskaya metro station is a good example here as the whole idea and image of the

    station was destroyed. Dushkin created Mayakovskaya inspired by the airport takeoff run-way, so the quantity of transverse joints was minimized in longitudinal light lines to accent the floor dynamics20. This is now gone. Almost the same thing happened with the central line of the station made of salietti red marble. Two long tight slabs were placed together to accent the precise axis of the station. The whole structure of that line is lost today because it is now a combination of square slabs with a lot of transverse joints. The main problem is that the visual effects system is lost, and being listed as a culturally valuable object did not prevent the station's architecture from destruction. Metrogiprotrans, the organization responsi-ble for the restoration, believes that changing the escalators and adding new passages will increase the ease of the flow of traffic in the metro station.21

    Again, I would like to stress that metro is the main transportation system of the city--and itImages sources: www.metro.ru

    Image source: www.archnadzor.ruMOSCOW AREA

    WITH METRO STATIONS

    STATIONS TIMELINE

    METRO EXPANSION

    78

  • stories about restoration made by metrogiprotrans

    stories about restoration made by metrogiprotrans

    based on the register of cultural heritage

    made by the department of cultural heritage of

    moscow

    STATIONS WITH SPECIFIC CULTURALLY VALUABLE

    CATEGORIES

    2020

    145,5

    67 new stations

    1 000 000 000 rub

    2012

    104 281 616 300 rub

    Although all foreign projects per se were rejected, the developers decided to use island plat-forms as in London and Berlin because they give more opportunities to passengers. At the same time, island platforms are more expensive and require more architectural work than and Paris-style boarding platforms, which are cheaper and more simple in terms of construc-tion. Both types of stations were used, but most of them, namely 147 stations,7 have island platforms.

    The main resolution on metro was adopted at the June Plenary assembly of the Central Com-mittee of VKP (b) in 1931 and was dedicated to reconstruction and further development of cities. Due to this document, the metro had to become the main transportation system and the top-priority construction site for the whole country8. Although foreign engineers were involved in designing the metro, architecture and design were made exclusively for each station by the best Soviet architects, such as A.Dushkin, B. Vilensky, A. Schusev, V. Schuko, V. Gelfreih, I. Fomin, L. Polyakov and L. Pavlov.

    The whole process of metro construction was strictly observed and controlled by the govern-ment, and metro development was always strictly connected to city planning. It means that maps of metro development were always following the city's master plan. Metro was built and developed over the years at different speeds, with varied beauty, architecture and qual-ity.9

    What I faced later is the contradiction between metro as a cultural and ideological monu-ment and metro as a tool of transportation. These two lines or discourses intersected during the 1990s, after the collapse of the USSR, when the ideological significance vanished to trans-form into cultural significance. At that time, metro was for the first time considered heritage and included in cultural preservation documents.

    According to documents from Moscows Department of Cultural Heritage,10 only 23% of all metro stations are considered culturally valuable, preserved sites (objects of cultural value or objects of regional value).11 The preservation issue is very important, but the heritage is not always preserved properly. Restoration, time and the necessity to modernize stations has led to destructive changes that are different for each station: escalators and lamps are being changed, and some details like lamp pendants are completely disappearing (as happened at Oktyabrskaya metro station). There are also lots of stories about floor renovation. Restoration of the Mayakovskaya metro station is a good example here as the whole idea and image of the

    station was destroyed. Dushkin created Mayakovskaya inspired by the airport takeoff run-way, so the quantity of transverse joints was minimized in longitudinal light lines to accent the floor dynamics20. This is now gone. Almost the same thing happened with the central line of the station made of salietti red marble. Two long tight slabs were placed together to accent the precise axis of the station. The whole structure of that line is lost today because it is now a combination of square slabs with a lot of transverse joints. The main problem is that the visual effects system is lost, and being listed as a culturally valuable object did not prevent the station's architecture from destruction. Metrogiprotrans, the organization responsi-ble for the restoration, believes that changing the escalators and adding new passages will increase the ease of the flow of traffic in the metro station.21

    Again, I would like to stress that metro is the main transportation system of the city--and itImages sources: www.metro.ru

    Image source: www.archnadzor.ruMOSCOW AREA

    WITH METRO STATIONS

    STATIONS TIMELINE

    METRO EXPANSION

    79

  • metro is museum

    90 sec waiting for the train23 min average one way journey

    time expenditure

    by www.mosmetro.ru

    5 min in front of the picture90 min average museum tour

    is still developing and growing with the city. One can say that metro is developing like any museum and also experiencing constant changes. There are going to be new 67 stations by 2020, which means additional an 145 kilometers of track14 and an investment of more than 1 billion rubles15. That means that stations will be build up quite extensively, and the speed of construction is going to be at least two times faster than that in the Soviet period.

    So where are we going? Will future metro development result in the loss of all its cultural components? Shall we reconsider metro as utilitarian transportation system only? Or is there a way to fill the hardware of the peripheral stations with a new kind of software, and intensively use it as a public space dedicated to public cultural events such as presentations, performances, exhibitions and concerts? Such practices are not so popular nowadays, but they definitely exist. The table below shows some of them.

    As can be seen from the table, very few stations are used, and they are rarely used to host public cultural events. At the same time, the potential of such activities is enormous, just like the available space.

    The Moscow metro is potentially one of the great-est open, living museums in the world.

    And the goal is to make metro an updated museum. Its content has reflected urban life in the Soviet period for a long time, but the times have changed and interactivity is the major new dimension that is missing currently in this urban museum.

    It is the museum that was transforming throughout this period of time. The design of sta-tions was changing through the years from Culture 2 style to modernism and contemporary architecture16. The architecture is exactly what makes Moscow metro unique and world famous. The process of creating the most beautiful metro lasted until Stalins death. Later, in 1955, Khrushev initiated a resolution On eliminating overabundance in design and construc-tion, and metro stations became much more austere.17 This process affected the whole coun-try, i.e. Luzhniki stadium, Hotel Leningradskaya, residential building construction, etc.

    Now, I would like to compare the structures of the metro and the museum. The Hermitage museum based in St. Petersburg was chosen for such a comparison because it is one of the largest museums in Russia and in the world and its history runs back to the middle of the eighteenth century, when it was merely a private collection of Empresses Elizaveta and later Ekaterina. The collections and palaces were claimed as a state museum in 1917. At present, the State Hermitage Museum boasts 3.8 million showpieces, 300 halls and seven buildings18 while metro has

    185 stations,12 lines with 305 kilometers of track and around 10,000 trains.1 Metro has 44 times as many employees as the Hermitage (865 employees18 in Hermitage vs. 38,636 metro employees19), and it has a passenger flow that is 1,000 times more than the amount of people visiting Hermitage every year (2.5 million visi-tors to Hermitage20 vs. 2.4 billion passengers per year in metro21).

    People usually spend five minutes in front of the masterpiece, and their total stay in the museum averages 90 minutes. Moscow metro passengers spend 90 seconds waiting for a train (and the average one-way journey21 lasts 23 minutes).

    In terms of structure, it appears that metro is 14 times larger than the Hermitage (the metro occupies a space of around 888,000 sq. m.21 while the Hermitage is 62,324 sq. m.22).

    The city as the main stakeholder of the metro is also responsible for the public space of the

    2010

    2010

    Exhibition dedicated to the 65 Victory Anniversary

    Exhibition Chinaware

    1990

    1994

    2006

    2007

    2010

    2011

    2006

    2006-2007

    2010

    2009

    2011

    2010-2012

    2011-2012

    Cherkashin performance wedding in metro, underground subbotnik

    Ptuc magazine presentation

    Conference HERITAGE AT RISK

    Art-group Voina Prigovs wake

    Photoexhibition Moscow-Paris

    Theatre dolls exhibition

    Photoexhibition by Yury Rost

    Trains Akvarel and Krasnsya strela

    Photoexhibition Young and famous

    Classic music performance

    Exhibition Metro that does not exist

    Metro concerts and museum night

    Silver camera contest-photo exhibition

    Ploshad revolutsii

    Krasnie vorota

    Kropotkinskaya

    Circle line

    Vistavochnaya

    Park pobedi

    Vorobievi gori

    Vistavochnaya

    Vistavochnaya

    Mayakovskaya

    Vorobievi gori

    Vistavochnaya

    Kropotkinskaya

    Park kulturi passage

    Image source: http://fotki.yandex.ru/users/condor213/view/64911/?page=0

    Image source: http://www.asergeev.com/pictures/archives/compress/2011/974/20.htm

    Image source: http://active.russia.obnovlenie.ru/the-hermitage-museum/6205/

    62 324 hermitage sq meters

    888 000 metro sq meters

    METRO MUSEUM

    METRO PEOPLE

    METRO AND HERMITAGE SQUARES

    80

  • metro is museum

    90 sec waiting for the train23 min average one way journey

    time expenditure

    by www.mosmetro.ru

    5 min in front of the picture90 min average museum tour

    is still developing and growing with the city. One can say that metro is developing like any museum and also experiencing constant changes. There are going to be new 67 stations by 2020, which means additional an 145 kilometers of track14 and an investment of more than 1 billion rubles15. That means that stations will be build up quite extensively, and the speed of construction is going to be at least two times faster than that in the Soviet period.

    So where are we going? Will future metro development result in the loss of all its cultural components? Shall we reconsider metro as utilitarian transportation system only? Or is there a way to fill the hardware of the peripheral stations with a new kind of software, and intensively use it as a public space dedicated to public cultural events such as presentations, performances, exhibitions and concerts? Such practices are not so popular nowadays, but they definitely exist. The table below shows some of them.

    As can be seen from the table, very few stations are used, and they are rarely used to host public cultural events. At the same time, the potential of such activities is enormous, just like the available space.

    The Moscow metro is potentially one of the great-est open, living museums in the world.

    And the goal is to make metro an updated museum. Its content has reflected urban life in the Soviet period for a long time, but the times have changed and interactivity is the major new dimension that is missing currently in this urban museum.

    It is the museum that was transforming throughout this period of time. The design of sta-tions was changing through the years from Culture 2 style to modernism and contemporary architecture16. The architecture is exactly what makes Moscow metro unique and world famous. The process of creating the most beautiful metro lasted until Stalins death. Later, in 1955, Khrushev initiated a resolution On eliminating overabundance in design and construc-tion, and metro stations became much more austere.17 This process affected the whole coun-try, i.e. Luzhniki stadium, Hotel Leningradskaya, residential building construction, etc.

    Now, I would like to compare the structures of the metro and the museum. The Hermitage museum based in St. Petersburg was chosen for such a comparison because it is one of the largest museums in Russia and in the world and its history runs back to the middle of the eighteenth century, when it was merely a private collection of Empresses Elizaveta and later Ekaterina. The collections and palaces were claimed as a state museum in 1917. At present, the State Hermitage Museum boasts 3.8 million showpieces, 300 halls and seven buildings18 while metro has

    185 stations,12 lines with 305 kilometers of track and around 10,000 trains.1 Metro has 44 times as many employees as the Hermitage (865 employees18 in Hermitage vs. 38,636 metro employees19), and it has a passenger flow that is 1,000 times more than the amount of people visiting Hermitage every year (2.5 million visi-tors to Hermitage20 vs. 2.4 billion passengers per year in metro21).

    People usually spend five minutes in front of the masterpiece, and their total stay in the museum averages 90 minutes. Moscow metro passengers spend 90 seconds waiting for a train (and the average one-way journey21 lasts 23 minutes).

    In terms of structure, it appears that metro is 14 times larger than the Hermitage (the metro occupies a space of around 888,000 sq. m.21 while the Hermitage is 62,324 sq. m.22).

    The city as the main stakeholder of the metro is also responsible for the public space of the

    2010

    2010

    Exhibition dedicated to the 65 Victory Anniversary

    Exhibition Chinaware

    1990

    1994

    2006

    2007

    2010

    2011

    2006

    2006-2007

    2010

    2009

    2011

    2010-2012

    2011-2012

    Cherkashin performance wedding in metro, underground subbotnik

    Ptuc magazine presentation

    Conference HERITAGE AT RISK

    Art-group Voina Prigovs wake

    Photoexhibition Moscow-Paris

    Theatre dolls exhibition

    Photoexhibition by Yury Rost

    Trains Akvarel and Krasnsya strela

    Photoexhibition Young and famous

    Classic music performance

    Exhibition Metro that does not exist

    Metro concerts and museum night

    Silver camera contest-photo exhibition

    Ploshad revolutsii

    Krasnie vorota

    Kropotkinskaya

    Circle line

    Vistavochnaya

    Park pobedi

    Vorobievi gori

    Vistavochnaya

    Vistavochnaya

    Mayakovskaya

    Vorobievi gori

    Vistavochnaya

    Kropotkinskaya

    Park kulturi passage

    Image source: http://fotki.yandex.ru/users/condor213/view/64911/?page=0

    Image source: http://www.asergeev.com/pictures/archives/compress/2011/974/20.htm

    Image source: http://active.russia.obnovlenie.ru/the-hermitage-museum/6205/

    62 324 hermitage sq meters

    888 000 metro sq meters

    METRO MUSEUM

    METRO PEOPLE

    METRO AND HERMITAGE SQUARES

    81

  • Globally, there are 30 dedicated metro museums and only 12 guided tours awaiting tourists.27 What I mean to say is that museums do usually have a specific program while metro perform-ances are spontaneous and dedicated to the most vital problems of the society or country (in most cases). The Moscow metro has or is planning to have all types of activities and content. Unfortunately, these events happen mostly in the city center, which means that there is a huge concentration of heritage and content there. By contrast, I think decentralization would be useful.

    I have created two scenarios for metro development. One of them would deal with the exist-ing metro stations that were built from the 1950s through to the 1980s, and the other is a per-spective scenario of what should be done with the 67 new stations that are to appear by 2020.First, I will begin with the first part, which concerns content for the metro stations built from the 1950s through to the 1980s. I would like to come up with the project of introducing more content to the non-central train stations. These train stations on the periphery should become social attractions, so that similar proposals can be developed for other stations depending on their location. I used the following criteria to choose the stations: 1) the sta-tions should be located in a residential area, more or less peripheral and near MKAD; 2) an index of correlation between the number of cultural institutions and area population should be average.

    I chose the East Administrative District (EAD), as I formulate a typical solution for the place and metro. First, it is necessary to connect underground spaces with the city area. Areas that have a lot of cultural institutions do not need any culture inside the metro while areas that have no cultural institutions need to improve the situation before creating anything under-ground. And in the areas with an average index, residents are more or less prepared for the fact that something could appear at the stations.

    Our planet now has 9,384 metro stations, and only 24 stations in 13 cities display archaeological artifacts found during metro construction; 18 different exclusive typefaces are in use by metro operators.

    IZMAILOVO CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS

    STATE PROGRAM OF THE MOSCOW CITYCULTURE OF MOSCOW

    2012-2016

    136

    7006.7%

    15.3%

    10.8%

    13.4%

    11.9%10.7%

    10.1%

    11.4%

    7.6%

    2.1%

    117

    119

    100

    10665

    83

    20

    97

    museums353

    182

    140

    448

    100

    97

    47

    theaters

    libraries

    cinemas

    exhibition space

    concert organisations

    cultural centers

    0.12

    1.14

    2.7

    2.2

    1.69

    1.66

    1.57

    wad

    nwad

    ead

    nead

    sead

    nad

    sad

    swad

    1.77

    1.4

    M

    M

    M

    M

    M

    M

    MM

    M

    M

    M

    M

    M

    M

    M

    MM M

    M

    M

    M

    M

    MM

    MM M MMMM

    MM

    MMMMM

    MMM

    M

    M

    MM M

    MMM M

    M MMMM

    M

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    MM

    MM

    M

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    MMM

    MMMM

    MMM

    MMM

    MMMM

    MMM

    M

    MMM

    M M

    MM

    MM

    MMMM

    MM

    MM

    M

    M

    M

    M M

    M

    MM

    M

    M

    M

    M

    MM

    M

    M

    M

    M

    M

    MMM

    MM

    M

    M

    M

    M

    M M MM

    M

    M

    M

    M

    MMM

    M

    M M M

    M

    M

    M

    MM

    MMM

    M MM

    M

    MM

    M M

    M

    MM

    M M

    M

    M

    M

    MM

    M

    M

    M

    M

    STATE PROGRAMCULTURE OF MOSCOW 2012-2016

    55% of cultural institutions

    use

    93.3% of population

    100%=10404 people

    1540 cultural institutions

    index = population% / cultural institutions%

    metro, which is why it is important to look into the concept of the culture of Moscow in order to understand how it is reflected in the metro.

    Following the program Culture of Moscow 2012-2016, which was created by the Moscow City Government and the Department of Cultural Heritage, the majority of cultural institu-tions today is situated in the central part of the city, where 6.7% of the entire Moscow popula-tion lives.23 That means that the other 93.3% uses only 55% of cultural institutions.24

    Nowadays, metro is used not only as a transportation system, but also as a static museum with guided tours for foreigners and locals.25 And this is the first step to adding value to metro because its space can be used in a more broad and diverse way.

    Something has been already done and events such as the 1990 Cherkashini performance Wedding in the metro", the 1990 Underground subbotnik at Ploshad revolutsii, the 2010 Concert at Mayakovskaya, museum nights in 2010-12 and exhibitions at Vorobyevy Gory and Vystavochnaya are inspiring examples of such activities. At the same time, such events are still few and happen in three or four locations.

    There are 61 stations with pillars, 92 with columns and 32 single-vaulted stations. They all have passenger flows connected to their geographical location. That means that pillar sta-tions are mostly situated in the city center because their construction allow them bear a huge amount of ground. These stations are usually of deep stratification.26 As to the other two types, they are usually situated in the periphery of the city, and they are shallow and more people go through them, accordingly.

    Both the metro and the museum combine different forms of content. For the museum, this content includes permanent exhibitions, performances, temporary exhibitions and instal-lations, technical services (including a library, laboratories and Wi-Fi) and tools for social engagement.

    Whereas metro worldwide has stations as its main masterpieces, remarkable for their inte-rior design. However, there are also audio and visual performances, installations, rare tempo-rary exhibitions (as well as internet service). It may appear as though the typology of content is quite similar, and this is in a way correct, but the content and the events themselves are completely different in terms of messages to the public.

    82

  • Globally, there are 30 dedicated metro museums and only 12 guided tours awaiting tourists.27 What I mean to say is that museums do usually have a specific program while metro perform-ances are spontaneous and dedicated to the most vital problems of the society or country (in most cases). The Moscow metro has or is planning to have all types of activities and content. Unfortunately, these events happen mostly in the city center, which means that there is a huge concentration of heritage and content there. By contrast, I think decentralization would be useful.

    I have created two scenarios for metro development. One of them would deal with the exist-ing metro stations that were built from the 1950s through to the 1980s, and the other is a per-spective scenario of what should be done with the 67 new stations that are to appear by 2020.First, I will begin with the first part, which concerns content for the metro stations built from the 1950s through to the 1980s. I would like to come up with the project of introducing more content to the non-central train stations. These train stations on the periphery should become social attractions, so that similar proposals can be developed for other stations depending on their location. I used the following criteria to choose the stations: 1) the sta-tions should be located in a residential area, more or less peripheral and near MKAD; 2) an index of correlation between the number of cultural institutions and area population should be average.

    I chose the East Administrative District (EAD), as I formulate a typical solution for the place and metro. First, it is necessary to connect underground spaces with the city area. Areas that have a lot of cultural institutions do not need any culture inside the metro while areas that have no cultural institutions need to improve the situation before creating anything under-ground. And in the areas with an average index, residents are more or less prepared for the fact that something could appear at the stations.

    Our planet now has 9,384 metro stations, and only 24 stations in 13 cities display archaeological artifacts found during metro construction; 18 different exclusive typefaces are in use by metro operators.

    IZMAILOVO CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS

    STATE PROGRAM OF THE MOSCOW CITYCULTURE OF MOSCOW

    2012-2016

    136

    7006.7%

    15.3%

    10.8%

    13.4%

    11.9%10.7%

    10.1%

    11.4%

    7.6%

    2.1%

    117

    119

    100

    10665

    83

    20

    97

    museums353

    182

    140

    448

    100

    97

    47

    theaters

    libraries

    cinemas

    exhibition space

    concert organisations

    cultural centers

    0.12

    1.14

    2.7

    2.2

    1.69

    1.66

    1.57

    wad

    nwad

    ead

    nead

    sead

    nad

    sad

    swad

    1.77

    1.4

    M

    M

    M

    M

    M

    M

    MM

    M

    M

    M

    M

    M

    M

    M

    MM M

    M

    M

    M

    M

    MM

    MM M MMMM

    MM

    MMMMM

    MMM

    M

    M

    MM M

    MMM M

    M MMMM

    M

    MMM

    MM

    MM

    M

    MM

    MMM

    MMMM

    MMM

    MMM

    MMMM

    MMM

    M

    MMM

    M M

    MM

    MM

    MMMM

    MM

    MM

    M

    M

    M

    M M

    M

    MM

    M

    M

    M

    M

    MM

    M

    M

    M

    M

    M

    MMM

    MM

    M

    M

    M

    M

    M M MM

    M

    M

    M

    M

    MMM

    M

    M M M

    M

    M

    M

    MM

    MMM

    M MM

    M

    MM

    M M

    M

    MM

    M M

    M

    M

    M

    MM

    M

    M

    M

    M

    STATE PROGRAMCULTURE OF MOSCOW 2012-2016

    55% of cultural institutions

    use

    93.3% of population

    100%=10404 people

    1540 cultural institutions

    index = population% / cultural institutions%

    metro, which is why it is important to look into the concept of the culture of Moscow in order to understand how it is reflected in the metro.

    Following the program Culture of Moscow 2012-2016, which was created by the Moscow City Government and the Department of Cultural Heritage, the majority of cultural institu-tions today is situated in the central part of the city, where 6.7% of the entire Moscow popula-tion lives.23 That means that the other 93.3% uses only 55% of cultural institutions.24

    Nowadays, metro is used not only as a transportation system, but also as a static museum with guided tours for foreigners and locals.25 And this is the first step to adding value to metro because its space can be used in a more broad and diverse way.

    Something has been already done and events such as the 1990 Cherkashini performance Wedding in the metro", the 1990 Underground subbotnik at Ploshad revolutsii, the 2010 Concert at Mayakovskaya, museum nights in 2010-12 and exhibitions at Vorobyevy Gory and Vystavochnaya are inspiring examples of such activities. At the same time, such events are still few and happen in three or four locations.

    There are 61 stations with pillars, 92 with columns and 32 single-vaulted stations. They all have passenger flows connected to their geographical location. That means that pillar sta-tions are mostly situated in the city center because their construction allow them bear a huge amount of ground. These stations are usually of deep stratification.26 As to the other two types, they are usually situated in the periphery of the city, and they are shallow and more people go through them, accordingly.

    Both the metro and the museum combine different forms of content. For the museum, this content includes permanent exhibitions, performances, temporary exhibitions and instal-lations, technical services (including a library, laboratories and Wi-Fi) and tools for social engagement.

    Whereas metro worldwide has stations as its main masterpieces, remarkable for their inte-rior design. However, there are also audio and visual performances, installations, rare tempo-rary exhibitions (as well as internet service). It may appear as though the typology of content is quite similar, and this is in a way correct, but the content and the events themselves are completely different in terms of messages to the public.

    83

  • Within the EAD, the Izmailovo, North Izmailovo and East Izmailovo districts were chosen. I also chose two periphery stations for the district where some kind of content could be devel-oped. The dark blue line (Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line) goes through this area, and it has an approximately average passenger flow compared to the other lines. The table shows stations situated in two of the three districts mentioned (East Izmailovo has no metro stations).28

    The Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line connects different types of industrial and post-industrial areas. On the one hand, there is Vinzavod, Artplay, Arma, Project Fabrika and Electrozavod, which are situated not far from the center. On the other hand, there are industrial towns situ-ated to the east of Moscow (Balashiha, Schelkovo and others). Meanwhile, Izmailovo itself is almost purely residential, with a population of 266,150.29

    The Partizanskaya metro station has a flow of 51,450 passengers per day and is listed as a site of cultural heritage of regional value. As such, it is necessary to add cultural events and content that would not disturb the station itself. The most interesting thing is that the station has three tracks, but only two of them are in a constant use--this fact provides numerous opportunities. The new Izmailovo Kremlin and Hotel Izmailovo are situated near the station, which means that there are a lot of tourists in the area. It also has Izmailovo center of crafts and textile manufacture. Likewise, the only souvenir market in town is situated near the hotel and the station. There are several theaters in the district (including the Gesture Theater, which has a rather unique Soviet heritage, and the Theatre of Shadows, whose audience is mostly children).

    The area around the Pervomayskaya metro station is mostly residential, and the neighbor-hood was built in the 1950s following the master plan for 1945-57. The area has a lot of infra-structure around residential buildings: schools, shops, kindergartens, leisure areas, libraries, art and music schools near the station. Pervomayskaya`s average daily passenger flow is 57,800 people.

    Below are two cultural programs to develop the metro stations and endow them with more cultural value.

    For Partizanskaya, the following program is suggested:

    1. Theatre performances near the dull wall by the aforementioned local theatres in the eve-nings.

    2. Short movies about the history of the district, the new Kremlin and former Cherkizovsky market at the side walls of the station during the day.

    3. Monthly concerts of contemporary rock and electronic music (like Teslaboy and Moto-rama); contemporary dance performances near the dull wall at night; classical music or contemporary academic music concerts near the dull wall at night.

    4. Live talk shows with the participation of celebrities or the involvement of local or city politi-cians near the dull wall at night.

    5. Poetry readings at night.

    6. A weekend museum train on the third track, which can be easily accessed from both platforms. This train can host exhibitions and performances made by students of local or not so local music and art schools as well as exhibitions of crafts and products from the Izmailovskaya manufactory.

    7. Other types of exhibitions can be put on by famous artists and curators or by local galleries and artists, i.e. the station can be easily used as one of the spaces for the Moscow art biennale and or for projects by young artists. Projects can be connected with the Izmailovsky Park and Sirenevyi Boulevard. Moreover, a social component could easily be added: such projects can include stories or photographs by locals or visiting tourists.

    For Pervomayskaya, the following program is suggested:

    1. Installation of special boxes that allow for the return books to local libraries in the metro hall.

    2. Portraits or posters of the area's inhabitants or even metro workers (this metro line was the second to be constructed, so it has quite a history) on the side walls. 3. Part of the walls' tiling can be substituted by tiles with pictures. Local artists can work on the pictures, adding contemporary art. Such compositions can be changed twice a month, as changing tiles does not require a lot of time.

    4. Exhibitions involving local photographers whose pictures can be put on the columns are a way to make people pay attention to what is happening around them.

    PARTIZANSKAYA PERVOMAYSKAYA

    year

    1963 North Izmaylovo column station

    column station

    open above-ground column

    single vaulted station

    column station

    104 300

    57 800

    32 500

    -

    51 450

    SchelkovSkaya

    1961 Izmaylovo

    Izmaylovo

    PervomaySkaya

    1961 Izmaylovo

    Izmaylovo

    IzmaylovSkaya

    1954 PervomaySkaya(transformed into trains` depot)

    1944 PartIzaNSkaya(cultural heritage of regional value)

    station name district station construction type daily passenger flow

    84

  • Within the EAD, the Izmailovo, North Izmailovo and East Izmailovo districts were chosen. I also chose two periphery stations for the district where some kind of content could be devel-oped. The dark blue line (Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line) goes through this area, and it has an approximately average passenger flow compared to the other lines. The table shows stations situated in two of the three districts mentioned (East Izmailovo has no metro stations).28

    The Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line connects different types of industrial and post-industrial areas. On the one hand, there is Vinzavod, Artplay, Arma, Project Fabrika and Electrozavod, which are situated not far from the center. On the other hand, there are industrial towns situ-ated to the east of Moscow (Balashiha, Schelkovo and others). Meanwhile, Izmailovo itself is almost purely residential, with a population of 266,150.29

    The Partizanskaya metro station has a flow of 51,450 passengers per day and is listed as a site of cultural heritage of regional value. As such, it is necessary to add cultural events and content that would not disturb the station itself. The most interesting thing is that the station has three tracks, but only two of them are in a constant use--this fact provides numerous opportunities. The new Izmailovo Kremlin and Hotel Izmailovo are situated near the station, which means that there are a lot of tourists in the area. It also has Izmailovo center of crafts and textile manufacture. Likewise, the only souvenir market in town is situated near the hotel and the station. There are several theaters in the district (including the Gesture Theater, which has a rather unique Soviet heritage, and the Theatre of Shadows, whose audience is mostly children).

    The area around the Pervomayskaya metro station is mostly residential, and the neighbor-hood was built in the 1950s following the master plan for 1945-57. The area has a lot of infra-structure around residential buildings: schools, shops, kindergartens, leisure areas, libraries, art and music schools near the station. Pervomayskaya`s average daily passenger flow is 57,800 people.

    Below are two cultural programs to develop the metro stations and endow them with more cultural value.

    For Partizanskaya, the following program is suggested:

    1. Theatre performances near the dull wall by the aforementioned local theatres in the eve-nings.

    2. Short movies about the history of the district, the new Kremlin and former Cherkizovsky market at the side walls of the station during the day.

    3. Monthly concerts of contemporary rock and electronic music (like Teslaboy and Moto-rama); contemporary dance performances near the dull wall at night; classical music or contemporary academic music concerts near the dull wall at night.

    4. Live talk shows with the participation of celebrities or the involvement of local or city politi-cians near the dull wall at night.

    5. Poetry readings at night.

    6. A weekend museum train on the third track, which can be easily accessed from both platforms. This train can host exhibitions and performances made by students of local or not so local music and art schools as well as exhibitions of crafts and products from the Izmailovskaya manufactory.

    7. Other types of exhibitions can be put on by famous artists and curators or by local galleries and artists, i.e. the station can be easily used as one of the spaces for the Moscow art biennale and or for projects by young artists. Projects can be connected with the Izmailovsky Park and Sirenevyi Boulevard. Moreover, a social component could easily be added: such projects can include stories or photographs by locals or visiting tourists.

    For Pervomayskaya, the following program is suggested:

    1. Installation of special boxes that allow for the return books to local libraries in the metro hall.

    2. Portraits or posters of the area's inhabitants or even metro workers (this metro line was the second to be constructed, so it has quite a history) on the side walls. 3. Part of the walls' tiling can be substituted by tiles with pictures. Local artists can work on the pictures, adding contemporary art. Such compositions can be changed twice a month, as changing tiles does not require a lot of time.

    4. Exhibitions involving local photographers whose pictures can be put on the columns are a way to make people pay attention to what is happening around them.

    PARTIZANSKAYA PERVOMAYSKAYA

    year

    1963 North Izmaylovo column station

    column station

    open above-ground column

    single vaulted station

    column station

    104 300

    57 800

    32 500

    -

    51 450

    SchelkovSkaya

    1961 Izmaylovo

    Izmaylovo

    PervomaySkaya

    1961 Izmaylovo

    Izmaylovo

    IzmaylovSkaya

    1954 PervomaySkaya(transformed into trains` depot)

    1944 PartIzaNSkaya(cultural heritage of regional value)

    station name district station construction type daily passenger flow

    85

  • References:

    1. http://www.mosmetro.ru/about/2. http://www.demographia.com/db-parissecanal.htm3. http://www.berlin.de/berlin-im-ueberblick/geschichte/kaiserliche_hauptstadt.en.html4. http://www.londononline.co.uk/factfile/historical/5. How we were building the metro .Moscow:Poligraphkniga,19356. YliyaStarostenko,"Thespaceofmetrostationsinprojects1900-1930.Tothe75anni-versaryoftheopeningoffirstmetroline.Science,studiesandexperimentaldesign",inWorks of MARHI: Materials of theoretical and practical conference 12-16 april 2010 . Moscow.:Architecture-M,20107. http://no-exit.org/stations8. http://www.mosmetro.ru/about/history/projects/9. SamuilKravez.Architecture of Moscow metro named after Kaganovich.Moscow:Publish-inghouseofallunionacademyofarchitecture,193910. http://old.dkn.mos.ru./registry11. FederallawN73,25.06.200212. NatalyaDushkina.Live of architect Dushkin 1904-1977.Moscow:A-fond,200413.http://www.archnadzor.ru/2011/02/02/t-ma-v-kontse-tonnelya/#more-6590/;http://www.archnadzor.ru/2011/02/06/t-ma-v-kontse-tonnelya-2/#more-6592(NatalyaSamover,Darknessattheendofthetunnel.Darknessattheendofthetunnel-2.)14. FederalprogramoftheMosocwcityDevelopmentofthetransportationsystem2012-201615. http://ria.ru/infografika/20120427/636716950.html16. VladimirPaperny.Culture two.Moscow:Newliterarysurvey,201117AlexanderZinoviev.Stalin metro.Historical overview.Moscow:ZinovievA.N.,2011.18. http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_Ru/02/hm2_3.html19. http://mosmetro.ru/about/general/numeral/20. Hermitage General staff buildingOMA/AMO,200321. http://mosmetro.ru/about/general/numeral/22. http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_Ru/00/hm0_1_1.html23. ResolutionofMoscowgovernmentN431-PP,20.09.2011FederalprogramforMos-cowcityMoscowculture2012-201624. ResolutionofRussiaFederationgovernmentN186,3march2012onspecialpurposefederalprogramCultureofRussia2012-201825. http://old.muar.ru/excursions.htm/;http://www.stranatur.ru/ru/Incoming-tours/Excursions/metro-moscow/26. YuryFrolov.Metro stations design.SaintPetersburg;PGUPS,201127. http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrostats.html28.http://www.metroreklama.ru/stat/p_stream/people_stream02.php?line=3#spravka29. http://izmaylowo.org/index.php

    scenario for future stations development

    what is new metro today?

    technologies

    scenario for future stations development

    what is existing metro today?

    Imagesource:http://ru-metro.livejournal.com/3570390.html

    Imagesource:Metrostroevez,#26,14.07.2006.www.mosmetro.ru Imagesource:http://www.theblogbelow.com/2008/07/tbm-tunnel-boring-machines.html

    Imagesource:http://abandonedplaces.livejournal.com/2476051.html

    5.Interactivescreensinstalledatthestationcouldallowpeopletoanswerquestionsaboutthedistrictandleavetheirideasforimprovements.

    6.Involvingpeoplethatusethemetroeverydaytofindfellowpassengerstospeakonspe-cifictopics.Theprojectcanconnectpeopleontheweb,givingthemanopportunitytogetacquaintedbeforetheirjourney,tochoosethetopicandtheroute.Moreover,thisinitiativewouldhelplocalstoconnecttoeachotherandcollaborateondifferentinitiativesoutsidethemetro.

    7.Anothertoolforsocialengagementisinteractiveartprojects.Theinitiatorgivesapersonasheetofpaperwherethefollowingphrasesarewritten:Drawsomethingthenpassitalong,Iwantthat,etc.Thenthesesheetswouldbeputintospecialboxes,andtheselectedresultswillbepublishedonthewebsiteandbecomethecontentofanexpositionatPer-vomayskayalastingseveraldays.

    8.Forbothmetrostations,Wi-Ficoverageandthedistributionofmagazinescontainingthedistrictsnewswouldbehelpful.

    Othertypesofactivitiescouldalsobedevelopedforthe67newstationsthatarealreadyinconstruction.But,fornow,Iperceivethemasanoutlookforthefuture,asthesecondstepthatshouldbedeveloped.Moscowshouldstartwiththefirstscenario.

    FollowingMoscowMayorSergeySobyaninsordinance,themetroshouldbecomeutilitarian,cheapandfastinconstructioninfrastructure.Inlinewiththisidea,Iamalsofairlycertainthataddingsomecontenttothenewstationswillbeusefulintermsofcreatingamorefriendly,socialandculturallyvibrantatmosphereinthecity. METRO CONSTRUCTION SITE

    86

  • References:

    1. http://www.mosmetro.ru/about/2. http://www.demographia.com/db-parissecanal.htm3. http://www.berlin.de/berlin-im-ueberblick/geschichte/kaiserliche_hauptstadt.en.html4. http://www.londononline.co.uk/factfile/historical/5. How we were building the metro .Moscow:Poligraphkniga,19356. YliyaStarostenko,"Thespaceofmetrostationsinprojects1900-1930.Tothe75anni-versaryoftheopeningoffirstmetroline.Science,studiesandexperimentaldesign",inWorks of MARHI: Materials of theoretical and practical conference 12-16 april 2010 . Moscow.:Architecture-M,20107. http://no-exit.org/stations8. http://www.mosmetro.ru/about/history/projects/9. SamuilKravez.Architecture of Moscow metro named after Kaganovich.Moscow:Publish-inghouseofallunionacademyofarchitecture,193910. http://old.dkn.mos.ru./registry11. FederallawN73,25.06.200212. NatalyaDushkina.Live of architect Dushkin 1904-1977.Moscow:A-fond,200413.http://www.archnadzor.ru/2011/02/02/t-ma-v-kontse-tonnelya/#more-6590/;http://www.archnadzor.ru/2011/02/06/t-ma-v-kontse-tonnelya-2/#more-6592(NatalyaSamover,Darknessattheendofthetunnel.Darknessattheendofthetunnel-2.)14. FederalprogramoftheMosocwcityDevelopmentofthetransportationsystem2012-201615. http://ria.ru/infografika/20120427/636716950.html16. VladimirPaperny.Culture two.Moscow:Newliterarysurvey,201117AlexanderZinoviev.Stalin metro.Historical overview.Moscow:ZinovievA.N.,2011.18. http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_Ru/02/hm2_3.html19. http://mosmetro.ru/about/general/numeral/20. Hermitage General staff buildingOMA/AMO,200321. http://mosmetro.ru/about/general/numeral/22. http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_Ru/00/hm0_1_1.html23. ResolutionofMoscowgovernmentN431-PP,20.09.2011FederalprogramforMos-cowcityMoscowculture2012-201624. ResolutionofRussiaFederationgovernmentN186,3march2012onspecialpurposefederalprogramCultureofRussia2012-201825. http://old.muar.ru/excursions.htm/;http://www.stranatur.ru/ru/Incoming-tours/Excursions/metro-moscow/26. YuryFrolov.Metro stations design.SaintPetersburg;PGUPS,201127. http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrostats.html28.http://www.metroreklama.ru/stat/p_stream/people_stream02.php?line=3#spravka29. http://izmaylowo.org/index.php

    scenario for future stations development

    what is new metro today?

    technologies

    scenario for future stations development

    what is existing metro today?

    Imagesource:http://ru-metro.livejournal.com/3570390.html

    Imagesource:Metrostroevez,#26,14.07.2006.www.mosmetro.ru Imagesource:http://www.theblogbelow.com/2008/07/tbm-tunnel-boring-machines.html

    Imagesource:http://abandonedplaces.livejournal.com/2476051.html

    5.Interactivescreensinstalledatthestationcouldallowpeopletoanswerquestionsaboutthedistrictandleavetheirideasforimprovements.

    6.Involvingpeoplethatusethemetroeverydaytofindfellowpassengerstospeakonspe-cifictopics.Theprojectcanconnectpeopleontheweb,givingthemanopportunitytogetacquaintedbeforetheirjourney,tochoosethetopicandtheroute.Moreover,thisinitiativewouldhelplocalstoconnecttoeachotherandcollaborateondifferentinitiativesoutsidethemetro.

    7.Anothertoolforsocialengagementisinteractiveartprojects.Theinitiatorgivesapersonasheetofpaperwherethefollowingphrasesarewritten:Drawsomethingthenpassitalong,Iwantthat,etc.Thenthesesheetswouldbeputintospecialboxes,andtheselectedresultswillbepublishedonthewebsiteandbecomethecontentofanexpositionatPer-vomayskayalastingseveraldays.

    8.Forbothmetrostations,Wi-Ficoverageandthedistributionofmagazinescontainingthedistrictsnewswouldbehelpful.

    Othertypesofactivitiescouldalsobedevelopedforthe67newstationsthatarealreadyinconstruction.But,fornow,Iperceivethemasanoutlookforthefuture,asthesecondstepthatshouldbedeveloped.Moscowshouldstartwiththefirstscenario.

    FollowingMoscowMayorSergeySobyaninsordinance,themetroshouldbecomeutilitarian,cheapandfastinconstructioninfrastructure.Inlinewiththisidea,Iamalsofairlycertainthataddingsomecontenttothenewstationswillbeusefulintermsofcreatingamorefriendly,socialandculturallyvibrantatmosphereinthecity. METRO CONSTRUCTION SITE

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