Engaging the learner: Embedding information literacy skills into a biotechnology degree

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Biotechnology EducationEngaging the Learner: Embedding Information LiteracySkills into a Biotechnology DegreeReceived for publication, April 25, 2007Helena Ward and Julie HockeyFrom the School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, South Australia, Australiaand Academic Library Services, Division of Business, University of South Australia, South Australia, AustraliaOne of the challenges of the Biotechnology industry is keeping up to date with the rapid pace of changeand that much of the information, which students learn in their undergraduate studies, will be out ofdate in a few years. It is therefore crucial that Biotechnology students have the skills to access the rele-vant information for their studies and critically evaluate the vast volume of information and its sources.By developing information literacy skills, which are part of lifelong learning, Biotechnology graduates arebetter prepared for their careers. Students also need to understand the issues related to the use of infor-mation such as social, political, ethical, and legal implications. This paper will outline the embedding ofinformation literacy skills within the Biotechnology degree at the University of South Australia. Examplesof specic activities and their link to assessment will be discussed.Keywords: Information literacy, biotechnology education, lifelong learning, learning outcomes, collaborativelearning.This article describes a project undertaken to embed thedevelopment of information literacy into the three yearBachelor of Medical and Pharmaceutical Biotechnologydegree at the University of South Australia (UniSA). It was acollaborative project between the authors, an academic andliaison librarian. Information literacy encompasses the abilityto locate, retrieve, evaluate, manage, and use informationeffectively and efciently. These skills are required to suc-ceed academically and are transferable to the workplaceand across the lifespan. The project followed a review of thedegree which revealed a lack of developmental informationskills across the curriculum. The project was planned, devel-oped, and implemented using The Australian and NewZealand Information Literacy Framework: principles, stand-ards and practice, 2nd ed. The Framework has been adaptedfrom the (US) Association of College and Research LibrariesInformation literacy competency standards for higher educa-tion. The Framework provides standards and learning out-comes that can be used to shape information literacy educa-tion [1]. Over 30 Australian universities are using the Frame-work in varying degrees to facilitate the development ofinformation literacy skills across academic degrees. Invaria-bly, the key to success has been when curriculum develop-ers, study advisers, and librarians work collaboratively.THE BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRYThe modern biotechnology industry began in 1976with the formation of Genentech by Robert Swanson andHerbert Boyer in the US [2]. It has now developed into aglobal industry, which is worth more than US$41 billionand includes over 4,000 biotechnology and associatedcompanies [3]. One of the challenges in this rapidly grow-ing industry is being able to keep up to date with the everincreasing volume of information and knowing how toaccess the appropriate information. The major informationsources include articles published in peer reviewed journalsand patents. As an example of the growth in biotechnologyinformation, the number of biotechnology patents publishedincreased from 2,160 in 1989 to 7,763 in 2002 [3].It is crucial that biotechnology students are able toaccess the relevant information for their studies and cancritically evaluate information and its sources. Informationliteracy is part of lifelong learning and prepares biotechnol-ogy graduates for their careers. For example, the past dec-ade has seen an explosion of information in the form of theHuman Genome Project as well as new techniques such asmicro-array analysis and real-time polymerase chain reac-tion. Students therefore need to develop information liter-acy skills to access, evaluate, and manage the vast volumeof information and apply it to their studies and later on totheir professional life whether it be a career in research or inthe commercial sector of biotechnology. They need to beable to use information effectively to create new knowl-edge, solve problems, make decisions and understandsocial, political, ethical, and legal issues. Thus, they needto be able to demonstrate that they are information literate.INFORMATION LITERACYThe curricula in many Australian universities are de-signed around a series of graduate qualities or attributes,}To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:helena.ward@unisa.edu.au.DOI 10.1002/bambed.79 This paper is available on line at http://www.bambed.org374Q 2007 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY EDUCATIONVol. 35, No. 5, pp. 374380, 2007such as lifelong learning. These generic attributes arebecoming a common prerequisite to graduation frommany universities and collaboration between professionalstaff such as academics and librarians plays a crucialrole in allowing for their development. UniSAs teachingand learning strategy is based around the concepts ofstudent centered learning, graduate qualities, and exibledelivery. At UniSA these graduate qualities are embed-ded in the curriculum development of all programs withthe objective of developing in students a unique set ofattributes that employers look for. These are the ability tobecome effective problem solvers and excellent commu-nicators, knowledgeable individuals who can work col-laboratively and autonomously, and employees with aninternational perspective and a commitment to ethicalaction and lifelong learning. Information literacy is thus akey component of lifelong learning [4].Information literacy needs to be owned by all educa-tors [5]. One of the reasons for this is the changes occur-ring in the higher education sector. Higher education inAustralia has undergone major changes in its educationalsystems and structures partly due to the shift from elite tomass participation in education, the merger, and amalga-mation of institutions, changing funding relationships andexternal involvement in the policies and practices of insti-tutions [6]. Increasingly the role of the academic library isbeing re-examined in this context. There are a number ofmajor factors, which will impact on how information liter-acy is advanced within the higher education sector inAustralia. These include the use of information and com-munications technology, accountability and performancemeasurement, the scholarship of teaching and educa-tional imperatives such as the diversity of the studentpopulation and emphasis on generic capabilities [7].The authors believe that the skills and concepts associ-ated with information literacy should be an integral part ofthe curriculum, not isolated from it. By embedding theseinto an academic degree, students are developing skillsby engaging with the curriculum. This should be done atthe curriculum level, encompassing the objectives, learn-ing outcomes, and assessment tasks. The QueenslandUniversity of Technology (QUT) Library has developed aseries of tools (QUT Information Literacy Framework andSyllabus ILF&S)) to assist in the development of informa-tion literacy initiatives, which are based around learningoutcomes, curriculum development, and assessment [8].The authors used these tools to assist in this project.THE BIOTECHNOLOGY DEGREEThe rationale for this project followed a review of thedegree, which highlighted a lack of information literacyrelated activities and resources across the entire curricu-lum. Although a communication subject was run in therst year of the degree (and there were information liter-acy components included) this subject was common tothree other degrees. This meant that the support devel-oped or intervention was generic. The authors interpre-tation of intervention in the context of this paper is thedevelopment of resources (such as learning activities,assessment tasks, online help, and case studies) to sup-port delivery and evaluation of curriculum pertaining toinformation literacy.There was also no other support developed across thedegree and this was evident in the general quality of stu-dents assignments, which reected poor use and under-standing of the scientic literature. The decision wasmade to set up a separate rst year biotechnology com-munication course, which encompassed communicationskills and professional issues of direct relevance to thatprofession.The UniSA Medical and Pharmaceutical Biotechnologydegree is assessed via a mix of exams, laboratory tasks,written assignments and reports, online discussion,group and individual oral presentations, and participation.For this project we focused on those subjects with ahigh component of written assignments and reports thatrequired literature searching. We also identied somesubjects with less emphasis on written assignments thatwould also benet from intervention but these were out-side the scope of this project.The aim of this project was to embed incremental skilldevelopment within the identied subjects across thedegree. This was to be achieved via different modes ofdelivery such as face to face and online workshops,lectures and self paced generic modules to allow for var-ied learning styles. By linking the development of informa-tion literacy skills to assessment tasks, the learning pro-cess was seamless and was placed within the context ofwhat students were learning. Though these skills werelearnt from completing specic assignments they couldthen be applied to other subjects, where there was nodirect intervention. However, sometimes skills needed tobe reinforced or revised, but at a different intensity andwithin a framework of reection and evaluation. For exam-ple, it was preferable to offer support for those complexassignments where students were expected to writepapers based on comprehensive literature searches. Otherminor assignments did not require such in depth supportprovided students applied the skills they learnt from previ-ous tasks. In cases such as these it required reinforcingthe level of skills required to complete the task.THE PROJECT METHODOLOGYThe process involved a number of distinct stages andused the tools developed by the QUT Library to assist inmapping learning outcomes.The three year degree was examined against the infor-mation literacy framework to determine the expectedgeneric level of prociency required to perform any giventask for each year of the degree (Table I). The prociencylevels as dened by QUT are elementary, procient, andadvanced (Table II). The natural progression is from ele-mentary to advanced; however, there will be some skillsnot required for particular tasks and occasions when thestudent is not expected to develop beyond elementaryor procient. For example, academic staff expected thatfor the Information Literacy outcome construction andimplementation of effective search strategies studentswould need to develop skills from elementary in year onethrough to procient in year two and advanced by year375three. However, students would not be expected to de-velop beyond procient for the information literacy out-come of uses diverse sources of information to informdecisions (Table I). These were decisions made by theacademics based on their expectations of students skilldevelopment.TABLE IMapping of the biotechnology degreeStandard Outcomes AcquisitionDevelopmentalThe information literate person: Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 ConsequentialNo. Attitudinal1 The information literateperson recognisesthe need forinformation and determinesthe nature andextent of theinformation needed.1.1 Denes and articulates the need for information Developmental1.2 Understands the purpose, scope andappropriateness of a variety of informationDevelopmental1.3 Re-evaluates the nature andextent of the information needDevelopmental1.4 Uses diverse sources of information to inform decisions Consequential2 The informationliterate personnds neededinformation effectivelyand efciently.2.1 Selects the most appropriate methods ortools for nding informationDevelopmental2.2 Constructs and implements effective search strategies Developmental2.3 Retrieves information using a variety of methods DevelopmentalThe table shows an example of the IL mapping process for the three year UniSA Biotechnology Degree. Each IL Standard (column 1) hasa number of Outcomes (column 2). The prociency levels and acquisition types needed for the various IL outcomes were mapped by theauthors. The horizontal hatching represents an Elementary level, the black sections Procient, and the vertical hatching Advanced (asshown in the key below). Column 4 shows the acquisition level, which describes the type of intervention used to achieve the prociencylevel (the acquisition levels are described in more detail in Table II). The acquisition level for each outcome was determined and thiswas used to design the type of intervention. Adapted from Queensland University of Technology, QUT Information literacy framework andsyllabus [9].TABLE IIProciency levels and acquisitions types [9, 10]Prociency LevelsElementary The student has a basic understanding of the concepts associated withthis task and can perform most of the relevant skills with little or no guidance.Procient The student understands all of the concepts associated with this task,can demonstrate mastery of all the relevant skills, and apply them with no guidance.Advanced The student exhibits a thorough understanding of all the concepts associatedwith this task, understands the contexts within which they apply, and can performall relevant skills independently and at the highest level across a range of contextsAcquisition typesDevelopmental Task-specic skills requiring direct and planned interventionConsequential Secondary-level skills learnt as a result, or consequence, of direct and planned interventionAttitudinal Knowledge and concepts which underpin task-specic and secondary skillsdevelopment that develop over time and with experienceThis table forms part of the QUT IL mapping tools as described in the text. These were used in the UniSA mapping project.376 BAMBED, Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 374380, 2007The next stage of the process involved examining thedegree at the subject level. Subjects were identied acrossthe degree where the assessment required students tolocate information such as written assignments, case stud-ies, and industry proles. We then determined whether ornot intervention was required for these subjects.Assignments from four subjects were checked againstthe Information Literacy standards to determine whetherthe outcomes associated with each standard wererequired for it to be completed successfully. For exam-ple, one of the outcomes is the ability to understand thepurpose, scope and appropriateness of a variety of infor-mation sources [1]. If this outcome was expected as partof the assessment, then the next stage was to determinethe level of prociency required to achieve that outcome.The level of prociency required varied between assess-ment and year. The next stage required determining howthe students were going to acquire the required skills.QUT uses three levels of skill acquisition: developmental,consequential, and attitudinal (Table II).If the skill acquisition type was identied as either de-velopmental or consequential then intervention wasrequired in order for those assessment tasks to be com-pleted. The type of intervention varied between speciconline or face to face workshops, lectures, and genericonline workshops. This enabled us to embed the appro-priate learning resources into the curriculum.One of the key elements of UniSAs approach to teach-ing and learning is a commitment to student centeredlearning, which fosters learning rather than teaching. Stu-dent centered learning is based on the constructivisttheory where students have access to learning opportu-nities and control over learning processes [11]. It is alsowidely recognized in the literature that there are a varietyof learning approaches. Biggs [11, 12] has dened threeapproaches to learning: surface, deep and achieving. Bybeing aware of different learning styles, resources can bedesigned to meet the different needs of learners.The Australian National Training Authority [13] lists fourcommon learning styles that have been identied amongpeople who are studying. These styles can be categorizedinto those learners who prefer to gather information and lis-ten (why should I learn this?), learners who prefer to organ-ize their information and think about it (what should Ilearn?), learners who prefer to integrate theory with practice(how should I learn it?), and learners who prefer to learnthrough experience (what if?).The process of learning requires a exible approach andvarious strategies can be applied to different subjects orwithin subjects and at varying times within subjects [14].IMPLEMENTATIONImplementation involved working with the relevant sub-ject coordinators across the four subjects to integratelearning resources. In some cases new resources werecreated (Fig. 1) and where appropriate, existing oneswere used. The UniSA Library had developed a numberof generic online workshops that reect the principles,standards and practice that are outlined in the Australianand New Zealand Information Literacy Framework. Theserange from the UniSA Librarys generic online informationliteracy tutorial InfoGate [15] to subject and assignmentspecic workshops developed with subject coordinatorsand study advisers. Each module of InfoGate has a preand post exercise which tests students knowledge ofparticular aspects of the information seeking process.Other generic resources include those created by studyadvisers such as writing, referencing and guides toavoiding plagiarism.Intervention was embedded seamlessly across theentire degree. The rst year subject, Communication inBiosciences required a surface level of resource andsupport development as students were given a shortessay to research and write. They were also questionedabout the process of searching for and locating informa-tion from a university library. To help them understandthis practice, a lecture was given to introduce them tothe skills required for university studies.One of the subjects identied for intervention in thesecond year of the degree was Bioethics, which wasdelivered entirely online. This subject covered topicssuch as the philosophy of science and bioethics, themoral and ethical issues in research and genetic privacy.Students were asked to choose one of ve statementsprovided to them and write a position paper of approxi-mately 1,500 words. The support developed to assistthem in this task was an online workshop embedded inthe course. Students were shown how to identify con-cepts, develop search strategies, determine the amountand type of information needed and locate, and use spe-cic resources such as databases, journals, and internet.They were taken through the entire process of locatingand evaluating the information they nd.One example of the statements was Transgenic ani-mals should be used for research into the treatment ofdiseases. The following is a summary of the online sup-port provided. The students were provided with the mainconcepts for the statement, i.e., Transgenic animals, ge-netically modied animals, advantages, benets, ethics,research, diseases. The students were then advised thatthey could combine terms such as transgenic animalsand ethics to search databases to nd more informationon the topic. The use of quality and up-to-date informa-tion sources such as academic databases and peerreviewed journals was emphasized.While this illustrates how to search for informationusing keywords for one topic, the process of searching isapplicable across all areas. The information literacy skillsdeveloped in this assignment were based around theneed to construct and implement effective search strat-egies and use appropriate information sources.Figure 1 shows the search statement described abovein the key database, Medline. It illustrates how the key-words developed earlier on in the process form the basisof a search strategy. Emphasis is also given to the impor-tance of establishing effective search statements usingthe Boolean operators AND and OR. Where possible, stu-dents were also offered alternative learning pathways. Forexample, with the concept of database searching, stu-dents could either work through the online workshop orlink to a series of videos, which demonstrate these skills.377The videos were created using the CaptureCAM-PROsoftware, which is a PC screen and sound recordingdegree [16]. Alternative approaches to teaching and learn-ing such as using information and communication technol-ogies (ICT) is driven by UniSAs teaching and learningstrategy to provide student centered approaches and aexible and quality learning environment. This fosters stu-dent access to and control of their learning processes.Other drivers inuencing curriculum delivery are increasingstudent numbers and the internationalization of degrees.These are challenges facing many universities today.By third year students were given complex, researchbased assignments and were expected to demonstrateadvanced research skills. For example, in the third yearsubject Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, students had towrite a 2,000 word overview of the development and clini-cal use of a biotechnology product, such as recombinantinsulin. They were required to search the literature widelyand to attach their search strategy to their assignment. Asthey were assessed on the breadth of referenced materialthis gave them the incentive to develop the skills to searchthe literature widely and effectively. The support given forthis subject was an interactive lecture based around theassignment task where the librarian was assigned aproduct and demonstrated the process of searching forinformation using academic sources (such as databasesto locate quality journals) and techniques to evaluate theinformation found. The information literacy skills devel-oped in this assignment were based around the need toidentify and evaluate information and its sources.The nal subject identied for intervention was anotherthird year subject, Commercialization of biotechnology,where students were introduced to concepts such as in-tellectual property (patents), company proles and stockexchanges. As more advanced search skills and knowl-edge of a wider range of information sources wererequired to complete the assignment it was decided thatface to face workshops would be the best form of inter-vention. Students attended the workshops in computerpools in tutorial time and were given the opportunity totest their newly learnt skills in the session with professio-nal help at hand.OFFSHORE TWINNING DEGREEThe Medical and Pharmaceutical BiotechnologyDegree at UniSA included a twinning Degree with theSepang Institute of Technology International College (SIT)in Malaysia. Students studied the rst year of the degreeat SIT and then transferred to UniSA to complete theirstudies. This raised the challenge of providing equivalentresources and activities to the students located offshore.The Information Literacy mapping project included spe-cic initiatives developed for the SIT Biotechnology stu-dents such as visits to SIT by academic and Library staffand the provision of face-to-face and online researchskills workshops linked to specic assignments. Whenthe students transferred to Adelaide they were providedwith refresher workshops to revise these skills andintroduce them to the facilities and resources at UniSA.OUTCOMESLearning objectives were measured by assignmentsand activities which tested students knowledge of whatthey learnt. This included requiring students to documenttheir research process, including the search strategiesand databases used. This provided valuable informationfor subject coordinators when assessing assignments. Inparticular, it allowed them to identify difculties and pro-vide feedback and early intervention. For example, apoorly written essay may reect a fundamental problemFIG. 1. Online learning resource: searching a database. An example of the support provided to students in the Bioethics sub-ject. As the subject is delivered entirely online, the support for assignments is provided as part of the online course environment.The use of quality information sources such as Medline is encouraged by providing examples of keyword searches directly relatedto the assessment tasks.378 BAMBED, Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 374380, 2007with the research strategy and range of sources used.Initial feedback from students indicated that they foundthe lectures and associated resources given on searchstrategies to be extremely useful when researching fortheir assignments.Focus groups were conducted with students to ana-lyze the outcomes of the Information Literacy Interven-tions described in the Communication of Biosciencessubject. These were conducted by an independent facili-tator and included one group of students who hadrecently completed the subject and a second group whostudied Communication in Biosciences before the inter-ventions were introduced. The questions included:Did Communication in Biosciences help you:1. Develop referencing skills?2. Understand search strategies?3. Efciently use library resources?4. Learn about plagiarism?5. Provide you with resources to help with assign-ments?6. Understand the importance of using quality sour-ces of information?The results from the focus groups showed that stu-dents who had experienced the various IL activities andtasks in their subject had an appreciation of these vari-ous issues.Examples of student comments are shown below: Very good to have awareness of quality issues raised.So that students do not think information is of equalvalidity everywhere e.g. newspapers vs. refereedpublications. Has been very useful subject re-future subjects espe-cially learning how to reference properly. Good to be oriented to biotech journals. People were very glad to have been taught how tosummarize articles and pull out key words.The students who had not experienced the IL inter-ventions had less understanding of the quality of infor-mation and the efcient use of library resources. A typi-cal comment from one of these students is shownbelow. In rst year it is hard to understand what is qualityand also because of time pressures many studentsjust go to the internet and nd on-line articles thatquote journal articles and then cite these journalarticles.Another evaluation consisted of surveying rst yearstudents after a workshop on nding quality informationsources for an essay by library and academic staff. Theywere asked open ended questions in a written surveyabout what they learnt from the workshop. The results,from a total of 35 students, showed that 45% of studentsstated that they learnt how to use library resources suchas the catalogue and databases. The development ofresearch skills was mentioned by 34% of students andthe use of quality information by 8%. One fth of the stu-dents wrote that they had learnt skills that would speci-cally help them complete their assignment.Another outcome of this project was the development ofa resources portfolio by students. This is an on-going initi-ative aimed at encouraging students to take responsibilityfor their own graduate outcomes by keeping a portfolio toillustrate their skills and achievements. The students wereencouraged to present examples of their subject worksuch as essays, group assignments, industry case stud-ies, company proles, and stock exchange analyses in aportfolio. They were also encouraged to keep a reectivejournal, where they documented the graduate qualitiesthey developed. The journal encouraged students toreect on their learning experiences, both positive andnegative and the development of their skills.Finally, the authors believe this project has resulted inincremental development of information literacy skillsfrom basic to advanced across the three year degree. Bycompletion of their degree all students have had the op-portunity to develop skills in identifying informationneeds, locating, retrieving and evaluating information andusing it to synthesize ideas. These are skills that haveideally prepared them for lifelong learning which can betransferred to the workplace. The next logical phase ofthis project would be to asses the information literacyskills of biotechnology graduates in the workplace.CONCLUSIONAs the higher education environment is a dynamic one,it requires various teaching approaches to allow for dif-ferent learning styles and to encourage student controlover the learning process. The authors discovered thatfor information literacy skills to be embedded into thecurriculum the collaboration of all stakeholders (aca-demics, librarians, and study advisers) is required. This issupported in the literature where it has been argued thatcollaboration is the key to curriculum alignment [17] andto the successful integration of information literacy intothe educational process [18]. These stakeholders canwork together to design assignments and activities,which develop research skills. The type of assessmentwill determine information literacy requirements and inter-ventions; however, the strategies and resources described inthis paper can be applied to other university degrees.This project has enhanced the learning experience forstudents by actively engaging them in the educationalprocess and leads into future studies to ascertain theapplication of graduate qualities in the workplace.AcknowledgmentsThe authors would like to thank IreneDoskatsch (Deputy Director, Library Services at UniSA) for hervaluable input to this project.REFERENCES[1] A. Bundy, Ed. (2004) Australian and New Zealand Information Liter-acy Framework: Principles, Standards and Practice, 2nd ed., ANZIIL,Adelaide.[2] Ernst and Young. Beyond Borders, The Global BiotechnologyReport, 2002.[3] Biotechnology Industry Organisation, /www.bio.org/speeches/pubs/er/statistics.asp [Accessed on 7/10/05].[4] University of South Australia, Graduate Qualities, http://www.unisa.edu.au/etd/gradqual.asp [Accessed on 19/9/05].[5] A. Bundy (2004) Beyond information: The academic library as edu-cational change agent. Paper presented at the International Biele-feld Conference, Germany, 35 February, 2004.379[6] P. C. Candy, G. Crebert, J. OLeary (1994) Developing lifelong learn-ers through undergraduate education. Commissioned Report No.28. National Board of Employment, Education and Training, Can-berra, ACT.[7] J. Peacock (2001) Drive, revive, survive, and thrive: Going the dis-tance for information literacy, RAISS 2001 Reveling in reference,Melbourne, 1214 October, 2001.[8] Queensland University of Technology, QUT Information literacyframework and syllabus, http://www.library.qut.edu.au/ilfs/ [Accessedon 22/9/05].[9] Queensland University of Technology, QUT Information LiteracyFramework and Syllabus, Prociency Maps, http://www.library.qut.edu.au/ilfs/syllabus/prociencies/ [Accessed on 26 May 2004].[10] Queensland University of Technology, QUT Information LiteracyFramework and Syllabus, Acquisitions Table, http://www.library.qut.edu.au/ilfs/syllabus/acquisitions.jsp [Accessed on 26 May 2004].[11] J. Biggs (1987) Student Approaches to Learning and Studying,Australian Council for Educational Research, Melbourne.[12] J. Biggs (2003) Teaching for Quality Learning at University, 2nd ed.,Open University Press, Berkshire.[13] Australian National Training Authority (1995) Toolkit for Trainers: AWorkbook for Practical Ideas to Enable Learning, National StaffDevelopment Committee of the Australian National Training Autho-rity, Melbourne, Victoria.[14] UniSA, Learning styles and strategies, http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/bba/E3/Eff_learning/eff_learning/1_2_a.html [Accessed on19/9/05].[15] University of South Australia Library, InfoGate http://www.library.unisa.edu.au/infogate/index.htm [Accessed on 19/9/05].[16] CaptureCAM-PRO, http://www.capturecampro.com/ [Accessed on19/11/05].[17] M. Lupton (2004) Curriculum Alignment and Assessment of Informa-tion Literacy Learning, Australian and New Zealand Institute for In-formation Literacy (ANZIIL), Australia, 25-28.[18] I. Doskatsch (2003) Perceptions and perplexities of the faculty-librarianpartnership: An Australian perspective, Ref. Serv. Rev. 31, 111121.380 BAMBED, Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 374380, 2007


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