Exploring How Mobile Technologies Impact Pedestrian Safety

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  • Exploring How Mobile TechnologiesImpact Pedestrian Safety

    Research team:Nikki ZeichnerPhoenix PerryMiranda Sita

    Laura BarberaTim Nering

    by the Integrated Digital Media program at the Polytechnic School of Engineeringof New York University

    April 2014NYC Media Lab Research Brief

    Prepared for AT&T

  • This paper was prepared for AT&T as part of a NYC Media Lab Open Seed Project with NYU

    Polytechnic School of Engineerings Integrated Digital Media Program.

    Launched by a consortium including the New York City Economic Development Corporation, NYU

    and Columbia University, NYC Media Lab is a public-private partnership that connects companies

    with university R&D, faculty and students. AT&T is a charter corporate member of NYC Media Lab.

    For more information, visit http://nycmedialab.org.

    Cover photo by Jeremy Cox of Flickr (jeremywcox).

    For more information, visit http://nycmedialab.org.

  • Table of contents

    Summary

    The Intersection of Mobile Device Use and Pedestrian Safety

    What Sets New York City Apart

    New York Citys Response

    Research on Mobile Device Use by Distracted Pedestrians

    Opportunities to Improve Traffic Safety with Mobile Technologies

    Conclusion

    References

    1

    2

    4

    5

    8

    9

    14

    15

  • This paper provides software

    and mobile device developers

    with an overview of recent

    applications of mobile

    technologies addressing

    traffic safety.

    This paper provides software and mobile device

    developers with an overview of recent applications of

    mobile technologies addressing traffic safety. It also

    spotlights potential solutions mobile technologies can

    contribute to improving safety conditions on New York

    City streets.

    Summary

    Consumer adoption of mobile devices has

    skyrocketed, changing the way people behave in many

    environments, including on city streets. Much of the

    emphasis of governments, advocacy organizations,

    researchers and technologists concerned with the

    safety implications of mobile device use in traffic has

    rightly focused on the behavior of drivers, and, in

    particular, the dangers of texting while driving.

    Research examining texting while driving is bountiful

    and the findings unequivocally demonstrate hazards.

    More recently, there is also a growing body of research

    and evidence that supports the claim that pedestrians

    may be increasing traffic safety risks by walking in

    traffic while focused on their smart phone.

    The research team approached smart phone use and

    traffic safety from a technological perspective: How might

    mobile technologies make pedestrians in urban areas

    safer, especially to mitigate smart phone distraction and

    to increase pedestrians environmental connectedness

    and what opportunities exist for technological solutions

    to complement the efforts of governments, advocacy

    organizations and businesses to reduce injuries and

    deaths.

    This paper outlines the impact of vehicle-pedestrian

    crashes, provides a synopsis of the citys approach to

    traffic safety, examines research on hazards of mobile

    device use by distracted pedestrians, and reviews

    technologies leveraging smart phones and wireless

    networks that aim to empower pedestrians and reduce

    driver distraction.

    1

  • The Intersection of Mobile Device Use and Pedestrian Safety

    The number of mobile phones in the U.S. has

    increased from 340,000 in 1985 to 302.9 million in

    2010.1 Rapidly increasing mobile phone use has

    been linked with dangerous, distracted driving.

    According to the U.S. Center for Disease Control and

    Prevention, nine people are killed and more than 1,060

    are injured every day in the U.S. due to distracted

    driving.2 The CDC defines three types of distraction

    visual, manual, and cognitive. It recognizes

    that texting while driving is especially dangerous

    because it combines all three types of distraction.3

    While fatalities attributed to texting while driving

    is imprecise, the category driver inattention was

    Driver inattention was cited

    by NYPD as the cause of

    about a third of all crashes,

    beating the next category by

    more than 2 to 1.

    < 16

    16 - 20

    21 - 25

    26 - 30

    31 - 35

    36 - 40

    41 - 45

    46 - 50

    51 - 55

    56 - 60

    61 - 65

    > 65PedestriansDrivers

    160511

    1429985

    12541003

    556305

    453314

    359342

    310562

    404452

    358137

    31091

    15287

    271493

    National Estimates of Cases

    Age

    Gro

    up

    Figure 1: CPSC National Estimates (total from 2004-2010) of injuries related to cellphone use by pedestrians (n=5482) and drivers (n=5879).5

    cited by the New York City Police Department as the

    cause of about a third of all crashes, beating the next

    category by more than 2 to 1.4

    2

  • Pedestrian casualties from car crashes in NYC

    Table 1: Car/Pedestrian Crashes, 2006-20138

    YEAR CRASHES INJURIES DEATHS

    2006 10,958 10,744 156

    2007 11,035 10,859 135

    2008 10,973 10,722 151

    2009 10,715 10,433 158

    2010 11,266 11,084 149

    2011 10,794 10,660 143

    2012 10,925 10,809 135

    2013 14,8457 Not released

    In 2011, Transportation Alternatives and the Drum

    Major Institute for Public Policy co-authored a report,

    Walking in Traffic Violence: Pervasiveness of Motor

    Vehicle Crashes with Pedestrians in New York City,

    to draw attention to the overall dangers faced by

    pedestrians.6 The report argued that, in New York

    City, pedestrian injuries and fatalities due to crashes

    with cars remain high compared to rates in similar,

    densely populated cities. New Yorkers are twice as

    likely to be killed in a car crash as in Berlin, Tokyo,

    or Paris.7 The New York State Department of Motor

    Vehicles reports little change in recent years in the

    rates of pedestrian injuries and deaths in New York

    City resulting from crashes with cars, with a significant

    increase in the number of crashes in 2013 (Table 1).

    To reduce injuries from distracted driving, states

    and the federal government have passed legislation

    banning phone use while driving.10 In 2010, the Federal

    Motor Carrier Safety Administration banned commercial

    vehicle drivers from texting while driving.11 And, in

    2009 AT&T launched the It Can Wait campaign to

    spread awareness about the dangers of mobile device

    use while driving and to encourage teen drivers to

    sign the It Can Wait pledge. Sprint, T-Mobile and

    Verizon joined AT&Ts effort, which has yielded over 4

    million pledges and a widespread education campaign

    throughout high schools across the United States.

    Working together, these companies have deployed

    social media, multimedia content production and mobile

    apps to maximize the campaigns reach.12

    3

  • What Sets New York City Apart

    New York City is the only U.S. city where over half of

    all households do not own a car.13 With the exception

    of Portland, Oregon, pedestrians in New York City are

    safer here than in any other major city in the United

    States.14 Despite the citys prominent pedestrian

    culture and history of strategic transportation planning

    designed to empower pedestrians and ensure their

    safety, pedestrian safety remains a critical issue. In

    2012, New York City experienced 10,925 crashes

    between pedestrians and cars.15

    Although the New York City Department of

    Transportation reported a reduction in traffic fatalities

    of 35% from 2001 to 2012, a recent study of vehicle-

    pedestrian crashes between 2007 and 2010 by

    researchers at Hunter College suggests that injuries

    of this kind in New York City are, in fact, grossly

    underreported, and that pedestrians face more danger

    than the numbers may indicate.16

    Researchers have begun to investigate the direct

    relationship between mobile device use and pedestrian

    injuries in New York City. In one study, researchers found

    that of the 1,400 pedestrian and cyclist injuries treated at

    New Yorks Bellevue Hospital Center between 2008 and

    2011, [a]bout 8 percent of both pedestrians and cyclists

    said they were injured while using an electronic device,

    including a cellphone or music player.

    For victims ages 7 to 17, the numbers climbed to more

    than 10 percent of pedestrians and nearly 30 percent of

    cyclists.17 According to American College of Surgeons,

    nearly one in five patients ages 13 to 17 were sending

    text messages, listening to music, or otherwise distracted

    by a mobile device at the time of their accident.18

    4

  • New York Citys Response

    The relatively consistent number of pedestrian injuries

    and fatalities in New York City between 2006 and

    2012 comes despite the Bloomberg administrations

    numerous pedestrian-friendly projects, programs, and

    research around traffic and pedestrian safety in the

    City during this time. 19

    In August 2010, Mayor Bloomberg, along with then

    City Council Speaker Christine Quinn and then

    DOT Commissioner Janette Sadik-Khan, issued a

    comprehensive study of street safety in New York,

    based on data gathered pursuant to the amendment

    of Local Law 11 in April 2008.20 This report examined

    7,000 vehicle-pedestrian crash records and concluded

    that speeding, running red lights and failure to

    yield were main causes of serious pedestrian crashes

    with vehicles in New York City.21

    Based on these findings, the DOT undertook

    numerous steps to calm traffic in neighborhoods

    in midtown Manhattan. Left-turn visibility was

    improved, countdown signals were installed at

    pedestrian crossings, and streets and intersections

    were comprehensively re-engineered with the goal of

    improving pedestrian safety. The city at this time also

    launched an anti-speeding campaign to raise safety

    awareness among motorists and restricted traffic in

    some residential neighborhoods to a 20 mile-per-hour

    speed limit.

    Again, in September 2012, in response to growing

    awareness of pedestrian distraction, the New York City

    Department of Transportation launched the LOOK!

    Safety Campaign. Through outdoor advertising and

    messages on crosswalks, this campaign aimed to

    influence pedestrian behavior by providing visual cues

    at intersections.

    The campaign was modeled after a similar campaign

    in London that was designed to alert tourists to traffic

    hazards.23 The London campaign, like New York Citys,

    deployed simple, clear messaging to mitigate risk-taking

    behavior on the part of pedestrians when in proximity

    to vehicular traffic. Contextual research around the

    London campaign focused on a series of key findings

    around risk-taking behavior. In its research, Transport

    for London, distinguished between behaviors based on

    intent and perception of risk. They found that intentional

    risk-taking as a pedestrian is more likely if people

    LOOK! Campaign Message, 2012.22

    5

  • Crossingbetweenstationary

    traffic

    Takinga photo

    Ignoring barriers Crossing

    on red

    Crossingbetweenmoving traffic

    Crossinghalfway

    First stepfree

    Talkingwith friends

    Avoidingobstructions

    Herding

    Figure 2: Intentionality and Perception of Risk. Transport for London Report.25

    do not believe that there is a high likelihood of any

    undesirable consequences happening. The end result is

    that they perceive their behavior as being relatively low

    risk.24

    These intentional, high-risk actions are highly influenced

    by social cues, e.g. tourist areas where jaywalking

    behavior is highly present, or safety barriers are routinely

    ignored.

    6

    Low perceived risk High perceived risk

    Intentional

    Unintentional

  • Mayor Bill de Blasio took

    office and reaffirmed

    his intention to make

    pedestrian safety

    a central focus of

    his newly-elected

    administration and quickly

    produced a Vision Zero

    Action Plan that outlined a

    series of policy initiatives

    directly aimed at improving

    pedestrian safety on New

    York City streets.

    LOOK! complements other DOT campaigns on road

    safety that have been launched since 2006 (Heads

    Up, Thats Why Its 30, You The Man).26 These

    campaigns are intended to work in tandem with

    engineering-oriented approaches recommended by the

    2010 DOT action plan, including approaches such as:

    As a candidate for office in 2013, Mayor Bill de Blasio signed

    onto the Vision Zero traffic safety project to reduce traffic

    fatalities by 100%.28 Weeks after he took office, and prompted

    by widely publicized pedestrian fatalities in early 2014, the

    Mayor reaffirmed his intention to make pedestrian safety

    a central focus of his newly-elected administration29 and

    quickly produced a Vision Zero Action Plan that outlined

    a series of policy initiatives directly aimed at improving

    pedestrian safety on New York City streets.30

    The Vision Zero proposals supplement the 2010 New York

    City DOT plan with additional law enforcement initiatives,

    legislative measures, engineering proposals, and city

    government response protocols, as well as a new series of

    outreach, education, and engagement initiatives to improve

    pedestrian safety. The proposal calls for a permanent task

    force in the Mayors Office of Operations to synchronize and

    promote these initiatives. The Vision Zero plan promotes

    a multi-agency, synergistic effort to combat pedestrian

    injury and fatality through a wide variety of comprehensive

    mitigation strategies.

    Crossing countdown signals;

    Barriers at high-risk intersections;

    Road engineering for maximum bilateral visibility;

    Multi-modal solutions (e.g., auditory feedback as a

    crossing indicator).27

    7

  • As vehicle-pedestrian crashes are overwhelmingly

    attributed to driver-caused hazards such as speeding,

    intoxication and distraction,31 policymakers, traffic

    safety advocates, and mobile carriers have rightly

    focused on mobile phone use and texting as a lethal

    source of distraction for drivers. Yet, pedestrian smart

    phone distraction has recently attracted attention and

    led researchers to explore the relationship between

    pedestrian mobile device use and injury. Some recent

    research includes:

    Research on Mobile Device Use by Distracted Pedestrians

    proposed New York law that would have made it a crime to

    enter and cross a crosswalk while engaging in the use of an

    electronic device.

    A 2009 study in the Journal of the American Academy

    of Pediatrics examined the influence of talking on a cell

    phone for pedestrian injury risk in youths, and found that

    participants aged 10-11 were less attentive to traffic, did not

    leave a safe amount of time to cross, and experienced more

    collisions and close calls when using a cell phone than test

    subjects who did not.33

    A 2011 study by researchers in the Department of

    Psychology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham

    considered how talking on the phone, texting and listening

    to music impact crossing the street, using college students

    as test subjects.34 This study found in particular that texting,

    which involves not only communication interchanges but

    also reading and typing, may be more cognitively distracting

    and demanding than talking. It also found that all of these

    behaviors distract from the crossing environment and lead

    to higher risk of injury.

    A 2007 study from researchers including Jack

    Nasar, then of Brooklyn Polytechnic, looked at

    mobile phones, distracted attention and pedestrian

    safety. They found that mobile phone users crossed

    unsafely into oncoming traffic significantly more

    than other observed groups. The study found that

    For pedestrians as with drivers, cognitive distraction

    from mobile phone use reduces situation awareness,

    increases unsafe behavior, putting pedestrians

    at greater risk for accidents.32 This study cites a

    8

  • A similar 2012 study examined the ways in which

    gait velocity and trajectory changed for walkers when

    interacting with the screen on a mobile device.35 This

    small-scale experiment measured the movement of

    33 university students as students texted on smart

    devices while moving through an obstacle course.

    The participants who texted while walking moved

    33 percent slower and deviated from their intended

    course 61 percent more often than those who did not

    use their phones.36

    They sampled injury reports from 100 national hospitals and

    produced estimates of pedestrian mobile phone use-related

    injuries reported at 3,800 hospitals throughout the U.S.38 They

    found that the number of pedestrian injuries due to pedestrian

    mobile phone use had increased from 506 injuries in 2004 to

    1506 injuries in 2010. If injuries continue to increase at the

    same rate, the researchers predicted over 3,000 injuries per

    year by 2015.39 Researchers also noted that injuries are likely

    greater than reported by the NEISS data. Many people who

    suffer an injury may not go to the emergency room; they may

    go to their primary care doctor, not go to a doctor, may not

    report the cell phone as the cause, or may die (newspapers

    report incidents of pedestrian mobile phone users getting hit

    and killed by cars, busses and trains).40 Sixteen to twenty-

    five year olds were most impacted by distracted walking.41

    A 2013 study by researchers at Ohio State

    University examines the causal relationship between

    pedestrian use of mobile devices and pedestrian

    injuries.37 These authors use data from 2004 to 2010

    from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System

    (NEISS), a database of hospital data maintained by

    the U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission.

    Opportunities to Improve Traffic Safety with Mobile Technologies

    New smartphone-based approaches to improve traffic

    safety using technological and design-based solutions

    have the potential to reduce smart phone distraction

    and increase pedestrian safety in urban areas. Some

    solutions complement increased enforcement and

    penalties for using mobile devices while driving by

    integrating the mobile device into the citys dynamic

    street traffic ecosystem.

    New smartphone-based approaches

    to improving traffic safety [have]

    the potential to reduce smart phone

    distraction and increase pedestrian

    safety in urban areas.

    9

  • These technologies have the potential to increase

    environmental awareness, yet each presents

    opportunities and shortcomings:

    Apps that rely on camera technology to increase

    ability to see ahead;

    Velocity-detectors that silence alerts from incoming

    texts when a smart phone is in motion;

    Apps and wearable devices deploying Natural

    User Interface principles;42

    Sensor-based technologies to warn pedestrians of

    oncoming traffic;43

    Enabling communication between mobile devices

    and vehicles;

    By enabling the user to see more, camera-based and

    motion-sensing Kinect-based technologies in their

    current formats may actually increase distraction by

    demanding more focus on the device. (Kinect is a

    motion-controlled technology used in gaming consoles

    and smart phones.) For example, Type N Walk44, and

    Walk N Text for Android45, use a mobile devices

    camera to replace the full screen background image

    on a smart phone with live video of the environment

    ahead. The texting surface is displayed on top of the

    live video. Scientists at the University of Manitoba

    used Kinect to create CrashAlert, a tablet that warns

    texters of obstacles that are within six feet.46 Critics of

    these apps note that pedestrians still must look up to

    see obstacles. 47

    Kinect-based technologies in their

    current formats may actually increase

    distraction by demanding more focus

    on the device.

    10

  • Velocity-sensing technology can effectively reduce

    distraction for drivers but cannot distinguish between

    drivers and passengers in a vehicle, nor can it ascertain

    smart phone users riding public transportation. AT&Ts

    DriveMode48 app for Android and Blackberry uses a

    smart phones velocimeter to detect motion greater

    than 25 mile-per-hour. When exceeding this speed, the

    app sends a customizable auto-reply away message

    in response to incoming texts and email messages

    and can be set to disable the phones touch screen

    and audio alerts. This approach is positive since it

    eliminates sensory cues that invite distraction but

    users may avoid the inconvenience of disabling the

    app to adjust to diverse traffic conditions encountered

    in urban areas.

    Velocity-sensing technology can

    effectively reduce distraction for

    drivers but cannot distinguish

    between drivers and passengers

    in a vehicle, nor can it ascertain

    smart phone users riding public

    transportation.

    Another approach to ensure pedestrians are

    connected with their surroundings is deploying

    Natural User Interface (NUI) design principles

    so the smart phone interface does not interfere

    with walking and negotiating intersections.

    To better understand users and the functionality that

    users expect of the smart phone interface, developers

    should consider four elements that influence design:

    (1) the user; (2) the task; (3) the device; and (4) the

    environment. 49 Instead of the device separating people from

    11

  • NUI solutions can help

    pedestrians stay alert and

    use their smart phone by

    incorporating wearable

    devices that extend smart

    phone functionality to

    apparel and gesture based

    technologies.

    their surroundings, NUI challenges developers to

    understand why people use their devices in certain

    environments then create interfaces with fewer

    distractions and potential impairments to safety.50

    NUI solutions can help pedestrians stay alert and use

    their smart phone without engaging with the mobile

    device itself by incorporating wearable devices that

    extend smart phone functionality to apparel and

    gesture based technologies that require swipes and

    not keystrokes.

    12

  • Perhaps the most promising traffic safety technology

    under development deploys wireless communications

    to directly connect drivers with pedestrians.

    General Motors developed vehicle technology that

    communicates with smart phones within 200 yards

    using the WiFi Direct protocol. The system is integrated

    with vehicle sensors, and when triggered, will alert the

    driver to oncoming pedestrians.51 Honda is developing

    similar vehicle and smart phone linking systems using

    dedicated short-range communications (DSRC).52

    These vehicle-to-pedestrian technologies originated

    with the U.S. Department of Transportation Connected

    Vehicle research and development initiative53 that

    aims to tap existing wireless networks, network

    connected vehicles and smart phones to give drivers

    a 360-degree awareness of hazards and situations

    they cannot even see.54

    Vehicle-to-pedestrian technologies [aim] to tap existing wireless networks, network connected vehicles and smart phones to give drivers a 360-degree awareness of hazards and situations they cannot even see.

    13

  • Conclusion

    The rapid ascent of smart phones in every corner of

    daily life has positively and adversely changed the

    way people move through urban spaces. For drivers,

    using a smart phone in a vehicle is irresponsible

    and increasingly regarded by policy markers and

    the public as criminal. Pedestrians, whose life can

    depend on the behavior of drivers, are unquestionably

    safer at New York City intersections when they heed

    the New York City DOTs advice and LOOK! Yet,

    as researchers and most smart phone users know,

    despite mounting evidence of the hazardous impact

    of smart phone use in traffic, mobile devices can

    prove irresistible, and for use by pedestrians on

    streets, may demand natural user interfaces that

    enable pedestrians to stay alert and focused on their

    surroundings. Conversely, smart phone technology

    itself may facilitate improved traffic safety when

    integrated with the diverse ecosystem of New York

    City streets since the smart phone is frequently a

    Pedestrians, whose life can depend on the behavior of drivers, are unquestionably safer at New York City intersections when they heed the New York City DOTs advice and LOOK!

    common denominator among pedestrians, cyclists and

    drivers alike. These technologies deserve further refinement,

    demand new innovation and depend on public acceptance

    and wide-scale adoption for the promise of technological

    smart phone based solutions to meaningfully contribute to

    reducing traffic injuries and fatalities.

    14

  • References

    15

    1 The Wireless Association. Pedestrian Injuries Due to Mobile Phone Use in Public Spaces citing CTIA. n.p., 2011. Web.

    2 Center for Disease Control. Distracted Driving. CDC, n.d. Web.

    3 Ibid.

    4 New York City Mayors Office (New York). Mayor Bloomberg, Speaker Quinn and Transportation Commissioner Sadik-Khan Release Citys Most Comprehensive Pedestrian Safety Study to Date and Announce Installation of 1,500 Pedestrian Countdown Signals Across the City. PR-356-10, 2010. Web.

    5 Consumer Products Safety Commission. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) Dataset. CPSC, 2013. Web.

    6 Transportation Alternatives. Walking in Traffic Violence: Pervasiveness of Motor Vehicle Crashes with Pedestrians in New York City. n.p., 2011. Web.

    7 Ibid.

    8 Aaron, Brad. Brattons Bad Data on Pedestrian Injuries Wont Get Us to Vision Zero. Streetsblog 16 Jan. 2014, Web.

    9 Transportation Alternatives. Walking in Traffic Violence.

    10 New York. Use of mobile telephones. New York, 1225-c. Web.

    11 National Highway and Transportation Safety Administration. Regulations. NHTSA, n.d. Web.

    12 AT&T. It Can Wait. n.p., n.d. Web.

    13 Office of Transportation Policy and Strategy, NYS Department of Transportation. New York Household Travel Patterns: A Compara-tive Analysis. US DOT, 2001. Web.

    14 NYC Department of Transportation. The New York City Pedestrian Safety Study and Action Plan. NYC DOT, 2010. Web.

    15 New York State Department of Motor Vehicles. Summary of New York City Motor Vehicle Crashes. NYS DMV, n.d. Web.

    16 Tuckel, Peter, and Milczarski , William. Pedestrian-Cyclist Accidents in New York State: 2007 2010. Hunter College, CUNY, Sep-tember 2011. Web.

    17 Flegenheimer, Matt. Crosswalks in New York Are Not Havens, Study Finds. April 2, 2013. New York Times. Retreived at: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/03/nyregion/study-details-injuries-to-pedestrians-and-cyclists-in-new-york-city.html

    18 American College of Surgeons (2012). Pedestrian accidents are more severe for seniors and more preventable for young people: Trauma surgeons examine injury differences, supervision, and mobile device use in pedestrian collisions with motor vehicles. Press Release, October 1, 2012.

    19 Ibid.

  • 16

    20 New York City (New York). A Local Law to amend the administrative code of the city of New York, in relation to pedestrian safety. [New York, NY:] City Council [2008]. Web.

    21 Ibid.

    22 Ibid.

    23 Transport for London (2010). Visitor Road Safety. Retrieved from: http://www.tfl.gov.uk/cdn/static/cms/documents/visitor-pedestri-an-safety-final-report.pdf

    24 Ibid.

    25 Ibid.

    26 DOT Press Release on LOOK!. Retrieved at: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/pr2012/pr12_46.shtml

    27 DOT, 2010. The New York City Pedestrian Safety Study & Action Plan. Retrieved at: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/nyc_ped_safety_study_action_plan.pdf

    28 City of New York. Vision Zero. NYC. n.d. Web.

    29 Goodman, David J., and Flegenheimer, Matt. De Blasio Announces Steps to Reduce Traffic Deaths. New York Times 16 Jan. 2014. Web.

    30 City of New York, 2014. Vision Zero Action Plan. Retrieved at: http://www.nyc.gov/html/visionzero/pdf/nyc-vision-zero-action-plan.pdf

    31 Aaron, Brad. STREETSBLOG NYC. Retrieved at: http://www.streetsblog.org/2013/03/18/dot-speeding-the-leading-cause-of-nyc-traf-fic-deaths-in-2012/

    32 Hecht, Peter, Nasar, Jack, and Wener, Richard. Mobile phones, distracted attention, and pedestrian safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2008. 40:69-75

    33 Stavrinos, Despina, Byington, Katherine, and Schwebel, David. Effect of Cell Phone Distraction on Pediatric Pedestrian Injury Risk. Pediatrics, 2009. 123:179

    34 Schwebel, David, Stavrinos, Despina, Byington, Katherine, et al. Distraction and pedestrian safety: How talking on the phone, tex-ting and listening impact crossing the street. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2012. 45:266-271

    35 Lamberg, Eric M., and Lisa M. Muratori. Cell Phones Change the Way We Walk. Gait & Posture, Volume 35, Issue 4 pp 688 690 (2012) Retrieved at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22226937

    36 Ibid.

    37 Nasar, Jack, and Troyer, Derek. Pedestrian Injuries Due to Mobile Phone Use in Urban Spaces. Accident Analysis and Prevention 21 Mar. 2013. Web.

    38 Ibid.

    39 Ibid.

    40 Ibid.

    41 Ibid.

  • 17

    42 Wigdor, Daniel and Dennis Wixon. Brave NUI World: Designing Natural User Interfaces for Touch and Gesture. Burlington: 2011.

    43 See WalkSafe, an app developed by researchers at Dartmouth College and University of Bologna that uses the devices camera to identify oncoming traffic and sends text or vibration warnings. Grifantini, Kristina. Smart-phone App Warns Pedestrians of Oncoming Cars. November 28, 2011. MIT Technology Review. See also CrashAlert, which relies on Kinect technology to warn texting pedestri-ans of objects ahead. Soper, Taylor. This App Uses Kinect Technology to Prevent You from Running into Things While Texting. May 31, 2013. GeekWire.

    44 Heads Up! Texting and Walking: Theres an App for That. Gajitz. Retrieved at: http://gajitz.com/heads-up-texting-and-walking-theres-an-app-for-that/ 45 Ibid.

    46 Danigelis, Alyssa. Crash Alert App Clears Way to Walk and Text. Discovery News, April 26, 2013. Retrieved at: http://news.discov-ery.com/tech/apps/crashalert-app-clears-way-to-walk-and-text-130426.htm

    47 Ibid. 48 Ibid.

    49 Blake, Joshua. Introduction to Natural User Interfaces (NUI) and Kinect. Retrieved at http://channel9.msdn.com/Blogs/k4wdev/Introduction-to-Natural-User-Interfaces-NUI-and-Kinect.

    50 Lim, Ji Jung and Cary Feria. Visual Search on a Mobile Device while Walking (2012) Masters Thesis. Paper 4145, Lamberg, Eric M., and Lisa M. Muratori. Cell Phones Change the Way We Walk. vGait & Posture, Volume 35, Issue 4 pp 688 690 (2012).

    51 See Vehicle-to-Pedestrian system that alerts drivers to the presence of pedestrians, cyclists, road construction workers and others who have a high chance of coming in contact with a moving vehicle. Newcomb, Doug. How Your Smartphone Could Stop a Car From Running You Over. July 27, 2012. Wired.

    52 See Vehicle-to-Pedestrian, which uses a smartphones GPS and dedicated short range communications (DSRC) to warn drivers when a pedestrian steps out from behind a parked car or other obstruction. A light flashes on the dashboard to tell the driver of an ap-proaching pedestrian, while the hapless walker gets an alert on their smartphone. Lavrinc, Damon. Honda Thinks Smartphones Can Save Pedestrians From Bad Drivers. September 3, 2013. Wired.

    53 Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Connected Vehicle. US DOT, 2014. Web.

    54 Ibid.