Forces A force is when an object is pushed, pulled, stretched or squashed. Forces can change the: (a)speed of an object (b)shape of an object (c)direction an object is travelling. A force can cause an object to accelerate, decelerate or remain at a steady speed.

Slide 2

Measuring Force Force is measured in units called Newtons (N). A Newton Balance is the instrument used to measure force. ActionForce (N) lifting a 0.5 kg mass lifting a schoolbag opening a door

Slide 3

The Newton Balance When a force is applied to a Newton Balance: 1.the spring stretches becoming longer 2.the pointer indicates on the scale how big the force is. The bigger the force, the more the spring stretches.

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Mass and Weight Mass is the amount of matter (atoms and molecules) that an object has. Mass is measured in kilograms (kg). Weight is the gravitational force that the Earth exerts on an object. Weight is measured in Newtons (N).

Slide 5

10 Mass (kg)Weight (N) 5 10 15 20 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 25 On Earth we found that:

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x ÷ The weight of an object is given by: W m g QuantityUnit Weight ( W ) Mass ( m ) Gravitational Field Strength ( g ) Newtons ( N ) Kilograms ( kg ) Newtons per Kilogram ( N kg -1 ) The gravitational field strength is the force acting on each kilogram of mass. On earth, the gravitational field strength (g) is 10 N kg -1.

Slide 7

My Mass and Weight Measure your mass in kilograms (kg) by standing on bathroom scales. scales person Result My mass = kg Now calculate your weight using the equation:

Slide 8

Example 1 A persons mass is measured to be 78kg. Calculate the weight of the person on Earth.

Slide 9

Gravitational Field Strength The gravitational field strength is the force acting on each kilogram of mass. The value of g depends on where you are in the universe. LocationGravitational Field Strength (N kg -1 ) Earth Moon Jupiter Mars Deep Space 10 1.6 26 4 0

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Example 1 Calculate the weight a 23 kg package (a)on the Moon (b)on Mars (c)in deep space (a)

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(b) (c) weightless

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Friction Friction is a force which acts against moving objects. Air friction is called air resistance. kicking force air resistance As the speed of an object increases, the force of friction opposing it increases.

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Decreasing Friction Friction can be reduced by: oiling moving parts (engine). waxing the surface in contact with the ground (skis). streamlining to lower air resistance (cyclist). Increasing Friction Friction can be increased by: applying brakes. increasing the tread of a tyre. using a parachute to increase air resistance.

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Balanced Forces Balanced forces are when forces are equal and opposite. They look like this: 12 N 3 kg weight = 3 x 10 = 30 N tension in string = 30 N

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Newtons First Law Newtons first law states: an object will remain at rest or continue in the same direction at the same speed, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. This means if a car is travelling at a steady speed of 10 ms -1, the engine force equals the force of friction. engine force: 1000 N force of friction: 1000 N

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Spaceship A rocket in space can switch off its motors, and it will travel at a constant speed. This is because no forces are acting on it. (no weight or resistance) Maximum Speed When a car reaches its maximum speed, the force of friction equals the maximum force of the engine. It can therefore go no faster.

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Unbalanced Force An unbalanced force is a single force that can replace all other forces. The unbalanced force is sometimes called the resultant force. Example 1 State the resultant force for the following: 3 kg 12 N 4 N 3 kg 4 N 3 N 5 N unbalanced force: 8 N to the right unbalanced force: 6 N to the right

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Seat Belts A seat belt in a car provides a backwards force to prevent the passenger from moving forward if the car stops suddenly. If there was no such backward force present the passenger would continue moving forward at a steady speed (from Newtons first law). The seatbelt provides an unbalanced force to decelerate the driver (from Newtons second law)...\Seatbelt.mpg

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Yellow Book Resultant Force – Page 66 Q46, 47, 48, 49

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Newtons Second Law Newtons second law states: an object acted upon by a constant unbalanced force, moves with constant acceleration in the direction of the unbalanced force. This law relates the unbalanced force, mass and acceleration. x ÷ F m a

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QuantityUnit Unbalanced Force ( F ) Mass ( m ) Acceleration ( a ) Newtons ( N ) Kilograms ( kg ) Metres per second per second ( ms -2 ) Example 1 Calculate the acceleration of the following 3 kg mass. 3 kg 14 N 2 N

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Example 2 The engine of a car exerts a force of 1,700 N, causing the car to accelerate at 1.5 ms -2. The frictional force is 800 N. Calculate the mass of the car. 1,700 N 800 N

Slide 23

Yellow Book Newtons Second Law – Pages 66 - 69 Q50, 51, 55 (a) (b), 57, 61, 63*

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Forces A force is when an object is pushed, pulled, stretched or squashed. Forces can change the: (a)speed of an object (b)shape of an object (c)direction.

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Transcript

Slide 1

Forces A force is when an object is pushed, pulled, stretched or squashed. Forces can change the: (a)speed of an object (b)shape of an object (c)direction an object is travelling. A force can cause an object to accelerate, decelerate or remain at a steady speed.

Slide 2

Measuring Force Force is measured in units called Newtons (N). A Newton Balance is the instrument used to measure force. ActionForce (N) lifting a 0.5 kg mass lifting a schoolbag opening a door

Slide 3

The Newton Balance When a force is applied to a Newton Balance: 1.the spring stretches becoming longer 2.the pointer indicates on the scale how big the force is. The bigger the force, the more the spring stretches.

Slide 4

Mass and Weight Mass is the amount of matter (atoms and molecules) that an object has. Mass is measured in kilograms (kg). Weight is the gravitational force that the Earth exerts on an object. Weight is measured in Newtons (N).

Slide 5

10 Mass (kg)Weight (N) 5 10 15 20 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 25 On Earth we found that:

Slide 6

x ÷ The weight of an object is given by: W m g QuantityUnit Weight ( W ) Mass ( m ) Gravitational Field Strength ( g ) Newtons ( N ) Kilograms ( kg ) Newtons per Kilogram ( N kg -1 ) The gravitational field strength is the force acting on each kilogram of mass. On earth, the gravitational field strength (g) is 10 N kg -1.

Slide 7

My Mass and Weight Measure your mass in kilograms (kg) by standing on bathroom scales. scales person Result My mass = kg Now calculate your weight using the equation:

Slide 8

Example 1 A persons mass is measured to be 78kg. Calculate the weight of the person on Earth.

Slide 9

Gravitational Field Strength The gravitational field strength is the force acting on each kilogram of mass. The value of g depends on where you are in the universe. LocationGravitational Field Strength (N kg -1 ) Earth Moon Jupiter Mars Deep Space 10 1.6 26 4 0

Slide 10

Example 1 Calculate the weight a 23 kg package (a)on the Moon (b)on Mars (c)in deep space (a)

Slide 11

(b) (c) weightless

Slide 12

Friction Friction is a force which acts against moving objects. Air friction is called air resistance. kicking force air resistance As the speed of an object increases, the force of friction opposing it increases.

Slide 13

Decreasing Friction Friction can be reduced by: oiling moving parts (engine). waxing the surface in contact with the ground (skis). streamlining to lower air resistance (cyclist). Increasing Friction Friction can be increased by: applying brakes. increasing the tread of a tyre. using a parachute to increase air resistance.

Slide 14

Balanced Forces Balanced forces are when forces are equal and opposite. They look like this: 12 N 3 kg weight = 3 x 10 = 30 N tension in string = 30 N

Slide 15

Newtons First Law Newtons first law states: an object will remain at rest or continue in the same direction at the same speed, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. This means if a car is travelling at a steady speed of 10 ms -1, the engine force equals the force of friction. engine force: 1000 N force of friction: 1000 N

Slide 16

Spaceship A rocket in space can switch off its motors, and it will travel at a constant speed. This is because no forces are acting on it. (no weight or resistance) Maximum Speed When a car reaches its maximum speed, the force of friction equals the maximum force of the engine. It can therefore go no faster.

Slide 17

Unbalanced Force An unbalanced force is a single force that can replace all other forces. The unbalanced force is sometimes called the resultant force. Example 1 State the resultant force for the following: 3 kg 12 N 4 N 3 kg 4 N 3 N 5 N unbalanced force: 8 N to the right unbalanced force: 6 N to the right

Slide 18

Seat Belts A seat belt in a car provides a backwards force to prevent the passenger from moving forward if the car stops suddenly. If there was no such backward force present the passenger would continue moving forward at a steady speed (from Newtons first law). The seatbelt provides an unbalanced force to decelerate the driver (from Newtons second law)...\Seatbelt.mpg

Slide 19

Yellow Book Resultant Force – Page 66 Q46, 47, 48, 49

Slide 20

Newtons Second Law Newtons second law states: an object acted upon by a constant unbalanced force, moves with constant acceleration in the direction of the unbalanced force. This law relates the unbalanced force, mass and acceleration. x ÷ F m a

Slide 21

QuantityUnit Unbalanced Force ( F ) Mass ( m ) Acceleration ( a ) Newtons ( N ) Kilograms ( kg ) Metres per second per second ( ms -2 ) Example 1 Calculate the acceleration of the following 3 kg mass. 3 kg 14 N 2 N

Slide 22

Example 2 The engine of a car exerts a force of 1,700 N, causing the car to accelerate at 1.5 ms -2. The frictional force is 800 N. Calculate the mass of the car. 1,700 N 800 N

Slide 23

Yellow Book Newtons Second Law – Pages 66 - 69 Q50, 51, 55 (a) (b), 57, 61, 63*