Halloween pets?. Student Assessment of Learning Gains (SALG) website.

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DNASignalGeneNUCLEUSChromatin modificationChromatinGene availablefor transcriptionExonIntronTailRNACapRNA processingPrimary transcriptmRNA in nucleusTransport to cytoplasmCYTOPLASMTranscriptionGene ExpressionmRNA in cytoplasmTranslationCYTOPLASMDegradationof mRNAProtein processingPolypeptideActive proteinCellular functionTransport to cellulardestinationDegradationof proteinTranscription3123PromoterTATA boxDNA strand535Transcriptionfactors5533RNA polymerase55533RNA transcriptTranscription initiation complexINITIATIONPromoterTranscription unitDNAStart pointRNA polymerase5533PromoterTranscription unitDNAStart pointRNA polymerase5533Initiation331RNAtranscript5 5UnwoundDNATemplate strandof DNAPromoterTranscription unitDNAStart pointRNA polymerase5533Initiation331RNAtranscript5 5UnwoundDNATemplate strandof DNA2ElongationRewoundDNA5 5 5 333RNAtranscriptPromoterTranscription unitDNAStart pointRNA polymerase5533Initiation331RNAtranscript5 5UnwoundDNATemplate strandof DNA2ElongationRewoundDNA5 5 5 333RNAtranscript3Termination5 5 5 333Completed RNA transcriptElongationRNApolymeraseNontemplatestrand of DNARNA nucleotides3 endDirection oftranscription(downstream)Templatestrand of DNANewly madeRNA3551. Add the Poly-AAAAAA tail and GTP Cap (UTR = untranslated region)NEXT?: After done making long hnRNA, what next?hn-RNAmRNACodingsegmentIntrons cut out andexons spliced together5 CapExon1Intron513040100Exon2Intron120Exon31463Poly-A tailPoly-A tail5 Cap5 UTR3 UTR11462. (Eukaryotes) Remove IntronsAlso Alternative Splicing can occurSPLICINGRNA transcript (hnRNA)Exon 1Exon 2IntronProteinsnRNAsnRNPsOtherproteins5RNA transcript (hnRNA)Exon 1Exon 2IntronProteinsnRNAsnRNPsOtherproteins55SpliceosomeRNA transcript (hnRNA)Exon 1Exon 2IntronProteinsnRNAsnRNPsOtherproteins55SpliceosomeSpliceosomecomponentsCut-outIntron (lariat)mRNAExon 1Exon 25The RNA Tie Club was right!RNA transcript (pre-mRNA)Exon 1Exon 2IntronProteinsnRNAsnRNPsOtherproteins55SpliceosomesnRNA ->Amino acidattachment site(a) Two-dimensional structureHydrogenbondsAnticodon35tRNA ->RibosomemRNASignalpeptideSignal-recognitionparticle (SRP)CYTOSOLTranslocationcomplexSRPreceptorproteinER LUMENSignalpeptideremovedERmembraneProteinInsulin!SRP-RNArRNA in ribosomesGFP = Green Florescent Protein (from Jelly fish)EnhancerTATAboxPromoterActivatorsDNAGeneDistal controlelementStudying PromotersGFPEnhancerTATAboxPromoterActivatorsDNAGeneDistal controlelementGroup ofmediator proteinsDNA-bendingproteinGeneraltranscriptionfactorsStudying PromotersGFPEnhancerTATAboxPromoterActivatorsDNAGeneDistal controlelementGroup ofmediator proteinsDNA-bendingproteinGeneraltranscriptionfactorsRNApolymerase IIRNApolymerase IITranscriptioninitiation complexRNA synthesisGFPGFPStudying PromotersControlelementsEnhancerAvailableactivatorsAlbumin gene(b) Lens cellCrystallin geneexpressedAvailableactivatorsLENS CELLNUCLEUSLIVER CELLNUCLEUSCrystallin genePromoter(a) Liver cellCrystallin genenot expressedAlbumin geneexpressedAlbumin genenot expressedGFP (blue)GFP (red)blue!red!Brainbow GFP= Nobel Prize 2008Martin Chalfie, Roger Tsien and Osamu Shimomura TRANSCRIPTIONRNA PROCESSINGDNARNAtranscript35RNApolymerasePoly-APoly-ARNA transcript(pre-mRNA)IntronExonNUCLEUSAminoacyl-tRNAsynthetaseAMINO ACID ACTIVATIONAminoacidtRNACYTOPLASMPoly-AGrowingpolypeptide3Activatedamino acidmRNATRANSLATIONCapRibosomalsubunitsCap5EPAAAnticodonRibosomeCodonEA gallery of GFP images. {Photo credits by columns left to right: C. elegans (John Kratz, Columbia University), Drosophila (Ansgar Klebes, Freie Universitaet, Berlin), Alba the GFP bunny (Eduardo Kac), canola [Matthew Halfhill (St. Ambrose University, Davenport, IA) and Harold Richards, Reginald Millwood, and Charles Stewart, Jr. (University of Tennessee, Nashville)], mice (Ralph Brinster, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia), zebrafish (Brant Weinstein, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda), cultured HeLa cells (Jerry Kaplan and Michael Vaughn, University of Utah, Salt Lake City), Drosophila embryonic cells (Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, National Institutes of Health), Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl cells (David Ehrhardt, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA), and mouse Purkinje cell (National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research, University of California, San Diego).}A gallery of GFP images. {Photo credits by columns left to right: C. elegans (John Kratz, Columbia University), Drosophila (Ansgar Klebes, Freie Universitaet, Berlin), Alba the GFP bunny (Eduardo Kac), canola [Matthew Halfhill (St. Ambrose University, Davenport, IA) and Harold Richards, Reginald Millwood, and Charles Stewart, Jr. (University of Tennessee, Nashville)], mice (Ralph Brinster, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia), zebrafish (Brant Weinstein, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda), cultured HeLa cells (Jerry Kaplan and Michael Vaughn, University of Utah, Salt Lake City), Drosophila embryonic cells (Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, National Institutes of Health), Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl cells (David Ehrhardt, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA), and mouse Purkinje cell (National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research, University of California, San Diego).}

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