• 1. Good Practice Note:Applying Human Factors to Procedure Writing: Part A, Action Steps -General1. Use simple command statements. a. Begin the sentence with an action verb (highlighted) followed by the direct objectof the action (usually the equipment name). Active statements usually areclearer and more succinct. Placing the highlighted verb first directs attention tothe key word and increases comprehension and retention (short term memory). EXAMPLE:Preferred:START “A” Booster Pump.Instead of: The Booster Pump must be started. b. Omit the subject “you” in the sentence; it is implied. Recommended practice isto write procedures for a specific job position, such as “Operator”, “A-SideOperator”, or “Senior Operator”, who is the “primary actor” performing theoverall task that is the subject of the procedure. (See Item 3 below for teamperformance.) c. Omit unnecessary articles (a, an, the). d. Add objectives and location information as necessary to convey the appropriateinstructions.2. In team performance, identify the person who is to take the action. a. If an input is required from someone other than the primary actor, identify thatperson by the position, e.g. “A-Side Operator”, “Outside Operator”, “Controller”.EXAMPLE:Preferred:OBTAIN Lead Controller’s permission to bypass an alarm.Instead of: You need permission from the lead controller to bypass an alarm. b. If someone other than the primary actor is to perform the step, identify thatperson by position title.EXAMPLE:Preferred:NOTIFY B Operator to sample T-354.Instead of: The B Operator shall sample T-354.
  • 2. 3. Limit the number of actions per step. a. In most cases, use one action statement per step. A small number of closelyrelated actions can be put in one step, but use the “standard” form.EXAMPLE: OPEN Discharge Valve. VERIFY flow increases. b. Do not place hidden action instructions in a step.EXAMPLEPreferred: START Compressor. ENSURE Discharge Valve Opens.Instead of:START Compressor. The discharge valve should open. If it doesn’t open, stop compressor and report to supervisor4. When there are multiple objects for a single action verb list each object vertically. Use bullets as appropriate.EXAMPLE:Preferred: OPEN breakers for the following valves: •MO-10-5A at E-124-R-C •MO-10-5B at E-224-R-B •MO-10-5C at E-324-R-B •MO-10-5D at E-424-W-AInstead of:OPEN breakers for MO-10-5A at E-124-R-C, MO-10-5-B at E-224- R-B, MO-10-5C at E-324-R-B, and MO-10-5D at E-424-W-A. If the list is long, leave a vertical space every four or five items to aid place-keeping. For a very long list, consider using a table or a separate checklist.5. Use positive rather than negative forms whenever possible.EXAMPLE:Preferred: IF the Inlet valves are OPEN, GO TO Step 23.
  • 3. Instead of: DO NOT proceed to Step 23 unless Inlet Valves are open.6. Add useful information appropriate for the experience/knowledge level of the user, but don’t overdo it. a. Do not state the expected results of tasks that are so routine or obvious as to bealmost trivial. Clearly, this requires judgment on what is “trivial” and what isuseful as an aid to a qualified operator. A rule of thumb is to target the materialfor the least experienced (fully qualified) operator. EXAMPLE:Preferred:START Line A primary pump.VERIFY discharge pressure 60 to 90 psig.Instead of: START the Line A primary pump.VERIFY green “Pump On” light is lit.VERIFY discharge pressure 60 to 90 psig. b. When actions are required based on receipt of an annunciated alarm, list thealarm setpoint for ease of verification.EXAMPLEIF “High Outlet Temperature” alarm sounds (Setpoint = 720°F)REDUCE inlet flow to 250 gpm.AND VERIFY auxiliary cooling system has auto-started. c. Where it would be help the user, identify expected system behavior, time forresponse, etc., a note preceding the action step. Don’t overuse notes; aprocedure is a user aid to guide action, not a training document.EXAMPLE:NOTE: There is a time delay of approximately 1-1/2 minutes before BoosterPump Discharge Valve begins to open.START “B” Booster Pump,”AND VERIFY discharge valve is open.
  • 4. d. If the expected system response may adversely affect instrument indications, use a note to describe the conditions that may cause instrument error.EXAMPLE:NOTE: The actions of the following step may cause temperature drop in the product. This will result in inaccurate flow indications.e. If additional confirmation of system response is necessary, state the backup readings to be taken.EXAMPLE:IF Inlet Temperature ≤600°F,VERIFY Outlet Temperature > 450°F,AND VERIFY Inlet Flow Rate ≥ 200 gpm.
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    Hf procedure writing part a

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    • 1. Good Practice Note:Applying Human Factors to Procedure Writing: Part A, Action Steps -General1. Use simple command statements. a. Begin the sentence with an action verb (highlighted) followed by the direct objectof the action (usually the equipment name). Active statements usually areclearer and more succinct. Placing the highlighted verb first directs attention tothe key word and increases comprehension and retention (short term memory). EXAMPLE:Preferred:START “A” Booster Pump.Instead of: The Booster Pump must be started. b. Omit the subject “you” in the sentence; it is implied. Recommended practice isto write procedures for a specific job position, such as “Operator”, “A-SideOperator”, or “Senior Operator”, who is the “primary actor” performing theoverall task that is the subject of the procedure. (See Item 3 below for teamperformance.) c. Omit unnecessary articles (a, an, the). d. Add objectives and location information as necessary to convey the appropriateinstructions.2. In team performance, identify the person who is to take the action. a. If an input is required from someone other than the primary actor, identify thatperson by the position, e.g. “A-Side Operator”, “Outside Operator”, “Controller”.EXAMPLE:Preferred:OBTAIN Lead Controller’s permission to bypass an alarm.Instead of: You need permission from the lead controller to bypass an alarm. b. If someone other than the primary actor is to perform the step, identify thatperson by position title.EXAMPLE:Preferred:NOTIFY B Operator to sample T-354.Instead of: The B Operator shall sample T-354.
  • 2. 3. Limit the number of actions per step. a. In most cases, use one action statement per step. A small number of closelyrelated actions can be put in one step, but use the “standard” form.EXAMPLE: OPEN Discharge Valve. VERIFY flow increases. b. Do not place hidden action instructions in a step.EXAMPLEPreferred: START Compressor. ENSURE Discharge Valve Opens.Instead of:START Compressor. The discharge valve should open. If it doesn’t open, stop compressor and report to supervisor4. When there are multiple objects for a single action verb list each object vertically. Use bullets as appropriate.EXAMPLE:Preferred: OPEN breakers for the following valves: •MO-10-5A at E-124-R-C •MO-10-5B at E-224-R-B •MO-10-5C at E-324-R-B •MO-10-5D at E-424-W-AInstead of:OPEN breakers for MO-10-5A at E-124-R-C, MO-10-5-B at E-224- R-B, MO-10-5C at E-324-R-B, and MO-10-5D at E-424-W-A. If the list is long, leave a vertical space every four or five items to aid place-keeping. For a very long list, consider using a table or a separate checklist.5. Use positive rather than negative forms whenever possible.EXAMPLE:Preferred: IF the Inlet valves are OPEN, GO TO Step 23.
  • 3. Instead of: DO NOT proceed to Step 23 unless Inlet Valves are open.6. Add useful information appropriate for the experience/knowledge level of the user, but don’t overdo it. a. Do not state the expected results of tasks that are so routine or obvious as to bealmost trivial. Clearly, this requires judgment on what is “trivial” and what isuseful as an aid to a qualified operator. A rule of thumb is to target the materialfor the least experienced (fully qualified) operator. EXAMPLE:Preferred:START Line A primary pump.VERIFY discharge pressure 60 to 90 psig.Instead of: START the Line A primary pump.VERIFY green “Pump On” light is lit.VERIFY discharge pressure 60 to 90 psig. b. When actions are required based on receipt of an annunciated alarm, list thealarm setpoint for ease of verification.EXAMPLEIF “High Outlet Temperature” alarm sounds (Setpoint = 720°F)REDUCE inlet flow to 250 gpm.AND VERIFY auxiliary cooling system has auto-started. c. Where it would be help the user, identify expected system behavior, time forresponse, etc., a note preceding the action step. Don’t overuse notes; aprocedure is a user aid to guide action, not a training document.EXAMPLE:NOTE: There is a time delay of approximately 1-1/2 minutes before BoosterPump Discharge Valve begins to open.START “B” Booster Pump,”AND VERIFY discharge valve is open.
  • 4. d. If the expected system response may adversely affect instrument indications, use a note to describe the conditions that may cause instrument error.EXAMPLE:NOTE: The actions of the following step may cause temperature drop in the product. This will result in inaccurate flow indications.e. If additional confirmation of system response is necessary, state the backup readings to be taken.EXAMPLE:IF Inlet Temperature ≤600°F,VERIFY Outlet Temperature > 450°F,AND VERIFY Inlet Flow Rate ≥ 200 gpm.
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