IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEAKING STUDENTSO SPEAKING ABILITY BY USING ROLE PLAY ... speaking in order to motivate students in learning English Speaking. iv

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IMPROVING STUDENTS SPEAKING ABILITY BY USING ROLE PLAY (A Classroom Action Research at VII Grade of SMPN 251 Jakarta). A Skripsi Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training in a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Strata 1 (S.Pd) in English Language Education By: NURINA PERMATA SARI 106014000418 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS TRAINING SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY JAKARTA 2011 IFiIMPROVING STUDENTS' SPEAKING ABILITYBY USING ROLE PLAY(A Classroom Action Research at VII Grade of SMPN 251 Jakarta-Timur)A "Skripsi"Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher's Training in a PartialFulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Strata 1 (Bachelor of Art) inEnglish Language EducationBy:Nurina Permata SariNIM: 106014000418Approved byAdvisorDEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATIONFACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS' TRAINII\GSYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITYJAKARTA20llENDORSEMENT SHEETThe Examination Committee of the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers' Trainingcertifies that the Paper entitled, "Improving Students' Speaking Ability byUsing Role Playo'(A ClussroomAction Research at WI Grude of SMPN 251Jakarta-Timur) writtenby Nurina Permata Sari, student's registration number :106014000418, was examined by the committee on27 Juni 2011, and wasdeclared to have passed and, therefore, fulfilled one of the requirements for theacademic title of S.Pd. (Bachelor of Arts) in English Language Education at TheDepartment of English Education.Jakarta,2T Juni2}llEXAMINATION COMMITTEECHAIRMAN :SECRETARY :EXAMINERS :Drs. Syauki M.Pd.NrP. 19641212199103 r 002Neneng Sunengsih" S.Pd.NrP. 1973062s 199903 2 00r1. Dr. Atiq Susilo" MANIP. 19491122 197803 | 00r2. Dr. M. Farkhan. M.PdNrP. 19650919 200003 r 002Acknowledged bY:Dean of Tarbiyah and Teachers' Training FacultyKEMENTERIAN AGAMAUNIVERSITAS ISLAM NEGERI (UIN)SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTAFAKULTAS ILMU TARBIYAH DAN KEGURUANslimrf r;r:;i;r ;i;;i ;1.#rlrJl. Ir . H. HuandaNo.95Ciputat 15142Telp: ( 62-21) 7443328,7401925Email: uinikt(?cabi.net.idKepada Yth.Neneng Sunengsih, S.PdDi TempatJakarta,2S Juni 2011Saya yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini:Nama : Nurina Permata SariNIM : 106014000418Fakultas/Jurusan: Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan/Pendidikan Bahasa InggrisBermaksud merubah judul skripsi saya yang pada awalnya berjudul:DEVELOPING STUDENTS' SPEAKING ABILITY BY USING ROLEPLAY (Classroom Action Research at VII Grade of SMPN 251 Jakarta-Timur)Karena terdapat suatu permasalahan pada judul tersebut, maka saya merubah judulsaya menjadi:IMPROVING STUDENTSO SPEAKING ABILITY BY USING ROLE PLAY(Classroom Action Research at at VII Grade of SMPN 251 Jakarta-Timur)Mengetahui,asibuan, M.Ed.KEMENTERIAN AGAMAUNIVERSITAS ISLAM NEGERI (UIN)SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTAFAKULTAS ILMU TARBIYAH DAN KEGURUAN&y hV.lF rll*ilil ttt tt. t. A,t4 3 '{AAI kJl. Ir. H. Huanda No. 95Cioutat 15142T elp : ( 62-2r) 7 443328, 7 40 1925Email : uin ikt(ilabi.ryLjdNamaTempatiTanggal lahirNIM/ AngkatanProgram StudiJudul SkripsiSURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRISaya yang bertanda tangan dibawah ini:Dosen PembimbinsNurina Permata SariDenpasar, 6 April 19881060140004181 2006Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris6olmproving Studentsn Speaking Ability byUsing Role Play" (A Classroom Action Researchat VII Grade of SMPN 251 Jakarta-Timur)Drs. H. Bahrul Hasibuan. M. EdMenerangkan dengan sungguh- sungguh bahwa:1. Skripsi yang segera diujikan ini adalah benar-benar hasil penelitian sendiri(bukan barang j ipl akan/ plagiat)2. Apabila dikemudian hari terbuktil dapat dibuktikan skripsi ini hasiljiplakan/ plagiat, maka saya akan menanggung resiko diperkarakan olehFakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan UIN Syarif HidayatullahJakarta.Jakarta, 7 Juni20IIi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Praised be to Allah, Lord of the worlds, who has given the writer His love and compassion to finish the last assignment in her study. Peace and salutation be upon to the prophet Muhammad SAW, his family, his companion, and his adherence. This paper is written to fulfill one of the requirements to obtain the sarjana degree at the English Department of Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training, State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. First of all, the writer would like to express her gratitude to her honorable advisor; Drs. H. Bahrul Hasibuan, M.Ed who always gives advices, pray, motivation and his time to finish this paper, hopefully Allah always bless him with his family, he is always healthy and May Allah grant all of his wishes. Besides, the writer would also deliver special thanks to: 1. All lecturers in the English Department, for teaching precious knowledge, sharing Philosophy of like and for giving wonderful study experience. 2. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd. and Neneng Sunengsih, M.Pd. as Head and Secretary of the English Department. 3. Prof. DR. Dede Rosyada, MA. As the Dean of Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training. 4. Drs. Nasrun Mahmud M.Pd. who accept my paper title. 5. Her best gratitude to her beloved father, Mr. Dudung.Bsc and her Great Mother Mrs. I.Surtika Wati, and her beloved brother&sister Imam & Linda, who always prayed, give supports, motivations and moral encouragements to finish this research paper. Thanks on your motivation and love. She is nothing without you. 6. Mrs. Pudji Rahayu, M. Pd as the headmaster of SMPN 251 Jakarta Timur who has allowed the writer to conduct this research in SMPN 251 Jakarta Timur, and All teachers and administration staffs of SMPN 251 Jakarta Timur who have helped and supported the writer in finishing this research. ii 7. Mrs. Nurminda, S. Pd, the English teacher of SMPN 251 Jakarta Timur who has given her ideas and times and also has guided, advised, and supported the writer in the process of doing this research. 8. Her big family who survive together. 9. Mr.Nana Suryana and his wife who always give supports. 10. Her close friend, Mardani who had prayed and motivated her, thank you for your help and your patient. 11. For all my friends in the English Department academic year 2006 of C class especially Nci, Riri, Mumut, Nia, and other friends especially lutfiyah, ando, syfa, etc who help finished my skripsi. thanks for giving more spirit. 12. Last, but not least thank to all the writers friends in Cijantung, Ciputat, and Tasikmalaya, and the writers teachers whom the writer cannot write all their names. The writer does realize that this skripsi cannot be considered perfect without critiques and suggestions. Therefore, it is such a pleasure for her to get critiques and suggestions to make this skripsi better. Hopefully, this skripsi can give usefulness for the development of English teaching-learning. Jakarta, June 7th 2011 The Writer iii ABSTRACT Nurina P.S, 2011. Improving Students Speaking Ability by Using Role Play (A Classroom Action Reserach at the first Grade students of SMPN 251 Jakarta Timur), Skripsi, English Education Department, the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta. Advisor: Drs. H. Bahrul Hasibuan, M. Ed Key words: Speaking, Role Play Technique This study is conducted in order to develop students speaking ability at first grade students of SMPN 251 Jakarta-Timur through role play activities. This study is related to the result of a preliminary study showed that the students were still poor in English speaking skill; especially in giving interpersonal response. This study used a Classroom Action Research (CAR) which is conducted to solve the students problem in English Speaking. The Classroom Action Research (CAR) was done based on Kurt Lewins design. The writer did two cycles in which each cycle consists of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The data were gathered through qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data were gained by analyzing the interview and observation result. Then, quantitative data were obtained from the students speaking score of pretest and posttest and questionnaire. The finding of this study indicated that the implementation of role play technique was successful since the criteria of success were achieved. The first criterion was 75% of students could pass the target score 65 based on the KKM. The finding showed that 84.21% of students had already achieved the target score. Besides, the second criterion was the students who become more active involved in teaching learning process. The result of observation, interview and questionnaire showed that by using role play technique students were active involved in the classroom. Based on the finding mentioned before, the writer suggests that the English teacher could implement Role play technique in teaching speaking in order to motivate students in learning English Speaking. iv ABSTRAK Nurina P.S, 2011. Improving Students Speaking Ability by Using Role Play (A Classroom Action Reserach at the first Grade students of SMPN 251 Jakarta Timur), Skripsi, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. Advisor: Drs. H. Bahrul Hasibuan, M. Ed Key words: Speaking, Role Play Technique Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara pada siswa kelas VII SMPN 251 Jakarta-Timur dengan menggunakan tehknik role play. Penelitan ini diadakan berhubungan dengan adanya masalah yang mana siswa memiliki kemampuan yang kurang dalam berbicara menggunakan bahasa Inggris; terutama dalam memberikan respon. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian tindak kelas (PTK) yang bertujuan untuk memecahkan masalah pada kemampuan siswa dalam berbicara menggunakan bahasa Inggris. Penelitian tindakan kelas ini menggunakan model Kurt Lewin. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam 2 siklus dimana setiap siklus terdiri dari tahap perencanaan, tindakan, observasi, dan refleksi. Dalam mendapatkan data, penulis menggunakan metode kualitatif and kuantitatif. Data kualitatif didapatkan melalui observasi dan interview, sedangkan data kuantitatif didapatkan melalui tes (pre tes dan pos tes) dan kuesioner. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa penerapan tekhnik role play telah sukses, sejak kriteria sukses tercapai. Kriteria pertama adalah 75% siswa mencapai target nilai 65 yang berdasarkan KKM. Hasil dari penelitian menunjukan bahwa 84.21% siswa telah mencapai target nilai KKM. Di samping itu kriteria yang ke dua adalah siswa menjadi lebih aktif pada saat proses belajar mengajar, maka dari hasil observasi, interview, dan questioner menunjukan bahwa dengan menggunakan tekhnik role play, siswa menjadi lebih aktif dalam proses belajar mengajar. Berdasarkan hasil dari penelitian tersebut, penulis menganjurkan kepada guru untuk menggunakan tehknik role play dalam pengajaran Speaking agar siswa lebih termotivasi dalam belajar English Speaking. v TABLE OF CONTENTS SURAT PERNYATAAN ENDORSEMENT SHEET ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................. i ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................ iii ABSTRAK ......................................................................................................... iv TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................... v LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................................. viii LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................ ix LIST OF APPENDICES ..................................................................................... x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. The Background of Research .......................................... 1 B. The Limitation and formulation of the Problems ............ 4 C. The Objective of Research .............................................. 4 D. The Significance of Research.......................................... 4 E. The Method of Research ................................................. 4 CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. Speaking .......................................................................... 6 1. The Understanding of Speaking ................................ 6 2. The Functions of Speaking........................................ 7 3. Classroom Speaking Activities ................................. 11 B. Role Play ......................................................................... 13 1. The Understanding of Role Play ............................... 13 2. The Objective of Role play ....................................... 14 3. The Advantages of Role play .................................... 15 4. The Disadvantages of Role play ............................... 16 5. The Type of Role play Technique ............................. 17 vi C. Teaching Speaking by Using Role Play ......................... 17 1. Scripted Role Play ..................................................... 17 2. Unscripted Role Play................................................. 18 D. Classroom Action Research ............................................ 19 1. The Understanding of Classroom Action Research .... 19 2. Design of Action Research.......................................... 19 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. Time and Place of Research ............................................ 22 B. Subject of Research ......................................................... 22 C. Role of the Researcher in CAR ....................................... 22 D. The Research Design....................................................... 23 E. The Classroom Action Research Procedures .................. 25 F. Technique of Collecting Data. ........................................ 26 G. Technique of Data Analysis. ........................................... 29 H. Criteria of the Action Success. ........................................ 30 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS A. The Result of Pre Implementation of the Action .............. 31 1. The Result of Interview .............................................. 31 2. The Result of Observation .......................................... 32 3. The Result of Questionnaire ....................................... 32 4. The Result of Pre Test ................................................ 33 B. The Implementation of the Action .................................. 36 1. Cycle 1 ........................................................................ 36 a. Planning .................................................................. 36 b. Acting ..................................................................... 36 c. Observing ................................................................ 38 d. Reflecting................................................................ 39 2. Cycle 2 ....................................................................... 40 a. Planning .................................................................. 40 vii b. Acting ..................................................................... 40 c. Observing ................................................................ 43 d. Reflecting................................................................ 43 C. The Result of Post Implementation of the Action ............. 44 1. The Result of Post Test I ............................................ 44 2. The Result of Post Test II ........................................... 47 3. The Result of Questionnaire ....................................... 51 4. The Result of Interview .............................................. 52 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion ......................................................................... 53 B. Suggestion ......................................................................... 54 REFERENCES ................................................................................................... 55 APPENDICES .................................................................................................... 57 viii LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 The Rating Score of Oral Test .............................................................. 27 Table 4.1 The Students Speaking Score of Pre-Test ........................................... 34 Table 4.2 Schedule of the Research ...................................................................... 44 Table 4.3 Students 1st Post Test Score ................................................................. 45 Table 4.4 Students 2nd Post Test Score ................................................................ 47 ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 Kurt Lewins Action Research Model ............................................... 21 Figure 3.1 Kurt Lewins Action Research Design. ............................................... 23 Figure 3.2 The Phase of Classroom Action Research ........................................... 24 Figure 4.2 Students Score Mean Improvement ................................................... 49 Figure 4.3 Students Score class percentage who passed KKM ........................... 50 x LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix 1 The Rating Score of Oral Test ....................................................... 57 Appendix 2 Standar Kopetensi dan Kopetensi Dasar ........................................ 59 Appendix 3 Instrument Of Pre-Test, Post-Test1&2 .......................................... 60 Appendix 4 Students Score .............................................................................. 62 Appendix 5 The Graph Improvment Of Students Score .................................. 63 Appendix 6 Interview Before CAR ................................................................... 65 Appendix 7 Interview After CAR ...................................................................... 67 Appendix 8 Observational Notes ....................................................................... 69 Appendix 9 Instrument of Questioner ............................................................... 74 Appendix 10 The Result of Questioner ............................................................... 75 Appendix 11 Lesson Plan (RPP) ......................................................................... 77 Appendix 12 Students Documentation ................................................................ 97 Appendix 13 students Work .............................................................................. 98 Appendix 14 Surat-Surat ..................................................................................... 99 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. The Background of Research For many years, English has been considered as an international language. Almost all the people from many different countries around the world use it to communicate. The area of English has always become a special interest. Its because of the importance of English in any scope of our lives. Julian Edge expresses Since British trade, followed by colonial and imperial expansion, English spread around the world. Then the military and economic dominance of the United States of America has confirmed English as the international language of present historical period. As a consequence, English serves for many people as a bridge into the worlds of higher education, science, international trade, politics, tourism, or any other venture which interest them. At the same time, English serve for many times many more people as a barrier between themselves and those some fields of interest. Many people in their own countries will not be able to become doctors, for example if they cannot learn enough English.1 Today, the first international language is English, and in this globalization era, millions of people want to improve their English speaking or to ensure that their children achieve good English speaking. Its because English speaking is one of the ways to communicate. 1 Julian Edge, Essential of English Language Teaching, (New York: Longman,1993), p. 25 2 Communication is an essential need for human being. Language as a means of communication has an important role to reveal an intention to someone else. Since language is a means of communication, it is not enough for students to learn words, phrases and grammatical features if they want to produce language in their daily communication or to interact with others in English. Therefore, the most important thing that should be noticed in teaching speaking is how to activate all of language elements, such as vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation, which students have possessed to communicate, since the main function of language is a means of communication. It means that the goal for students learning English speaking is that they are able to use language to communicate effectively and appropriately for all lifes requirements, both social and academic. 2 The students have to be able to express their thoughts, ideas, and feelings orally in English without thinking for a long time before saying what they wish to say. There are four skills in teaching and learning a language: listening, speaking, reading, and writing, but out of the four skills, speaking seems intuitively the most important3. Jack C. Richards and Willy A. Renandya also wrote in their book that speaking is one of the central elements of communication. In EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teaching, it is an aspect that needs special attention and instruction.4 Based on the writers observation at the VII grade of 251 State Junior High School, during the Integrated Pre Servise Teaching Profession Practice-Praktik Propesi Keguruan Terpadu (PPKT) the writer found that the students are poor in English speaking skill. When they speak English, they take so much time thinking what they are going to say, some of them did not say anything. Many factors can cause the problem of the students speaking skills, among others the students interest, the material, the media, and technique in teaching English. In 2 Teresa Walter, Teaching English Language Learners, (New York: Pearson Education, 2004), p. 16. 3 Penny Ur, A Course in Language Teaching, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 120. 4 Jack C. Richard and Willy A, Renandya, Methodology in Language Teaching: an anthology of current practice, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), p. 210. 3 SMPN 251 the teacher teaches the students traditionally. The teacher asks the students to perform that dialogue in front of class without asking them to develop a more communicative dialogue using their own way. So, they only memorize the dialogue and most of the students do not know how to use some expressions taught by their teacher in a real communication. This strategy cannot help the students to use language as means of communication. The writer considers that it is necessary to find out an alternative way to create suitable and interesting techniques to students condition. They need any practices to assist them in developing their speaking ability. Many techniques can be applied including role play because it encourages the students to be actively participating in teaching learning process. This techique also gives students an opportunity to practice communicating in different social contexts and in different social roles. Gillian Porter Ladousse states that: A very wide variety of experience can be brought into the classroom through role play. The range of function and structures, and the areas of vocabulary that can be introduced, go far beyond the limits of other pair or group activities, such as conversation, communication games, or humanistic exercises. Through role play we can train the students in speaking skills in any situation. 5 Moreover, as Penny Ur emphasizes role play is used to refer to all sort of activities where learners imagine themselves in a situation outside the classroom6. It is expected that role play can help some shy students to be active and enjoy their roles acting in speaking English. Based on the statement above, the writer assumed that role play seem to be good alternative way for teaching English in SMPN 251. Because this technique can make students active in teaching learning process, it also allows students to be creative and to put themselves in another persons place for a while. In addition this technique gives students opportunity to speak in the target language for an 5 Gillian Porter Ladousse, Role Play: Resources Books for Teacher Series, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 6 6 Penny Ur, A Course in Language Teaching, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 131. 4 extended period of time and students might naturally produce more speech than they would otherwise. So, in presenting this paper the writer decided to apply role play in teaching speaking and want to measure the success of using role play in the speaking class. Therefore the writer would like to takes a research under the title: Improving Students Speaking Ability by Using Role Play (Classroom Action Research at First Grade of SMPN 251 Jakarta). B. The Limitation and formulation of the Problems The problem that will be discussed is limited only on the using of role play activity to develop the students speaking ability in giving interpersonal response at VII grade students of SMPN 251 Jakarta-Timur in the 2010/2011 academic year. Based on limitation of problem mentioned above, the problem of the research can be formulated as follows; can role play develop students speaking ability? C. The Objective of Research This Research is conducted in order to develop students speaking ability at first grade students of SMPN 251 Jakarta-Timur through role play activities. D. The Significance of Research The results of this research is expected to be useful for the English teacher of SMPN 251 Jakarta Timur especially in teaching speaking teacher can manage classroom activities communicatively by using role play activities. For students themselves, it can motivate them to try to speak English as often as possible, so that they can improve their ability in speaking skill. E. The Method of Research This research will be done by using Classroom Action Research method. According to McNiff, Classroom Action Research is a reflective research which 5 conducted by the teachers to develop their teaching skill.7 In addition Wijaya Kusumah stated that classroom action research is a research which is conducted by the teachers in their class with three ways, first is planning, second is acting, and third is reflecting which has the aim to develop teachers teaching skill and to improve students score. 8 It can be seen that Classroom Action Research is to solve teachers problem in learning. 7 Wijaya Kusumah and Dedi Dwitagama, Mengenal Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, (Jakarta Barat: PT. Indeks, 2009), p. 8. 8 Wijaya Kusumah and Dedi Dwitagama, Mengenal Penelitian Tindakan Kelas p. 9. 6 CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. SPEAKING 1. The understanding of speaking Speaking is significant to an individuals living processes and experiences as are the ability of seeing and walking. Speaking is also the most natural way to communicate. Without speaking, people must remain in almost total isolation from any kind of society. For most people, the ability to speak a language is the same with knowing a language since the speech is the most basic means of human communication. When we speak, a great deal more than just mouth is involved such as nose, pharynx, epiglottis, trachea, lungs and more. But, acording to Sandra Cornbleet and Ronald Carter, speaking is not just making sound. Birds, animals, babies make sound and though it may be communication of sorts, it is not speaking.1 The word speaking has many different meanings on linguistics views. Acording to Jo McDonough and Christopher Shaw speaking is not the oral production of written languge, but includes learners in the mastery of a wide range sub skill which added together, then it supports speaking skill.2 In addition, speaking is not produced without some combination of language skill, but it must be included a number of skills. So, mastering speaking is gathering skill in 1 Sandra Cornbleet and Ronald Carter , The Language of Speech and Writing, (London:Routledge Publisher, 2001), p.17 2 Jo McDonough and Christopher Shaw, Materials and Methods in ELT: Second Edition A Teachers Guide, (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003), p. 133 7 thought because of including some input skills in it. As the result, the mouth is delivering those skills orally. In addition, Oxford Advance Dictionary states that "speaking is to make use of language in an ordinary, not singing, to state view, wishes etc or an act of spokesman.3 Another expert states that speaking is the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts.4 From the statement above, it can be inferred that speaking is expressing ideas, opinions, or feelings to others by using words or sounds of articulation in order to inform, to persuade, and to entertain that can be learnt by using some teaching learning methodologies. Speaking also is the important instrument of communication. People use it almost constantly. As human beings, especially as social creature we have a need to make meaning of our surroundings. We have a need to express our thoughts, opinions, or feelings in order to be accepted in social life. Speaking does not only make sound by the speech organs but ideas and emotions. 2. The functions of speaking Several language experts have attempted to categorize the functions of speaking in human interaction. According to Brown and Yule, as quoted by Jack C. Richards, The functions of speaking are classified into three; talk as interaction, talk as transaction and talk as performance. Each of these speech activities is quite distinct in term of form and function and requires different teaching approaches5. Below are the explanations of the functions of speaking: 3 AS Hornby, Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, Sixth Edition, 1987) p.827 4 Hayriye Kayi , Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language. (Nevada: University of Nevada), Internet TESL Journal, Vol. XII, No. 11, November 2006, p. 1. From: http://iteslj.org/ http://iteslj.org/Articles/Kayi-Teaching Speaking.html. 5 Jack C.Richard, Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to Practice, Http://www.professorjackrichard.com/developing-classoom-speaking-activities.pdf, p.2, It was retrieved on 04 Oktober 2010 8 a. Talk as Interaction Being able to interact in a language is essential. In fact, much of our daily communication remains interactional. This refers to what we normally mean by conversation. The primary intention in talk as interaction is to maintain social relationship. Meanwhile, talk as interaction has several main features as follows: Has a primarily social function Reflects role relationships Reflects speakers identity May be formal or casual Uses conversational conventions Reflects degrees of politeness Employs many generic words Uses conversational register Some of the skills (involved in using talk as interaction) are: Opening and closing conversation Choosing topics Making small-talk Recounting personal incidents and experiences Turn-taking Using adjacency pairs Interrupting Reacting to others6 Mastering the art of talk as interaction is difficult and may not be a priority for all learners. In talk as interaction, the ability to speak in natural way is required in order to create a good communication. That is why some students sometimes avoid this kind of situation because they often lose for words and feel 6 Jack C.Richard, Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to Practice, Http://www.professorjackrichard.com/developing-classoom-speaking-activities.pdf, p.2, It was retrieved on 04 Oktober 2010, p. 2-3 9 difficulty in presenting a good image of themselves. This can be a disadvantage for some learners where the ability to use talk as interaction can be important. b. Talk as Transaction This type of talk or speaking refers to situations where the focus is on what is said or done. The message is the central focus here and making oneself understood clearly and accurately, rather than the participants and how they interact socially with each other7. In transaction, talk is associated with other activities. For example, student may be engaged in hand-on activities (e.g. in language lesson) to explore concept associated with tenses and derivations. Anne Burns, as cited in Jack C. Richards, distinguishes talk as transaction into two different types. One is a situation where the focus is on giving and receiving information and where the participants focus primarily on what is said or achieved. Accuracy may not be a priority as long as information is successfully communicated or understood. The second type is transactions which focus on obtaining goods or services, such as checking into a hotel8. In this type of spoken language, students and teachers usually focus on meaning or on talking their way to understanding. Meanwhile, talk as transaction has several main features as follows: It has a primarily information focus The main focus is the message and not the participants Participants employ communication strategies to make themselves understood There may be frequent questions, repetitions, and comprehension checks There may be negotiation and digression Linguistic accuracy is not always important Some of the skills involved in using talk for transactions are : explaining a need or intention describing something 7 Jack C.Richard, Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to Practice, Http://www.professorjackrichard.com/developing-classoom-speaking-activities.pdf, p.2, It was retrieved on 04 Oktober 2010, p.3 8 Jack C Richards, Developing Classroom, p.3 10 Asking questioning Confirming information Justifying an opinion Making suggestions Clarifying understanding Making comparisons9 Compared with talk as interaction, talk as transaction is easier for some student because it only focuses on messages delivered to the others. Also, talk as interaction is more easily planned since current communicative materials are a rich resource of group activities, information-gap activities and role plays. It can provide a source for practicing how to use talk fro sharing and obtaining information as well as for carrying out the real-world transactions. c. Talk as Performance This refers to public talk or public speaking, that is, talk which transmits information before an audience such as morning talks, public announcements, and speeches. Talk as performance tends to be in the form of monolog rather than dialog. Often follows a recognizable format and is closer to written language than conversational language. Similarly it is often evaluated according to its effectiveness or impact on the listener, something which is unlikely to happen with talk as interaction or transaction. Examples of talk as performance are giving a class report about a school trip, conducting a class debate, making a sales presentation, and giving a lecture. The main features of talk as performance are: There is a focus on both message and audience It reflects organization and sequencing Form and accuracy is important Language is more like written language 9 Jack C.Richard, Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to Practice, Http://www.professorjackrichard.com/developing-classoom-speaking-activities.pdf, p.2, It was retrieved on 04 Oktober 2010, p. 4 11 It is often monologists Some of the skills involved in using talk as performance are: Using an appropriate format Presenting information in an appropriate sequence Maintaining audience engagement Using correct pronunciation and grammar Creating an effect on the audience Using appropriate vocabulary Using appropriate opening and closing10Initially talk as performance needs to be prepared in much the same way as written text, and many techniques teaching strategy used to make understanding of written text. Therefore, this kind of talk requires a different teaching strategy. 3. Classroom Speaking Activities To help students develop communicative efficiency in speaking, there are some activities used in the classroom to promote the development of speaking skills in our learners. The discussions below centers on the major types of speaking activities that can be implemented as follows11 : a. Discussion Discussion is probably the most commonly used in the speaking skills classroom activity. It is a common fact that discussion really useful activity for the teacher in order to activate and involve student in classroom teaching. Typically, student are introduced to a topic via reading, listening passage, or a video tape and are then asked to get into pairs or groups to discuss a related topic in order to come up with a solution, a response, or the like. Normally, people need time to assemble their thought before any discussion and that is something needs to 10Jack C.Richard, Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to Practice, Http://www.professorjackrichard.com/developing-classoom-speaking-activities.pdf, p.2, It was retrieved on 04 Oktober 2010, p.6 11 Marianne Celce-Murcia, Teaching English As A Second or Foreign Language (Boston: Heinly and Heinle, a Division of Thomson Learning,Inc.2001) p.106-108 12 consider. So, Teacher must take care in planning and setting up a discussion activity. b. Speeches Another common activity in the oral skills class is the prepared speech. Topics for speeches will vary depending on the level of the students and the focus of the class, but in any case, students should be given some leeway in determining the content of their talks. In order words, the teacher can provide the structure for the speech-its theoretical genre and its time restrictions. For example asking students to tell us about an unforgettable experience you had. Allow them to talk about something that is personally meaningful while at the same time encourages narration and description. Speeches can be frightening for the speaker and after while boring for the listeners, so it is a good idea to assign the listeners some responsibilities during the speeches. It is an excellent time to require peer evaluation of classmates speech. c. Role plays Role paly is activity in which students are assigned roles and improvise a scene or exchange based on given information or clues and its one way of getting student to speak in different social context and to assume varied social roles is to use role-play activities in the classroom. Role plays can be performed from prepared scripts, created from a set of prompt and expression or written using and consolidation knowledge gained from instruction or discussion of the speech act and its variations prior to the role plays themselves. d. Conversations One of the recent trends in oral skills pedagogy is the emphasis on having students analyze and evaluate the language that they or others produce. In otherword, it is not adequate to have students produce lots of language; they must become more metalinguistically aware of many features of language in order to become competent speakers and interlocutors in English. One speaking activity which is particularly suited to this kind of analysis is conversation, the most fundamental form of oral communication. 13 e. Information-gap activities This refers to the fact that in real communication, people normally com-municate in order to get information they do not possess. In this activity, each student has different information and they need to obtain information from each other in order to finish a task. They must use target language to accomplish it.12B. Role Play 1. The understanding of Role Play Role play is a classroom activity which gives the student the opurtunity to practise the language, the aspects of role behaviour, and the actual roles he may need outside the classroom.13In A Course in Language Teaching, Penny Ur defines role play as, all sorts of activities where learners imagine themselves in a situation outside the classroom, sometimes playing the role of someone other than themeselves, and using langauage appropriate to this new context.14 Thus, leaners would be placed in a variety of experience where they play role as themeselves or play the role of someone else and they should use language that appropriate the situation and social context which they are playing. For example leaner get together, as themeselves, to organize a reunion of their class for the next 20 years. Another example, learners play a role of other people, to hold a formal meeting in an office where there are five leaners. One of them play as director, a leaner as secretary, two leaners are as manager, and another is as supervisor. Langauage expressions of each player should appropriate to their role for example the way of director talks to manager will be different with the way of the manager talks to the director. 12 Jack C. Richards, Communicative Language Teaching Today, (New York: Cambridge University Press: 2006), pp. 19 13 Carol Livingstone, Role Play in Langauge Learning,(Burnt Mill: Longman Group Limited, 1983) p.6 14 Penny Ur, A Course in Language Teaching, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 131. 14 Gillian Porter Ladousse states his opinion about the definition of role play. At firts, he defines it by separating the words of role and play. role they play a part (either their own or somebody elses) in specific situation. Play means that is taken on in a safe environment in which students are as an inventive and playful as possible. A group of students craying out a successful role play in a classroom has musch in common with a group of children playing schol, doctors and nurse, or star wars. Both are unselfconsciously creating their own reality and, by doing so, are experimenting with their knowledge of the real world and developing their ability to interact with other people. Moreover, he states about role play as a technique in English teaching. Role play is one of a whole gamut of communicative techniques which develops fluency in language students, which promotes interaction in the classroom and which increases motivation. Not only in peer learning encouraged by it, but also the sharing between teacher and students of the responsibility for the learning process. Role play is perhaps the most flexible technique in the range, and teaches who have it at their finger-tips are able to meet an infinite variety of needs with suitable and effective role play exercise.15From the statement above, the writer concludes that role play is a technique in English teaching which brings the students to real communication in order to develop the students fluency. The situations and the roles are made by the teacher as a real life situation so the students have the opurtunity to practise there language that they need outside the classroom. 2. The Objective of Role Play The objective of role play is to put the students into a realistic communication situation to: sharpen their listening comprehension skills, bring them in contact new language, and discover areas where they need additional practice.16 15 Gillian Porter Ladousse, Role Play: Resources Books for Teacher Series, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 5-7 16 Raymond Clark, Language Teaching Techniques, (Vermont: Pro Lingua Associates, 1982), p. 55. 15 In addition Jack C. Richard states that the objective of the role play is to simulate a conversation situation in which students might find themselves and give them an opportunity to practice and develop their communication skills.17Thus, it can be synthesized that the objective of role play is to develop communication skill by putting the students into communication situation. The realistic communication situation gives the students new experience in using the language they have learned, and the experience is good for remembering what they have learned. Therefore the writer concludes that the objective of role play is communication and it is similar to the objective of teaching speaking, so it means role play can be applied in teaching speaking and it can help students in improving speaking skill. 3. The advantages of role play There are some advantages teaching speaking by using role play in the class, they are:18a. With role play a very wide variety of experience can be brought into the classroom and we can train our students in speaking skill in any situations through role play. b. Role play puts students in situation in which they are required to use and develop those phatic forms of language which are so necessary in oiling the works of social relationships, but which are so often neglected by our language teaching syllabuses. c. Some people are learning English to prepare for specific roles in their lives. It is helpful for these students to have tried out and experimented with the language they will require in the friendly and safe environment of a classroom. 17 Jack C. Richards, Editor, Teaching in Action: Case Studies From Second Language Classroom, (Virginia: TESOL 1998), p. 308 18 Gillian Porter Ladousse, Role Play: Resources Books for Teacher Series, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 6-7 16 d. Role play helps many shy students by providing them with a mask. e. Perhaps the most important reason for using role play is that it is fun. Moreover, Adrian Doff states role play gives students a chance to use the language they have practiced in a more creative way- students improvise; it increases motivation because the chance to imagine different situations adds interest to a lesson; it encourages students to use natural expressions and intonation, as well as gestures because they are acting out a situation, and by doing children even teenagers and adults often imagine themselves in deferent situation and roles when they play games.19In conclusion, role play can encourage students to create their performance as well as possible due to the freedom given to them to make up a dialogue/conversation by themselves. Therefore, most students are motivated to share and express their ideas during the activity. 4. The disadvantages of role play In spite of the fact that role playing gives some advantages, it is also shows disadvantages. They are:20a. Organization, few teachers operate in ideal circumstance. The majority work in classrooms which are too small, and with classes which are, numerically, too large. Similarly, the noise level produced by a class of forty, divided into eight role play groups in a small classroom, may be so high as to make concentration impossible. b. Time, if the time taken for preparation and follow-up work is included, then role play will take up a lot of classroom time. In conclusion, teaching speaking by using role play takes up a lot of classroom time because the students need for preparation before their play a role. Its also need an extra room, because if the room is too small the students cant move in play their role, and its can make a noisy in the room, so its very difficult for the students to concentrate. 19 Adrian Doff, Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers trainers Handbooks, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Inc. The British Council, 1988), p. 233 240 20 Carol Livingstone, Role Play in Langauge Learning,(Burnt Mill: Longman Group Limited, 1983), p.30 17 5. The Type of Role Play Technique In case of role play activities, according to Donn Byrne, role play can be grouped into two types, scripted and unscripted role play. In details, those types of role play activities described as follows: a. Scripted Role Play This type involves interpreting either the textbook dialogue or reading text in the form of speech. The main function of the text after all is to convey the meaning of language items in a memorably way. b. Unscripted Role Play In contrast to scripted role play, the situations of unscripted role play do not depend on textbooks. It is known as a free role play or improvisation. The students themselves have to decide what language to use and how the conversation should develop. In order to do this activity, good preparation from teacher and students is really necessary.21C. Teaching Speaking by using role play As what the writer writes above, role play can be classified into two; scripted role play and unscripted role play. So, in applying this technique, there are two ways that can be used. 1. Scripted role play Scripted role play is a role play which is based on the dialogue. Example of the dialogue: Angela : Good morning. I want to send a letter to Singapore. Clerk : Yes, do you want to send it by air mail or ordinary mail? Angela : I think Ill send it air mail. I want it to get there quickly. How much does it cost? Clerk : To Singapore? That will be 30 pence, pleas. Angela : (give the clerk 50 pence) Here you are. Clerk : Heres your stamp, and heres 20 pence change. Angela : Thank you. Where is the post box? Clerk : You want the air mail box. Its over there, by the door. 21Donn Byrne,Teaching Oral English: Longman Handbooks for English Teacher, (Singapore: Longman Groups, 1986) p. 122-123 Page 25 18 To demonstrate a role play activity based on the dialogue, the procedures given by Adrian Doff is as follows: 1) The teacher guides the role play by writing these prompts:(where? / air mail / how much? / post box? / thanks). Talk as you write to show what the prompts mean. 2) If necessary, go through the prompts one by one, and get students to give sentences or question for each one. 3) Call two students to the front: one play the role as Angela and the other one is the post office clerk. They should improvise the conversation using the prompts to help them. Point out that the conversation should be similar to the one in the textbook, but not exactly the same; the conversation can be shorter than the presentation dialogue. It should just cover the main points indicated by the prompts. 4) Call out a few other pairs of students in turn, and ask them to have other conversation based on the prompts.22Based on these procedures, the writer views that the ways of organizing this dialogue can be carried out into pairs of students who would improvise a conversation in front of class, in turns. The teacher can also ask the students to practice the conversation privately with their partners before they act it out in front of the class. 2. Unscripted role play Unscripted role play is role play which is not depend on textbooks. The example and procedures of unscripted role play which is adapted from Adrian Doffs book are as follows: One student has lost a bag. He/she is at the police station. The other student is the police officer, and asks for details. To demonstrate a role play activity based on the situation, the procedures the procedures given by Adrian Doff is as follows: 1) The teacher could prepare the whole class, by: 22 Adrian Doff, Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers trainers Handbooks, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Inc. The British Council, 1988), p. 233 234 19 a) Discussing what the speakers might say (e.g. the police officer would asks the students how he or she lost the bag). b) Writing prompt on the board to guide the role play, and any key vocabulary. 2) The teacher could divide the class into pairs, and: a) Let them discuss together what they may say. b) Let them all try out the role play privately, before calling on one or two pairs to act out in front of the class.23The above procedures do not mean an exact to be used. It is flexible; teacher can create or develop procedures which is appropriate and suitable with his/her own class. D. Classroom Action Research 1. The understanding of Classroom Action Research According to McNiff, Classroom Action Research is a reflective research which conducted by the teachers to develop their teaching skill.24 It means that the teachers can use Classroom Action Research as a method to develop their teaching skill. In addition Wijaya Kusumah stated that classroom action research is a research which conducted by the teachers in their class with three ways, first is planning, second is acting, and third is reflecting which has the aim to develop teachers teaching skill and to improve students score. 25 It can be seen that Classroom Action Research is not only to develop teaching skill for the teacher but also to improve students score and solve their problem in learning. 2. Design of Action Research According to Wijaya Kusuma that dsign of Classroom Action Research is divided into six models, there are: 23 Adrian Doff, Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers trainers Handbooks, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Inc. The British Council, 1988), p. 234 24 Wijaya Kusumah and Dedi Dwitagama, Mengenal Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, (Jakarta Barat: PT. Indeks, 2009), p. 8. 25 Wijaya Kusumah and Dedi Dwitagama, Mengenal Penelitian Tindakan Kelas p. 9. 20 1. Kurt Lewin model 2. Kemmis Mc Taggarts Model 3. Dave Ebbut model 4. John Elliott model 5. Hopkins model 6. Mckernan model26 Out of the six models, the writer would explain and apply Kurt Lewin design in teaching and learning activities. Kurt Lewin design becomes basic reference from the other models, specifically for classroom action research. Kurt Lewin introduced classroom action research for the first time. The basic conceptual of classroom action research includes four components: 1. Planning Planning is a step to prepare the classroom instructional strategy to be developed in the study to solve the instructional problems. The instructional strategy has been selected based on the belief that the strategy can theoretically solve the problems. It is this strategy that becomes the focus of the study, to be prepared, to be tried out, to be revised, to be tried again until it proves effective to solve the problems. 2. Acting Acting is the second step after the planning step to implement the instructional strategy that has been planned. At this stage, the researcher has mastered the instructional scenario before starting the implementation in class. The researcher at this stage is not in the process of learning how to implement the plan, nor in the process of improving the quality of teachers performance, but in the process of actually trying out the strategy to test how much the strategy can solve the classroom problems. The researcher is recommended to collaborate with one or two other teachers of the same subjects. The collaborators observe the implementation of the plan to see how much the strategy can solve the classroom problems. 26 Wijaya Kusumah and Dedi Dwitagama, Mengenal Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, (Jakarta Barat: PT. Indeks, 2009), p. 20. 21 3. Observing Observing is the process of collecting data indicating the success of the strategy in solving the classroom problems. The focus of the observation is on the data related to the criteria of success that have been decided. The question that becomes the concern in the observing process is How well does the strategy solve the problems? not other questions, like How well does the teacher teach? or How well is the strategy implemented by the researcher? These last two questions are not the questions for Classroom Action Research but appropriate for observers observing students who are learning how to teach, like in the practice teaching program. 4. Reflecting Reflection is the process of analyzing data to determine how far the data collected have shown the success of the strategy in solving the problem. Reflection also shows what factors support the success of the strategy or what other problems may occur during the implementation process. The connection of four components above can describe as below: Figure 2.1 Kurt Lewins Action Research Design Picture 1. Kurt Lewin model (Classroom Action Research) Reflecting Planning Observing Acting 22 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. Time and Place of Research The writer held the research at VII Grade of SMPN 251, which is located on Jl. Gongseng Raya RT 010 RW 001 Kelurahan Cijantung, Kecamatan Pasar Rebo, Jakarta Timur. The writer did the Action Research on 17 January 2011 up to 21 February 2011. B. Subject of Research The Subject of the research is VII grade students of SMPN 251 Jakarta in the 2010/2011 Academic Year. There are 38 students in VII grade. C. Role of the Researcher in Classroom Action Research The role of researcher in Classroom Action Research is as the English Teacher at seventh grade of SMPN 251 and she also makes lesson plan, pre-test, and post-test, then she collects and analyzes the data, and then she reports the results of research. In doing Classroom Action Research she is colaborated with the real English teacher of SMPN 251 (Ibu. Nurminda S.Pd) who becomes the observer in the Classroom Action Research. 23 D. The Research Design The Classroom Action Research procedure used in this research is Kurt Lewins design. It consists of two cycles in which each cycle contains four phases; planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. Figure 3.1 Kurt Lewins Action Research Design CYCLE 1 CYCLE 2 (Adapted from Wijaya Kusumah, 2009) Acting Planning Acting Observing Observing Reflecting Planning Reflecting 24 Based on the Kurt Lewins action research design above, the writer would like to describe further concerning the implementation of Classroom Action research (CAR) in the cycle one and cycle two as following: Figure 3.2 The phases of Classroom Action Research modified by the writer CYCLE 1 CYCLE 2 Planning After interviewing the writer, observing the class, and holding the pretest, then the teacher & the writer collaborate to prepare the instruments such as: lesson plan, observational guidelines, and the posttest Acting The writer implements the lesson plan that has been made; that is teaching speaking in giving interpersonal response by using role play Observing The teacher observes the teaching learning process in the classroom. It includes the writers performance, the class situation, and the students response. Meanwhile, at last of cycle 1 the students are given the posttest 1. Furthermore, the teacher computes the students speaking score result to find if there some students improvement scores from the pretest or not. Reflecting The teacher and the writer discuss about the result of the implementation role play in the action. Then, they prepare the new lesson plan for the next cycle and for post-test II in order to know the improvement of students score and to solve the problem unfinished yet. Planning The teacher and the writer collaborate to prepare some instruments such as: the new lesson plan (with some modifications of role play strategy), observational guidelines, and the posttest Reflecting The teacher and the writer discuss about the result of the implementation of the modified action. If the Classroom Action Research target could not be achieved yet, the action would be continued (moved to cycle 3), but if the students test result has completed the criterion of the action success, the cycle would be stopped. Acting The writer implements the new lesson plan; that is teaching speaking in giving interpersonal response by using role play. Observing The teacher observes the writers performance, the class situation, and the students response. In the end of cycle two, the students are given the test (posttest 2). Next, the teacher calculates the students speaking score result all at once the students improvement score from the previous test. 25 E. The Classroom Action Research Procedures The Classroom Action Research using Kurt Lewins design consists of four phases within one cycle. Those are planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. After accomplishing the first cycle, it will be probably found a new problem or the previous unfinished problems yet. Therefore, it is necessary to continue to the second cycle in line with the same concept of the first cycle. To make clear what happens in every phase. Here are the explanations: 1. Planning In this phase, the writer design a lesson plan (see appendix 11) from the syllabus which is consulted with English teacher, creating the topics that are appropriate with the matter, Preparing materials that will be used at the cycle. The writer also makes the evaluation form to know about students achievements at the end of this cycle. 2. Action In this phase, the writer and observer collaborates to carry out the planned action . The writer gives explanation how plays a role, and give an example from it. The writer also gives some related vocabulary items needed when students are do a role play activity. Then, the writer gives a role card that tells the students who he is, something of his background, what his opinions about a given subject are, and possibly suggests a course of action that he should try and carry out, and asks the students to practice in pairs or in a group. (see page 36-43 for more detail). 3. Observation In this phase, the observer (the real teacher SMPN 251) observes the students responses, participations, and achievements which are found during the teaching and learning process. Sometimes, the observer asks some students opinions about the process of teaching and learning using role play activity. The observer also takes the observation notes to write the real situation when the action is occurred (see appendix 8). 26 4. Reflection In this phase, the writer and the observer identifies the problems that are found by seeing the result of the observation which should be solved. Then, those are used to make plan for further cycle and correct its weaknesses. F. The Technique of Collecting Data In completing the data, the writer uses qualitative data and quantitative data, qualitative data consists of observation, interview and quesionnarie, quantitative data consists of pre-test and post test. 1 1. Observation In this case, the writer uses the unstructured observation to get the information about the real condition in teaching learning activities. The writer make the observation notes about situation in the class while teaching learning process occurred, teachers performance in teaching speaking, and students speaking skills, such as; pronunciation, vocabulary,grammar and their braveries in speaking lesson. (for more detail see appendix 8) 2. Interview Before implementing Classroom Action Research, the writer interview the teacher about students difficulties in speaking skill, students condition in speaking activity, and the kinds of strategies usually adopted by the teacher in teaching speaking. The writer also carried the interview after accomplishing Classroom Action Research to know the teachers response toward the idea of role play technique (see appendix 7). 3. Questionnaire The structured questionnaire was given to the students of VII.2 grade of SMPN 251 Cijantung in order to know their responds toward the process of teaching and learning speaking by using role play technique and also about their motivations and problems in learning speaking before and after they were taught using role play technique (see appendix 9). 1 Suharsimi Arikunto, Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, (Jakarta: Bumi Aksara, 2009), p. 127-132. 27 4. Test The writer uses oral test for the students (see appendix 3). The test used in this study is pre-test and post-test. The pre-test is done before implementing role play technique. It is to measure students speaking ability at first. Meanwhile, the post-test is implemented after using role play technique. The students did the oral test by role play technique, the students asked to choose one of the envelopes of role card that provided by the writer (see in appendix). Then, the students perform their role play. The students need to do the test in groups. The students test will be scored by using the rating scores of oral test by David P. Harris as followed2 Table 3.1 The Rating Score of Oral Test Rated qualities Points Behavioral statments Pronunciation 5 Has few tarce of foreign accent. 4 Always intelligible, though one is conscious of a definite accent 3 Pronunciation problems necessitate concentrated listening and occasionally lead to misunderstanding. 2 Very hard to understand because of pronunciation problems. Must frequently be asked to repeat. 1 Pronunciation problems so severe as to make speech virtually unintelligible. Grammar 5 Makes few (any) noticeable errors of grammar or word order. 4 Occasionally makes grammatical and or word order errors which do not, however, obscure meaning. 3 Makes frequent errors of grammar and word order which occasionally obscure meaning 2 Grammar and word order errors make comprehension d must often rephrase sentences 2 David P. Harris, Testing English as a Second Language, (Bombay: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company ltd., 1977), p. 84. 28 and or restricts himself to basic patterns. 1 Errors in grammar and word order so severe as to make speech virtually unintelligible. Vocabulary 5 Use of vocabulary and idioms is virtually that of a native speaker. 4 Sometimes use inappropriate terms and or must rephrase ideas because of lexical inadequacies. 3 Frequently uses the wrong words; conversation somewhat limited because of inadequate vocabulary. 2 Misuse of words and very limited vocabulary make comprehension quite difficult 1 Vocabulary limitations so extreme as to make conversation virtually impossible. Fluency 5 Speech as fluent and effortless as that of a native speaker 4 Speed of speech seems to be slightly affected by language problems 3 Speed and fluency are rather strongly affected by language problems. 2 Usually hesitant; often forced into silence by language problem. 1 Speech is so halting and fragmentary as to make conversation virtually impossible Comprehension 5 Appears to understand everything without difficulty. 4 Understands nearly everything at normal speed, although occasional repetition may be necessary. 3 Understands most of what is said at slower-than normal speed with repetitions. 2 Has great difficulty following what is said. Can comprehend only social conversation spoken slowly and with frequent repetitions. 1 Cannot be said to understand even simple conversational English. Note: maximum sore = 25 Sore = the result of score x 100 Maximum score 29 G. Technique of Data Analysis The collected data found in this research are analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. It means that all the data gathered from the observations during teaching learning process, questionnaire, and interview before and after classroom action research are analyzed qualitatively. While the data obtained from tests (pre-test and post-test) are Analyzed descriptive quantitatively (percentage). In completing the numerical data, the writer tries to get the average of students speaking score within before the the implementation and every cycle in order to know how well the role play technique in the classroom. It is the formula;3 X = X : mean N : number of students x : individual score Then, the writer tries to get the class percentages which pass the the target score of the minimal mastery level criterion-Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM). The KKM that must be attained considering speaking subject is 65 (sixty-five) which is adapted from the school agreement (SMPN 251 Jakarta). It is the formula:4 F P = X 100% N P : the class percentage F : total percentage score N : number of students 3 Sudjana, Metoda Statistika, (Bandung: PT. Tarsito, 2002), p. 67. 4 Anas Sudijono, Pengantar Statistis Pendidikan, (Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, 2008), p. 43. 30 The last, the writer analyzes the students speaking score from pre-test up to post-test. It used to know whether students improve their score or not. She uses the formula: y1 y P : percentage of students improvement P = X 100% y : pre-test result Y y1 : post-test 1 H. Criteria of the Action Success Classroom Action Research (CAR) is able to be called successful if it can exceed the criteria which has been determined. In this study the research will succeed when there is 75% of students could pass the assessment score 65 based on the minimal mastery level criterion-Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) which is adapted from the school agreement (SMPN 251). In addition, the success of the action is not only measured with the achievement students speaking score, but also the role play technique can motivate the students and they become more actively in learning process. If the criterion of the action success achieved, it means that the next action of the Classroom Action Research (CAR) would be stopped, but if this condition has not been reached yet, the alternative action would be done in the next cycle. 31 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS A. The Result of Pre Implementation of the Action 1. The Result of Interview The interview was held on Thursday, January 13th 2010 started at 15.10 and finished at 16.00. The writer asked to the teacher some questions which were divided into three categories of question, they are: the general condition of class, the difficulty in speaking skill, and the strategy used by the teacher in teaching speaking. First category discussed the general condition of class especially in speaking class. The teacher said that the most of students did not like studying English, because it is difficult lesson and they sometimes gained low competence in English. The teacher also said that speaking is the most difficult skill to be learned in VII.2 grade, because most of them were hardly to pass the target score of the minimal mastery level criterion (KKM). Second category is the difficulty in speaking skill. The teacher said that the students difficulties in speaking lied on pronouncing the word or sentence, self confidence, and organizing the word into a sentence, and this caused by less in practice English speaking. The last category is the strategy used by the teacher in teaching English speaking. The teacher said that she has never used role play in teaching the students, she usually teaches speaking by introducing new 32 dialogue to the students, then she reads the dialogue, while the students repeat it together, and then she give the meaning of the dialogue. 2. The Result of Observation This observation was conducted in order to know the teaching learning process directly before implementing the Classroom Action Research (CAR). Based on the observation notes conducted on Monday, 10th January 2011 at 12.30, it was known that in teaching speaking at the VII-2 grade students of SMPN 251 in the 2010/2011 academic year, the teacher used dialogue-based learning technique, in which she gave students dialogue and asked students to read the dialogue and then perform in the front of the class in pair. In this case, students only read a dialogue, give it meaning and then perform with their partner. They have never told the usage of expressions they are practicing. Furthermore, students have never been given chances to expose their ability to speak and to develop a more communicative conversation using their own way. (see appendix 8 for more detail) The use of strategy like this would be an ongoing problem for students in learning and understanding oral English usage. Moreover, students whose vocabulary were limited which unable them to say anything to communicate. It brings about silent toward student and is lacking in speaking ability primarily in using expression likely in real communication. 3. The Result of Questionnaire The questionnaire was conducted to know the students response in teaching learning process, the students result of speaking activity, and the solution of the problem in teaching speaking. Based on the result of questionnaire before the implementation of CAR, the writer likes to give some explanations: from the first statement they are 30 (78.94%) students did not feel satisfied with their score and only 8 (21.05%) students who feel satisfied. The statement number 2, 33 showed only 10 (26.31%) students who like to learn English speaking and 28 (73.68%) students did not like to learn English speaking. Relating to the statement number 3, 30 (78.94%) students did not feel motivated in learning English speaking, it means that only 8 (21.05%) students who feel motivated in learning English speaking. In statement number 4, 32 (84.21%) students feel difficult in speaking English and 6 (15.78%) students feel easy in speaking English. Then, in the statement number 5, 12 (31.57%) students said that the sentences were thought is suitable in their daily life, and 26 (68.21%) students said the sentences were thought did not suitable in their daily life. The response for the statement number 6, showed that only 8 (21.05%) students used their opportunity to asked the question, and 30 (78.94%) students did not use their opportunity to asked the question. In the statement number 7 to 8, showed that 38 (100%) students did not feel that the teacher gave opportunity to the students to do an exercise in English speaking especially in giving interpersonal response, and 38 (100%) students seldom used English language in speaking class. For the statement number 9 to 10 the students leave it in the blank because the Classroom Action Research have not implemented yet. (See appendix for detail result of questioner) Related to the result of questionnaire, it could be concluded that the students activity and motivation in learning English speaking is still low, there also needed to improve the students positive response after the implementation of the action. Therefore the CAR was done. 4. The Result of Pre Test The pre-test was conducted on the 17th and 20th January 2011 to measure students speaking ability at first, and it was done before implementing Classroom Action Research. At pre-test, the students speaking ability was not so good. It could be seen from the table list here in test speaking evaluation. 34 Table 4.1 The Students Speaking Score of Pre-Test No Name Pron Grammar Vocab Fluency Compre Score 1 Adinda Chaerunissa 3 2 2 3 2 48 2 Adis Risjayanto 3 2 2 2 2 44 3 Ahmad Rosadi 2 2 2 2 2 40 4 Andreas Vido Novian 2 2 2 2 2 40 5 Apri Yandi Ahmat.S 2 2 2 2 2 40 6 Arief Priambodo 2 2 2 2 2 40 7 Astatantica Belly. S 3 3 4 3 4 68 8 Ayu Randri Vella.W 2 2 2 2 2 40 9 Bagas Pebrianja 2 2 2 2 2 40 10 Baskoro Hary.W 3 2 2 2 2 44 11 Deni Muhammad 2 2 2 2 2 40 12 Dita Ryani 3 2 2 2 2 44 13 Elisa Maharani. R 3 2 2 3 2 48 14 Faisal Erpan. S 2 2 2 2 2 40 15 Gadis Anggia Citra.N 3 4 3 2 4 68 16 Halwiyah Oktavia 2 2 2 2 2 40 17 Hendra Gunawan 2 2 2 2 2 40 18 Humaira Kusuma. A 3 3 3 4 4 68 19 Marhaeni Riska. H 3 3 3 4 4 68 20 Mochamad Rifqi 2 2 2 2 2 40 21 Muchamat Suryanto 2 2 2 2 2 40 22 Muhammad Bramantyo 2 2 2 2 2 40 23 Muhammad Iqbal 2 2 2 2 2 40 24 Nina Richi Karlina 2 2 2 2 2 40 25 Pradini Yuliasari 2 2 2 2 2 40 26 Raynor Maulana 3 4 3 3 4 68 27 Renny Mardiah 3 2 2 2 2 44 28 Rijal Astian Hadly 2 2 2 2 2 40 29 Rizki Pratama. S 2 2 2 2 2 40 68 Rosyid Nur Iman 2 2 2 2 2 40 31 Selly Octaviani 2 2 2 2 2 40 32 Siti Aisah Oktavianti 2 2 2 2 2 40 33 Sulastri Ayu Lestari 2 2 2 2 2 40 34 Vinadwirani Vicom. F 4 4 3 3 4 72 35 Wahyu Saputro 2 2 2 2 2 40 36 Winda Pratiwi 3 3 4 3 4 68 37 Yesi Adila 3 3 4 3 4 68 38 Yudha Ari Setyawan 2 2 2 1 1 32 Total 1772 Student who pass the KKM 35 Based on the data above, the writer highlited the students who passed KKM (65), and to get the result of pre-test, firstly, the writer calculated the mean score by employing the formula that has already been previously pointed out. X = X =177238 X = 46.63 Next, to know the class percentage that passed the target score of minimal mastery level criterion- Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) the writer used the following formula: P =FNx100% P =838x100% P = 21.05% Based on the result of pre-test, the data showed that the mean score of pre-test was 46.63. There were only eight students or 21.05% of students who got the score passed the minimal mastery level criterion (KKM). After analyzing the result of pre-test, it could be concluded that most of the students at VII-2 class of SMPN 251 had difficulty in speaking ability. So, it needs to find out the solution to overcome this problem. Here the writer used Role Play technique in every cycle of Classroom Action Research to overcome the problem and to develop students speaking ability. 36 B. The Implementation of the Action 1. Cycle 1 a. Planning In this phase the writer and the teacher arranged the lesson plan that included competition standard and selected the appropriate material. The lesson plan was focused in giving interpersonal response, and there are two lesson plans in cycle one, the topics are what do you want to be? and ordering food. These topics discussed about asking and giving opinion, and asking and giving for service. The writer also prepared role card, camera, laptop, and field notes. b. Acting Acting phase is the implementation of the planning phase that has been planned by the teacher and the researcher as well. Here, the writer acted as the teacher who did the action by teaching students at first grade of SMPN 254 Jakarta used role play technique. The acting in the first cycle was done on January 24th and 27th 2011. In teaching the lesson, the researcher used three phase techniques; a technique that contains about three phases, those are: pre teaching activity, while teaching activity, and post teaching activity. In this acting, the writer tried to integrate students to participate in the classroom activities. In detail, the writer presented in the following action: First meeting Asking and giving opinion Day/date: Monday, January 24th 2011 i. Pre teaching activity The writer opens the class by saying greeting and asking students condition. Besides, she also asked students readiness to learn. ii. While teaching activity In the while teaching activity, the writer introduced role play technique in teaching English by using the topic that has been 37 determined, then the writer gave a dialogue which expressed asking and giving opinion, after the writer reads the dialogue which repeated by students together, the writer asked the students to practice the dialogue in pair, then she give lists new vocabularies for students, after that she explained the expression asking and giving opinion. To ensure students understanding of the materials, the writer trained students by giving a role card, in role card the writer only give a situation and what the students will be, such as: - One student become a little sister, and just bought a new T-shirt yesterday. - She/he ask opinion to the another student who becomes a big sister about the new T-shirt. - The big sister thinks that the T-shirt is nice. It suits on you. - But, another student who becomes brother come and thinks that the T-shirt is not good on little sister. - A little sister sad and ask the reason to brother why he said that? After the students got a role card the writer asked the students to make a group, then she gave a time for students to discuss together what they may say, and next the writer let them all try out the role play privately, before calling on one or two group to act out in front of the class. iii. Post teaching activity. Before closing the class, firstly the writer asked students difficulties during the teaching and learning process. If it might there some questions concerning with the materials, the writer will a bit explain and give the answer. Some advices were given to students to motivate them to always practice their English. While to close the class, the teacher closed it by saying greeting or salam. 38 Second meeting Asking and giving for service Day/date: Thursday, January 27th 2011 i. Pre teaching activity The writer opens the class by saying greeting and asking students condition. Besides, she also asks students readiness to learn. ii. While teaching activity In this meeting the writer explained the expression asking and giving service firstly, then she used scripted role play in teaching learning activity, a scripted role play is about activity in restaurant such as: Waitress : good afternoon. Can I help you? Riki : good afternoon. Yes Id like fried chiken with fries and coke, please. Waitress : would you like a regular or large coke? Riki : regular, please. Waitress : would you like anything else? Riki : yes, Id like an ice cream please. Waitress : what flavour would you like? Riki : chocolate, please. Waitress : Ok. In scripted role play one student played a role as waitress, and the other one as Riki, after that to ensure the students understanding they should improve the conversation by using their own word, they could change a sentence or add a conversation, then the writer asked them to act out in front of the class. iii. Post teaching activity. The writer asked students difficulties of the material during the learning process. She also gave feedback concerning with the students work. The last, she closed the class by saying salam. c. Observing In observing phase the teacher as an observer observed the students response, participation, achievement and everything which 39 were found during the teaching and learning process, she also observed the teachers activity. In order to make this phase real and concrete, the observer also takes observation note in order to know how far the technique influence students speaking ability in classroom. Based on the observation note that has been taken, some of students did not pay attention to the instruction and the students look like confused in doing a role play activity. The classroom condition was still uncontrolled yet, there were still some trouble makers who disturbed the other students while the learning process was processing. The observer then suggested the teacher to clarify the instruction, and give more explanation and example in role play activity, if the teacher still cannot control students, the observer suggested her to give punishment. (See appendix for detail result of observation) d. Reflecting In this phase the writer and the teacher discussed the strengths and the weakness of the actions and the first post-test. Based on data that have been collected and analyzed by the teacher and the researcher, it was found that students grammar and pronunciation are still low in speaking, because they are clearly need to practice orally not only in the form written, the students also still confused to speak English before they write what they want to say, so the teacher should give more attention and exercise to the students in order to make them braver and more confident to speak English, the teacher also needed to improve her class and time management in teaching. (see appendix 8 ) From the result of first post-test, it showed that only sixteen students (42.1%) who had passed the target score of the minimal mastery level criterion (KKM). So, the teacher and the researcher still needed at least thirteen students (34.21%) who could pass the KKM since the target of action success was 75% students passed the minimal mastery level criterion (KKM). 40 Since both the observation and the test result indicated that the action in first cycle did not achieve the action success yet, so the teacher and the writer had to move to the next cycle. 2. Cycle 2 a. Planning The cycle 2 was carried out to solve the problems that had been found in cycle 1, which were students still low in speaking ability, especially to speak spontaneously. In this phase the writer and the teacher arranged the new lesson plan that included competition standard and selected the appropriate material. There were not significant differences with the previous lesson plan. The material still related to giving interpersonal response but the topics are favorite food and our new teacher and these topic discussed about expressing like and dislike, and asking and giving clarification. b. Acting The action of the cycle 2 was done on February 10th, 14th 2010. The action was done based on the lesson plan. In cycle two, the writer would teach students by using the same technique. Here, the writer wished to have more development of students speaking score than in previous section. Here are the actions: First meeting Expressing like and dislike Day/date: Thursday, February 10th 2011 i. Pree teaching activity The writer started the class by saying salam, asked students condition, and asked students favorite food and favorite drink, and a small discussion was needed to give students opportunities to share their experience. 41 ii. While teaching activity Related to the theme that was made, the writer gave the material to students about expressing like and dislikes such us: Likes Dislikes I like/Love.... (Im afraid) I dont like...... I really enjoy... I (really) hate After the teacher explained expressing like and dislike by using example to the students. The writer read scripted roles play which is expressing like and dislike: Baim : where are you going Febi? Febi : oh, Im going to the canteen. Baim : can I join? Febi : sure. Lets go. Baim : anyway, whats your favorite food? Febi : I love fried noodle so much, but I cant stand with fried prawn, Im allergy. What about you, Baim? Baim : I see. Well I enjoy vegetables soup and I hate nuts. After that the writer gave a new vocabulary to the students, and then the writer asked the students to repeat the dialogue after the writer read it for them. Next the writer invited two students to perform the dialogue in front of the class, one student became Baim, and other student became Febi. It has aim to give the example of dialogue that could be used for the next activity. However, the writer did not write the dialogues on the whiteboard in order that the students did not copy the dialogues. To ensure the students understanding of the material, the writer asked them to use their imagination and their ability to create the dialogue which is expressing like and dislike on their own way, then they had to act out in front of the class. iii. Post teaching activity. Before closing the class, firstly the writer asked students difficulties during the teaching and learning process. If were some questions concerning with the materials, the writer would give a bit explanation 42 and the answer. Then the writer called the students name to ensure that they attended the class. After finishing it, she closed the class by saying salam. Second meeting Asking & giving clarification Day/date: Monday, February14th 2011 i. Pre teaching activity The writer started the lesson by giving warming up to the students to make them focused on the topic. The writer asked some questions to motivate students to speak, and that questions were related to the topic. ii. While teaching activity In this meeting the writer used unscripted role play, firstly the writer explained asking and giving clarification by using example in dialogue which is expressed asking and giving clarification such as: Baron, Dedi, and Arul are having lunch in the canteen. Baron : Our new English teacher just came from Cambridge. His name is Jhonathan. Arul : Is that right? Dedi : Yes, that right. Baron : I heard he is a baseball coach too. Arul : Really? I dont know how to play baseball. Dedi : Dont you? Arul : No, I dont. Maybe I should join the baseball club. Baron : Yes, I think should. After that she gave the students the vocabulary items and expressions related to the material, then the writer, the teacher, and a volunteer from one of the students performed a dialogue above. After that the writer gave unscripted role play to the students such as: Your brother met your favorite actor in the mall. He told you when he came home. You didnt believe it and wanted to ask for clarification. What would both of you say? 43 After the students got unscripted role play the writer asked the students to make a pair, then she gave a time for students to discuss together what they may say, and next the writer let them all try out the role play privately, before calling them to act out in front of the class. iii. Post teaching activity. Before closing the class, firstly the teacher asked students difficulties during the teaching and learning process. If were there some questions concerning with the materials, the teacher would give a bit explain and the answer. Then the teacher calls the students name to ensure that they attend the class. After finishing it, she closed the class by saying salam. c. Observing Generally, there were significant developments of the acting phase in second cycle. From the observation note that has been taken by the observer the writer performance in teaching English has implemented the technique a bit better than in first cycle, she didnt speak too fast anymore while explaining the material, the management class and time was good enough. The classroom situation controlling also can be handled by her, so when students playing a role play, overall students looked more enthusiastic in doing role play activity than before. The students also looked braver and more confident to speak English. They competed to be volunteers when the writer asked them to speak or answer the questions. d. Reflecting From the observation data and the post test result of cycle 2. The writer and the teacher felt satisfied to the action research result, because the implementation of role play technique in teaching English especially teaching speaking showed amount changes than cycle 1. From the result of post-test 2, it showed that thirty two students (84.21%) who passed the target score of minimal mastery level criterion (KKM). So, it met the 44 requirement of action success which was 75% students passed the minimal mastery level criterion (KKM) students in the score of 65. Beside that based on the observation data, the students were braver, more confident, easier to understand English speaking, and easier to use grammatical rules and vocabulary items that they have possessed to speak English fluently and correctly. Now they also are able to use language for communication, especially for speaking. When the writer met the students outside the class, she invited them to speak English with her, and they were able to respond fluently and correctly, although sometimes some students still made a few mistakes, such as in using correct tenses. However, the writer has reached the goal that is the students are able to use English as a means of communication. So, it means that the researcher and the teacher didnt need to move to the next cycle. The following is the schedule of the Classroom Action Research: Table 4.2 Schedule of the Research No Activities Month and Week January February March 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 Interview X 2 Observation X X 3 Instrument X X 5 Cycle I X X 6 Cycle II X X 7 Report X X X C. The result of Post-Implementation of the Action 1. The Result of Post Test I To know the result of students speaking of first post-test we can see from the table here: 45 Table 4.3 Students 1st Post Test Score No Name Pron Grammar Vocab Fluency Compre Score 1 Adinda Chaerunissa 3 3 3 3 3 60 2 Adis Risjayanto 4 3 3 3 4 68 3 Ahmad Rosadi 3 3 3 3 3 60 4 Andreas Vido Novian 3 2 2 3 3 52 5 Apri Yandi Ahmat.S 3 2 2 3 3 52 6 Arief Priambodo 3 2 2 3 3 52 7 Astatantica Belly. S 3 4 4 4 4 76 8 Ayu Randri Vella.W 3 4 3 3 4 68 9 Bagas Pebrianja 3 2 3 3 2 52 10 Baskoro Hary.W 3 4 3 2 2 56 11 Deni Muhammad 3 3 3 3 3 60 12 Dita Ryani 3 3 3 3 3 60 13 Elisa Maharani. R 4 4 3 3 4 72 14 Faisal Erpan. S 3 2 2 3 3 52 15 Gadis Anggia Citra.N 3 4 4 3 4 72 16 Halwiyah Oktavia 3 3 3 3 3 60 17 Hendra Gunawan 3 3 3 3 3 60 18 Humaira Kusuma. A 3 3 4 3 4 68 19 Marhaeni Riska. H 3 3 3 4 4 68 20 Mochamad Rifqi 3 3 3 3 3 60 21 Muchamat Suryanto 3 3 3 3 3 60 22 Muhammad Bramantyo 3 3 3 3 3 60 23 Muhammad Iqbal 3 3 3 3 3 60 24 Nina Richi Karlina 3 3 3 3 4 64 25 Pradini Yuliasari 3 4 3 3 4 68 26 Raynor Maulana 3 4 4 3 4 72 27 Renny Mardiah 3 4 3 3 4 68 28 Rijal Astian Hadly 3 2 2 3 3 52 29 Rizki Pratama. S 4 3 3 3 4 68 30 Rosyid Nur Iman 3 3 3 4 4 68 31 Selly Octaviani 3 3 3 4 4 68 32 Siti Aisah Oktavianti 4 3 3 4 4 72 33 Sulastri Ayu Lestari 3 4 3 3 4 68 34 Vinadwirani Vicom. F 4 3 4 4 4 76 35 Wahyu Saputro 3 3 2 3 2 52 36 Winda Pratiwi 3 3 3 3 4 64 37 Yesi Adila 3 3 3 3 4 64 38 Yudha Ari Setyawan 3 2 2 2 2 44 Total 2376 Student who pass the KKM 46 From the table above, the writer could calculates the mean of students score, the percentage of the students who pass the minimal mastery level criterion (KKM), and the improvement of students score in speaking from the pre-test to the first post-test. The mean score derived from the following formula: X = X =237638 X = 62.52 Then, to know the class percentage that passed the minimal mastery level criterion Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) the writer used the following formula: P =FNx100% P =1638x100% P = 42.1% Finally, to know whether students improve their score or not the writer used the following formula: %1001 yyy %10063.4663.4652.62%07.34 So, based on the calculation, the writer knew that the mean of students at first cycle is 62.52. The improvement of students score of speaking from pre-test to post-test is 34.07%, and the improvement is still not enough yet, since the target of action success was 75% passed the minimal mastery level criterion (KKM) students, here the students who passed the minimal mastery level criterion (KKM) only sixteen or 42.1%. 47 2. The Result of Post Test II To know the result of students speaking of second post-test we can see from the table here: Table 4.4 Students 2nd Post Test Score No Name Pron Grammar Vocab Fluency Compre Score 1 Adinda Chaerunissa 4 3 4 4 3 72 2 Adis Risjayanto 4 4 3 3 3 68 3 Ahmad Rosadi 4 3 4 3 3 68 4 Andreas Vido Novian 4 3 4 3 3 68 5 Apri Yandi Ahmat.S 3 3 3 2 3 56 6 Arief Priambodo 3 3 3 3 2 56 7 Astatantica Belly. S 4 4 4 4 4 80 8 Ayu Randri Vella.W 4 3 4 3 3 68 9 Bagas Pebrianja 3 3 3 2 2 52 10 Baskoro Hary.W 3 4 3 2 2 56 11 Deni Muhammad 4 3 4 4 3 72 12 Dita Ryani 4 4 4 3 3 72 13 Elisa Maharani. R 4 3 4 3 3 68 14 Faisal Erpan. S 3 3 3 2 2 52 15 Gadis Anggia Citra.N 4 4 4 4 3 76 16 Halwiyah Oktavia 4 4 3 3 3 68 17 Hendra Gunawan 4 4 3 3 4 72 18 Humaira Kusuma. A 4 4 4 4 4 80 19 Marhaeni Riska. H 4 4 4 4 4 80 20 Mochamad Rifqi 4 3 4 4 3 72 21 Muchamat Suryanto 4 4 3 3 3 68 22 Muhammad Bramantyo 4 3 3 3 4 68 23 Muhammad Iqbal 4 4 3 3 3 68 24 Nina Richi Karlina 4 4 4 3 3 72 25 Pradini Yuliasari 4 4 3 3 4 72 26 Raynor Maulana 4 4 4 4 4 80 27 Renny Mardiah 4 4 4 4 4 80 28 Rijal Astian Hadly 3 3 4 3 4 68 29 Rizki Pratama. S 4 4 4 4 3 76 30 Rosyid Nur Iman 3 4 4 3 3 68 31 Selly Octaviani 4 3 4 3 3 68 32 Siti Aisah Oktavianti 4 4 4 3 4 76 33 Sulastri Ayu Lestari 4 4 3 3 3 68 34 Vinadwirani Vicom. F 4 4 4 4 4 80 35 Wahyu Saputro 3 4 3 3 4 68 36 Winda Pratiwi 3 4 4 3 3 68 48 37 Yesi Adila 3 3 4 3 4 68 38 Yudha Ari Setyawan 3 3 3 2 3 56 Total 2628 Student who pass the KKM At the second cycle of CAR, the writer calculated mean of students score, the percentage of the students who pass the Minimum Mastery Criterion (KKM), and the improvement of students score in speaking from the pre-test to the second post-test. First, calculating the mean of students in the second post-test result: X = X =262838= 69.15 Second, the percentage of students who pass the Minimum Mastery Criterion (KKM): F P = X 100% N 32 P = X 100% 38 = 84.21% Third, the students score improvement from the pre-test to the second post-test: %1002yyy %10063.4663.4615.69%29.48 From the calculation, the writer found that the mean of the students second post-test result is 69.15, it also showed that thirty two students (84.21%) who passed the minimal mastery level criterion (KKM). Furthermore the whole of students score mean improvement 49 from the pre test to second post-test would be 48.29%. So, it means the action has met the requirement of action success which was 75% students passed the Minimum Mastery Criterion (KKM) in the score of 65. In this case, those scores showed the successful of the classroom action research toward students of first grade of SMPN 251. From all the calculation above, the writer could interpret the result after the implementation of Classroom Action Research from cycle I up to cycle II. It could be seen from the result of pre-test, post-test I and post-test II. Here the writer describes the result from pre-test, post-test I and post-test II through diagram below: Figure 4.2 Students Score mean improvement 010203040506070pre-test 1st Post-test 2nd Post-test46.6362.569.1550 Figure 4.3 Students score class percentage who passed KKM Before the implementation of role play technique in developing students speaking ability, the writer gained the data from the result of pre-test. In the pre-test, the mean score of the class before implementation the action was 46.63. Furthermore, the writer calculated the percentage of students speaking score in order to know the students who pass the KKM. In pre-test, it is could be seen, the percentage which passed the KKM was about 21.05%. It means there are eight students who passed the KMM (65) and there are thirty students who get the score below the KKM. So, after the writer calculated the result of pre-test, the writer conducted action research that applying the role play technique in improving students speaking ability then the writer identified and calculated the result of post-test 1. The mean score of students in post-test 1 is 62.52. It means the students improvement was 15.89 (62.52 46.63) or 34.07%. Furthermore, the percentage of student who passed the KKM is 42.1%. It is showed there were sixteen students who passed the KKM and there are twenty two students were below the KKM. 0,00%20,00%40,00%60,00%80,00%100,00%pre-test 1st Cycle 2nd Cycle21.05%42.1%84.21%51 Next, after the writer conducted the cycle 2, she does post-test 2 in order to know the improvement students speaking ability in cycle 2. The mean score of students in post-test 2 is 69.15, and the improving students score from post-test 1 to post-test 2 is 6.63 (69.15-62.52). Furthermore, it can be seen that the improvement students speaking ability from pre-test, to post test 2 is 22.52 (69.15- 46.63) or 48.29%. Then, from the percentage of the students who passed the KKM in post-test 2 is 84.21%, there were thirty two students who passed the KKM and six students are below the KKM, so it has met a criterion of the action success. 3. The Result of Questionnaire Based on the result of questionnaire after the implementation of CAR, the writer likes to give some explanations: from the first statement they are only 6 (15.78%) students did not feel satisfied with their score and 32 (84.21%) students who feel satisfied. The statement number 2 showed 30 (78.94%) students who like to learn English speaking and 8 (21.05%) students did not like to learn English speaking. Relating to the statement number 3, only 2 (5.26%) students did not feel motivated in learning English speaking, it means that 36 (94.73%) students who feel motivated in learning English speaking. In statement number 4, only 9 (23.68%) students feel difficult in speaking English and 29 (76.31%) students feel easy in speaking English. Then, in the statement number 5, 36 (94.73%) students said that the sentences were thought is suitable in their daily life, and 2 (5.26%) students said the sentences were thought did not suitable in their daily life. The response for the statement number 6 showed that 35 (92.10%) students used their opportunity to ask the question, and only 3 (7.89%) students did not use their opportunity to ask the question. In the statement number 7 to 8, showed that 38 (100%) students feel that the teacher gave opportunity to the students to do an exercise in English speaking especially in giving interpersonal response, 52 and 38 (100%) students usual used English language in speaking class. For the statement number 9, 36 (94.73%) students felt their speaking ability in giving interpersonal response was better than before the implementation of role play technique, and only 2 (5.26%) students did not felt better. The last statment showed that 38 (100%) students thinks role play technique could help the students in learning English speaking. (See appendix for detail result of questioner) Related to the result of questionnaire after implementation of role play activity it can be concluded that most of the students gave a positive response in their speaking teaching-learning process, so from all the data above, it shows that applying role play technique can develop students speaking ability significantly, besides the students also became more actively in teaching learning process and the writer can stop the cycle. 4. The Result of Interview Unstructured interview was conducted on Thursday, March 3rd2011. This interview did after finishing the second cycle. Based on the teacher answer within the interview, that the general students conditions in speaking class during implementing the action were better than before. In this sense, they looked enthusiast and felt easier to speak using role play technique. The students participation was good because the activity in the classroom involved the students. The teacher also said that role play was a good technique in teaching speaking. It could be an effective way to help the students speaking. Beside it might be able to develop the students speaking ability, it also could be an alternative strategy and could motivate the English teacher to use it. (See appendix for detail result of interview) From the explanation above, it could be drawn the general conclusion from the post interview that the teacher gave a positive response toward the implementation of role play technique. 53 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion Based on the result of data analysis, the writer inferred that teaching English by using role play can improve students speaking ability. It can be proved through several data such as; pre-test and post-test. The result of pre-test shows that the students mean score is only 46.63, and in post-test 1 the students mean score is 62.52, and in post-test 2 the students mean score is 69.15 with 84.21%, students who passed the KKM, so it was showed the significant improvement in teaching speaking by using role play technique. Moreover by implementing role play in teaching speaking the students have chance to be active and cooperative in speaking activity, role play has various activities that can be effective to teach students in big class, it is supported from the observation and questionnaire data. 54 B. Suggestion The writer would like to give some suggestions for teachers and the studens. First, that the English teachers could implement the role play technique as an alternative strategy in teaching speaking. Second, it is recommended that the students use role play technique as one of their learning strategies to practice and improve their speaking ability in giving interpersonal response which can be done in their extracurricular activities. 55 REFERENCES Arikunto, Suharsismi. Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara, 2009. Byrne, Donn. Teaching Oral English: Longman Handbooks for English Teacher. Singapore: Longman Groups, 1986. Celce-Murcia, Marianne. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. 3rd ed. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001. Clark, Raymond. Language Teaching Techniques. Vermont: Pro Lingua Associates, 1982. Cornbleet, Sandra and Ronald Carter. The Language of Speech and Writing. London: Routledge Publisher, 2001. Djamarah, Syaiful Bahri dan Aswan Zain, Strategi Belajar Mengajar. Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta, 2006. Doff, Adrian. Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers trainers Handbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Inc. The British Council, 1988. Edge, Julian. Essential of English Language Teaching. New York: Longman, 1993. Harris, David P. Testing English as a Second Language. Bombay: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company ltd., 1977. Hornby, A.S. Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary. 5th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Jo McDonough and Christopher Shaw. Materials and Methods in ELT: Second Edition A Teachers Guide. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003. Kayi, Hayriye. Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language. Nevada: University of Nevada. Internet TESL Journal, Vol. XII, No. 11, November 2006. 56 Kusumah, Wijaya and Dedi Dwitagama. Mengenal Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Jakarta Barat: PT. Indeks, 2009. Ladousse, Gillian Porter. Role Play: Resources Books for Teacher Series. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Livingstone, Carol. Role Play in Language Learning. Burnt Mill: Longman Group Limited, 1983. Richard , Jack C. and Willy A, Renandya, Methodology in Language Teaching: an anthology of current practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Richards, Jack C. Communicative Language Teaching Today. New York: Cambridge University Press: 2006. Richards, Jack C. ed. Teaching in Action: Case Studies from Second Language Classroom. Virginia: TESOL 1998. Sudijono, Anas. Pengantar Statistis Pendidikan. Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, 2008. Sudjana. Metoda Statistika. Bandung: PT. Tarsito, 2002. Ur, Penny. A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Wallace, Michael J. Action Research for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Walter, Teresa. Teaching English Language Learners. New York: Pearson Education, 2004. Richard, Jack C. Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to Practice, 04 Oktober 2010. It was retrieved on 04 Oktober 2010. http://www.professorjackrichard.com/developing-classoom-speaking-activities.pdfhttp://www.professorjackrichard.com/developing-classoom-speaking-activities.pdfhttp://www.professorjackrichard.com/developing-classoom-speaking-activities.pdf.http://www.professorjackrichard.com/developing-classoom-speaking-activities.pdf.

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