Introduction to Elasticity Ted Mitchell. Elasticity comes in many flavors Advertising Elasticity Coupon Elasticity Sales Force Call Elasticity, etc.,

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    24-Dec-2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Introduction to Elasticity Ted Mitchell
  • Slide 2
  • Elasticity comes in many flavors Advertising Elasticity Coupon Elasticity Sales Force Call Elasticity, etc., etc. The Best Known Flavor is Price Elasticity, Eqp aka Demand Elasticity
  • Slide 3
  • Sample Price Elasticities Restaurant meals-2.3 Foreign travel, long-run- 4.0 Airline travel, long-run -2.4 Fresh green peas -2.8 Automobiles, short-run-1.2 to - 1.5 Chevrolet automobiles -4.0 Fresh tomatoes-4.6
  • Slide 4
  • Three Classic Uses of the Elasticity Index 1) for comparing the sensitivity of changes in a variables across situations using different units of measure (e.g., apple and orange markets) 2) for estimating the consequences of making a change in one variable (price) on another variable (quantity sold) 3) for estimating the direction a variable (price) should be changed if an outcome (revenue) is to be maximized
  • Slide 5
  • Most economists use the term elasticity to discuss the sensitivity of a change in one variable (price) to a change in another variable (quantity sold). The price elasticity of the apple market in the USA is Eqp = -1.6 and the price elasticity of the orange market in Spain is Eqp -2.5 The orange market is more sensitive to price changes than the apple market.
  • Slide 6
  • The price elasticity of the apple market in the USA is Eqp = -1.6 and the price elasticity of the orange market in Spain is Eqp = -2.5 Elasticity of -1.6 means that a 1% change in price will cause a 1.6% change in the quantity of apples that are sold Elasticity of -2.5 means that a 1% change in price will cause a 2.5% change in the quantity of oranges that are sold The two can be compared because elasticity is an index and an index is unit neutral.
  • Slide 7
  • Point Elasticity of Price is defined as The ratio of the percentage change in quantity sold to the percentage change in price from one period to another Point Elasticity of Price = %Q/%P Eqp = (Q/Q)/(P/P) = P(Q)/Q(P) Note the impact analysis Eqp = (P/Q) x Q/P where Q = a-bP the first derivative of Q wrt P is Q/P = -b Eqp = (P/Q) x ( b) Eqp = -bP/Q Point Elasticity is Eqp = -bP/(a-bP)
  • Slide 8
  • Elasticity is easy If you know the demand curve Q = a-bP Then you know the values of a and b Finding the elasticity is easy Eqp = -bP/(a-bP)
  • Slide 9
  • BUT!!! You dont know the demand curve! You dont know a and b You have only observations of last period and the current period
  • Slide 10
  • Price per Unit P1=$5 Quantity Sold Q1 = 2,500 TJM X Q2 = 3,000 X P2 =$4
  • Slide 11
  • Price per Unit P1 = $5 Quantity Sold Q1 = 2,500 TJM X Q2 = 3,000 X P2 = $4 Demand Curve= Q = a-bP Demand Curve= Q = a-bP
  • Slide 12
  • Price per Unit P1 = $5 Quantity Sold Q1 = 2,500 TJM X Q2 = 3,000 X P2 = $4 Area = Revenue = P x Q
  • Slide 13
  • Period 1Period 2Change = % change = % Quantity, Q 2,5003,000 Q= 500%Q = 500/2,500 = 0.20 = 20% Price, P $5$4 P = -$1%P = -1/5 = -0.20 = -20% Revenue $12,500$12,000 R= -$500 Point Elasticity = %Q/%P = 20%/-20% = -1.0 IQ/IP = $2,000/$2.500 = -0.8
  • Slide 14
  • Price per Unit P1 = $5 Quantity Sold Q1 = 2,500 TJM X Q2 = 3,000 X P2 = $4 Elasticity at the point (Q1, P1) = - 1.0
  • Slide 15
  • Using the Starting Point The starting point provides the denominator for the two percentages %Q = (Q2- Q1)/Q1 %Q = (3,000 - 2,500)/ 2,500 = 20% %P = (P2-P1)/P1 %P = (4-5)/5 = -20% Eqp = %Q/%P = 20%/-20% = -1.0
  • Slide 16
  • What Happens if we reverse the starting point? That is to say, change the denominator of the ratios
  • Slide 17
  • Period 1Period 2Change = % change = % Quantity, Q 3,0002,500 Q= - 500%Q = 500/3,000 = 0.1667 = 16.7% Price, P $4$5 P = $1%P = 1/4 = 0.25 = 25% Revenue $12,500$12,000 R= -$500 Point Elasticity = %Q/%P = -16.7%/25% = -0.667 IQ/IP = $2,000/$2.500 = -0.8
  • Slide 18
  • Price per Unit P2 = $5 Quantity Sold Q2 = 2,500 TJM X Q1 = 3,000 X P1 = $4 Elasticity at the point (Q1, P1) = - 0.667
  • Slide 19
  • Price per Unit $5 Quantity Sold 2,500 TJM X 3,000 X $4 Elasticity at the point = -0.667 Elasticity at the point = -1.0
  • Slide 20
  • Price per Unit $5 Quantity Sold 2,500 TJM X 3,000 X $4 Elasticity at the point = -0.667 Elasticity at the point = -1.0 Elasticity at the point = - 2.75
  • Slide 21
  • Price per Unit $5 Quantity Sold 2,500 TJM X 3,000 X $4 Elasticity at the point = -0.667 Elasticity at the point = -1.0 Arc Elasticity is an index designed to describe price sensitivity over the range of prices between the two points
  • Slide 22
  • Big Difference in Elasticity measures Use the Point Elasticity ONLY when the changes in the two variables are very small Use Arc Elasticity when the changes in the two variables are large Calculus is based on using infinitesimally small changes Q/P = Eqp = -bP/(a-bP)
  • Slide 23
  • There are many different ways to calculate elasticity. They all depend on what value is used as the denominator in the percentage changes Arc elasticity for marketing managers is calculated by using the minimum of the two choices for the denominator for the % changes
  • Slide 24
  • Period 1Period 2Change% based on minimums Quantity, Q 3,0002,500 Q= - 500%Q min = 500/2,500 = 0.20 =20% Price, P $4$5 P = $1%P min = -$1/4 = -0.25 = 25% Revenue $12,000$12,500 R= $500 Arc Price Elasticity = %Q min /%P min Arc price Elasticity = 20%/25% = -0.8
  • Slide 25
  • Period 1Period 2Change% based on minimums Quantity, Q 3,0002,500 Q= - 500%Q min = 500/2,500 = 0.20 =20% Price, P $4$5 P = $1%P min = -$1/4 = -0.25 = 25% Revenue $12,000$12,500 R= $500 Arc Price Elasticity = %Q min /%P min Arc price Elasticity = 20%/25% = -0.8
  • Slide 26
  • Period 1Period 2Change% based on minimums Quantity, Q 3,0002,500 Q= - 500%Q min = 500/2,500 = 0.20 =20% Price, P $4$5 P = $1%P min = -$1/4 = -0.25 = 25% Revenue $12,000$12,500 R= $500 Arc Price Elasticity = %Q min /%P min Arc price Elasticity = 20%/25% = -0.8
  • Slide 27
  • Period 1Period 2Change% based on minimums Quantity, Q 3,0002,500 Q= - 500%Q min = 500/2,500 = 0.20 =20% Price, P $4$5 P = $1%P min = -$1/4 = -0.25 = 25% Revenue $12,000$12,500 R= $500 Arc Price Elasticity = %Q min /%P min Arc price Elasticity = 20%/25% = -0.8
  • Slide 28
  • Period 1Period 2Change% based on minimums Quantity, Q 3,0002,500 Q= - 500%Q min = 500/2,500 = 0.20 =20% Price, P $4$5 P = $1%P min = -$1/4 = -0.25 = 25% Revenue $12,000$12,500 R= $500 Arc Price Elasticity = %Q min /%P min Arc price Elasticity = 20%/25% = -0.8
  • Slide 29
  • Price per Unit $5 Quantity Sold 2,500 TJM X 3,000 X $4 Elasticity at the point = -0.667 Elasticity at the point = -1.0 Arc Elasticity = -0.8
  • Slide 30
  • With the Arc Elasticity the starting point is irrelevant There is no such thing as an ideal measure of arc elasticity Many Economists like to use the averages of the two points to have an average denominator Marketing managers like using the minimum values for denominators because it is consistent with Impact Analysis
  • Slide 31
  • What are the Three Classic Uses of Elasticity? 1) for comparing the sensitivity of changes in a variables across situations using different units of measure (e.g., apple and orange markets) 2) for estimating the consequences of making a change in one variable (price) on another variable (quantity) 3) for estimating the direction a variable (price) should be changed if an outcome (revenue) is to be maximized
  • Slide 32
  • Exam Question #1 If the car market has a price elasticity of -2.5 and the housing market has a price elasticity of -1.7, then which one is more sensitive to a price change? A) the car market B) the housing market C) not enough information to know?
  • Slide 33
  • Exam Question #1 If the car market has a price elasticity of -2.5 and the housing market has a price elasticity of -1.7, then which one is more sensitive to a price change? A) By definition the car market is correct B) the housing market C) not enough information to know?
  • Slide 34
  • Three Classic Uses of the Elasticity Index 1) for comparing the sensitivity of changes in a variables across situations using different units of measure (e.g., apple and orange markets) 2) for estimating the consequences of making a change in one variable (price) on another variable (quantity) 3) for estimating the direction a variable (price) should be changed if an outcome (revenue) is to be maximized
  • Slide 35
  • Exam Question #2 If the price elasticity in your market is -2.5 and you decrease your price by 2%, then you can expect your sales volume to increase by 5%. True or False? True False
  • Slide 36
  • Exam Question #2 If the price elasticity in your market is -2.5 and you decrease your price by 2%, then you can expect your sales volume to increase by 5%. True or False? True is correct %Q = (Elasticity of Price) x (%P) %Q = (-2.5) x (-2%) = 5% increase in quantity
  • Slide 37
  • Three Classic Uses of the Elasticity Index 1) for comparing the sensitivity of changes in a variables across situations using different units of measure (e.g., apple and orange markets) 2) for estimating the consequences of making a change in one variable (price) on another variable (quantity) 3) for estimating the direction a variable (price) should be changed if an outcome (revenue) is to be maximized
  • Slide 38
  • Exam Question #3 If the price elasticity of your market is -2.75, then an increase in your selling price will decrease your revenue. True or false? A) True B) False
  • Slide 39
  • Exam Question #3 If the price elasticity of your market is -2.75, then an increase in your selling price will decrease your revenue. True or false? A) True is the correct answer B) False
  • Slide 40
  • Price Elasticity = -1 Price per Unit a/2b Quantity Sold a/2 TJM -0.5 -0.75 -1 -1.25 -1.5 -1.75
  • Slide 41
  • Price Elasticity = -1 Price per Unit a/2b Quantity Sold a/2 TJM -0.5 -0.75 -1 -1.25 -1.5 -1.75 Less Revenue
  • Slide 42
  • Revenue looks like R = aP - bP 2 Revenue Price0 TJM -0.5 -0.75 -1 - 1.25 -1.5 -1.75 Price Elasticity a/2b
  • Slide 43
  • Not all elasticities have the property of indicating the direction a variable has to move for another to reach a maximum
  • Slide 44
  • Many Types of Elasticity Elasticity of Price Elasticity of Advertising Elasticity of Markup Elasticity of Return on Advertising Elasticity of Sales Calls Elasticity of Product Quality Elasticity of Retail Outlets Etc.
  • Slide 45
  • What did We Learn? Elasticity is an index and a unit-free ratio of a %y over a %x It can be used to compare sensitivity of changes across different market situations It can be used to predict changes in variables due to changes in other variables Sometimes it indicates which way a variable must change to cause a maximum in another variable
  • Slide 46
  • Remember the Definition The Elasticity of Price, Eqp = %Q/%P Therefore to calculate a change in Q due to a change in P %Q = (Elasticity of Price) x %P %Q = Eqp x %P %Q = (%Q/%P) x %P

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