Introduction to Localization Localization World Conference Berlin 2009 Richard Sikes, Angelika Zerfass, Daniel Goldschmidt.

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Slide 1 Slide 2 Introduction to Localization Localization World Conference Berlin 2009 Richard Sikes, Angelika Zerfass, Daniel Goldschmidt Slide 3 Agenda Introduction the problem, problem definition Tools Localization Process 101 Slide 4 Agenda Localization, internationalization, Globalization, translation, regionalization too many ation terms During the next three sessions we will make sense of them for you Slide 5 Agenda Globalization to understand requirements (for going global) Internationalization to enable products to meet requirements Localization to fulfill requirements Slide 6 The problem Slide 7 The Problem A known company developed a powerful product for CRM (Customer Relationship Management System) The first and main market was, as usual, the USA The board decided that it is time to penetrate new markets: Europe, Far- East, Middle East The R&D department claimed no problem, we are fully UNICODElets go! Slide 8 The Problem Ouch Slide 9 The Problem #1 String Externalization All the GUI (graphical user interface) had to be translated to the target languages But lots of strings were hard-coded (written directly into the code) Slide 10 The Problem #2 - Sorting After translating the GUI, the first installation took place in Spain Some customers were unhappy: Many indexes and lexical orders were corrupted In Traditional Spanish, the letters CH and LL have their own positions in the sort order A, B, C, CH, DK, L, LL, M, etc. Curioso Chalina Luz Llama Slide 11 The Problem The second installation in Germany had three problems: The search function didnt work The financial and numerical functions were buggy Many strings were cutoff in the GUI Slide 12 The Problem #3 Collation Combining characters: ( Latin Small letter U with diaeresis 0x00DC) U (Latin Small letter U 0x0055, Combining diaeresis 0x0308) (Latin Small letter with Cedilla 0x00E7) c (Latin Small letter C 0x0063, Combining Cedilla 0x0327) =fi Case sensitive/insensitive Accent sensitive/insensitive Upper case (Latin Small letter Sharp S)= SS Slide 13 The Problem #4 Numerical format 4.500 (UK) 4.500 (DE) 4,500 (UK) = 4.500 (DE) 4.500 (UK) = 4,500 (DE) Slide 14 The Problem #5 - Length German strings are usually longer than in most languages English: Redo German: Wiederherstellen English: Skip German: Zeilensprung Slide 15 The Problem #6 Date Format The client from Spain called after 2 months; the license had expired earlier then expected! Does 01/07/2006 mean: July, first 2006 Or January, seven th 2006? Slide 16 The Problem #6 Date Format, Calendars The first day of the week is Monday... or Sunday (weekend) Year length Week numbers (ISO? Other?) Last Monday Slide 17 The Problem #7 - Encoding The installation in Russia was catastrophic: All imported data from the legacy systems was full of question marks. All data inserted by the user couldnt be retrieved from the database This was the first installation using a non Western European encoding! Slide 18 The Problem #8 - Segmentation In Japan the problem even got worse: the parsers stopped working. In Japanese, there are no white spaces in-between words. The tokenizers didnt work properly Tokenization is the process of demarcating and possibly classifying sections of a string of input characters. Slide 19 The Problem #9 Politics The Hebrew website had some minor issues: When localizing a website for Israel, which map shall we use: The one with Judea and Samaria The one with the Palestinian Authority The one without the occupied territories Judea and Samaria vs. occupied territories Slide 20 The Problem #10 Grammar Singular? Plural? Male, female, something else? How to translate concatenated strings? Slide 21 The Problem #10 Grammar String concatenation example: The Winfax Installer has found %s. Case Microsoft S=Outlook Netscape S=Netscape Mail Notes S=Notes Email Else that you have no email provider. Slide 22 The Problem #11 Graphics & Symbols The OK gesture: English-speaking: OK France: zero, nothing, worthless Mediterranean: a rude sign Japan: money Brazil & Germany: vulgar, obscene gesture Slide 23 The Problem more issues Color scheme Time zone Paper sizes (A4 vs. Letter) Phone numbers Address format Temperature Measurements Slide 24 Culture is Everywhere If I'm selling to you, I speak your language. If I'm buying, dann mssen Sie Deutsch sprechen (then you must speak German) Willy Brandt Slide 25 Problem Definition Slide 26 Globalization Adaptation of marketing strategies to regional requirements of all kinds. Internationalization Engineering of a product to enable efficient adaptation of that product to local requirements. Localization Localization is the process of adapting a (software) product and accompanying materials to suit a target-market locale. Terms Slide 27 Locale A locale is a geographic region defined by a combination of language and cultural norms. Locale is not to be confused with language.For example fr-FR, fr-CA, fr-CH. Fully supporting locales requires: Globalization to understand requirements Internationalization to enable products to meet requirements Localization to fulfill requirements Slide 28 GLOBALIZATION Expansion of marketing strategies to address regional requirements of all kinds INTERNATIONALIZATION Engineering of a product to enable efficient adaptation to local requirements LOCALIZATION Adapting software and accompanying materials to suit target-market locales GERMAN FRENCH GERMAN FRENCH CHINESE GERMAN FRENCH CHINESE JAPANESE GLOBALIZATION Expansion of marketing strategies to address regional requirements of all kinds INTERNATIONALIZATION Engineering of a product to enable efficient adaptation to local requirements GERMAN FRENCH CHINESE JAPANESE PORTUGUESE Globalization Internationalization Localization Slide 29 Costs that are generated in one place become visible in another. Slide 30 Globalization Expansion of marketing strategies to address regional requirements of all kinds Slide 31 Globalization IMPLICATIONS: International market research Prioritize local markets through business case analysis Development of separate business cases for emerging markets Product planning with serving of diverse markets in mind Tracking of revenues by locale Extensive liaison with foreign sales offices and resources Globalization is a mind set as much as a task set. Slide 32 Internationalization Engineering of a product to enable efficient adaptation to local requirements Slide 33 Internationalization IMPLICATIONS: Removal of cultural assumptions (such as date formats) Implementation of support for global norms (such as language character sets or accounting procedures). Internationalization is an expansion of product capability to be local-generic. Slide 34 Localization The process of adapting software and accompanying materials to suit a target-market locale with the goal of making the product "transparent" to that locale, so that native users would interact with it as if it were developed there and for that locale alone. Slide 35 Localization IMPLICATIONS: Language and character set support Support for various format settings such as decimal delimitation, time/date display, and other such norms. Conformance with locale-specific technical norms. Localization imposes constraints on softwares regional applicability. Slide 36 Localization Success Product appears to be developed in the target market Failure: We can easily notice that the program was adapted (Please read the instructions on the package of hygiene products in the bathroom) Slide 37 Internationalizing the UI Slide 38 The Other Side of the Fence What Localization Managers Often Face Internally Lack of Understanding re Localization Issues and Processes Poorly Internationalized Software Underestimation of the Ripple Effect Caused by Changes Inadequate Version Control Core Project Slippage Marketing Managers Who Cant Plan Ahead Changing Priorities Inadequate International Quality Assurance FUD About Localization HOW CAN YOU HELP? Slide 39 Building sentences out of two or more separate parts using replaceable string variables. Changes in situation will cause the calling string to call a different sub-string. This can lead to various types of problems: Linguistic logic hiccoughs The translator cant determine what or where the sub- strings are Programmers LOVE concatenation! Concatenation Definition Slide 40 Concatenation Example The Winfax Installer has found %s. Case Microsoft S=Outlook Netscape S=Netscape Mail Notes S=Notes Email Else that you have no email provider. Slide 41 Concatenation Excel example Slide 42 Concatenation String probably not found by translator or hard coded. Slide 43 {$1}/g; $content.= $_; } close FILE; print $content; } sub error_out { my (%HTML); $HTML{CGI} = $cgi; $HTML{ERROR} = shift; print_form("$path_templates/error.html",\%HTML); } CGI code snippet in PERL"> sub print_form { my ($content); my ($template,$HTML) = @_; open (FILE, " Generalization Localization -> Customization"> Localization vs. Internationalization Internationalization -> Generalization Localization -> Customization Slide 75 Localization vs. Internationalization GlobalizationInternationalization =+ Localization English Localization Chinese Localization French Localization Hebrew N X Localization Slide 76 Localization vs. Internationalization Internationalization is an essential process for preparing the product for localization The deliverables of the i18n process are two: Generic version of the application Software components of the Localization Kit Slide 77 Localization vs. Internationalization You dont need to actually read and write 22 languages i18n is software engineering, not a linguistic process There are cross-over concepts, however, such as: Allowing sufficient white space for language growth in documentation Not hard-coding page references in books Planning website architecture to support multilingual content and navigation i10n is mainly project management! Slide 78 The Process Slide 79 Whos involved? Content providers (Editors, technical writers, R&D teams etc.) Localization project managers (on publisher side, on vendor side) Localization engineers (on publisher side or vendor side) Translators (In house, freelance, Single Language Vendor, sub contractors) Reviewers (In house, freelance, Single Language Vendor, sub contractors, regional office employees) Quality Assurance specialists (on publisher side, on vendor side) Finance personnel Program managers Product marketing managers Webmasters Slide 80 A short To-Do list Researching and gathering components to be localized Preparing the content (text segmentation, resource extraction etc.) Pseudo localization and proactive i18n QA on core code Leveraging against existing TMs Effort estimation, costing Management Approval Work assignment Translation and localization Proof reading / Editing / Reviewing Testing, if applicable TM updates, maintenance of linguistic assets Delivery Billing Slide 81 The Traditional Process Translating Content Repository Leveraging Effort assessment Reviewing Updating Linguistics assets Linguistics assets: TMs Terms Glossaries Preparing Packaging and delivery Content providers Content providers Slide 82 Preparation Slide 83 Research and collect all relevant components - be sure to have everything you need Create LBOM (localization bill of materials) Prepare the content (text segmentation, resource extraction etc.) using the appropriate tools. Slide 84 Preparation Run a pseudo-localization to test localization readiness Check: Externalization of strings Adaptation of the GUI (length, date, time, currency etc.) Handling of string concatenations Software functionality Data entry, transfer, persistence, and redisplay and Slide 85 Preparation Prepare glossary add new terms/update changed terms If you dont have a glossary prepare one, send it for translation and approve it BEFORE work starts If you as a client own the TM provide vendor with most recent version If your vendor owns the TM be sure the last (clean) version is being used (and also try to change your contract so that you get ownership of the TM) Slide 86 Preparation Prepare a Localization Kit: A Localization Kit contains everything that anyone who touches the project needs to know in order to do their work. Localization Kit includes: Product: Text strings Menus Dialogs Shortcut keys Images Functional l10n components (tax rules) Documentation and OLH files Glossaries TMs Localization Guidelines and Expectations Slide 87 Preparation Leverage the content against your TMs Get comparative quotes and time estimation Obtain information regarding resource arability Slide 88 Preparation: The Vendor The vendor is your best friend! However, this friend sells words (for translation)! Slide 89 Preparation: The Vendor What to consider: Rate: 25-30 $cent/word Pace: 1500 words/day Price should include: Translation Editing Proof reading Not included: Project management QA cost DTP Consider training the vendors translators and the proof readers: it will give them insight into the product Slide 90 Preparation: The Vendor Be sure to establish the following: Processes Escalation process Location of translators Single focal point Localization material Deliverable TM ownership What are you paying for Bug fixing responsibility Service Level Agreement (SLA) Slide 91 Preparation: The Vendor Be sure to determine what you are paying for: Price per word Discount for repetitions Word counting in source language or target language? QA? Bug fixing? Slide 92 Translation Slide 93 Basic premises: Translation is expensive Example: 1 million words = $250,000 per language A 10 languages localization project easily could incur cost of $2.5M Glossaries are required Translation memories are required Slide 94 Context in Translation Translators need to know what to translate and what not to translate (tags, code etc.) Expose only translatable content to them dont run the risk of having your code broken Translators need to know the context: Surrounding text, dialog etc. i.e. display German: anzeigen (to display) German: Anzeige (a display) Slide 95 Testing / QA Slide 96 5 types of testing: Before localization i18n testing l10n readiness testing (pseudo localization) After localization Cosmetic testing Linguistic testing Functional testing Slide 97 Testing / QA Effort Estimations: i18n QA: the same timeframe as the original acceptance tests Pseudo localization: the same timeframe as the original acceptance tests Cosmetic/ linguistic one pass on all dialogs/ screens/ menus etc. Usually a matter of days. Functional testing - the same timeframe as the original full test cycle of the original product Slide 98 Testing / QA i18n testing: Is the software really locale independent Does your software know how to handle data in different languages (double-byte enabled?) Slide 99 Testing / QA Cosmetic Testing: Check to see if the UI is broken Dialogs, buttons, menus etc. have they been properly localized Chinese words are shorter, but the characters are higher! French words lengths Slide 100 Testing / QA Linguistic testing: Does the translation make sense in the context? Edite vs. Edition Share vs. Shares Slide 101 Testing / QA Functional testing: Full acceptance test of the product in target language Usually not done due to cost and time Slide 102 Testing / QA In country reviewing: Resources in or from the country/market, who know the target market and target language to check if localization makes sense Slide 103 Document Quality Control Document QC is another kind of Quality Control, and is just as important (sometimes). Issues to watch for: Linguistic Technical Layout Pagination Screenshots and surrounding text in sync Cross-references and hyperlinks Conditional text Slide 104 Project Wrap TM update Delivery Invoice Management Post-mortem Slide 105 Planning Tips Slide 106 Kick off meeting Touch on a all aspects of project, size, timeline, number of languages etc. Analysis of source meeting Outline potential L10n/I18n issues with source code Scheduling and budgeting Based on size, timeline, number of languages etc. schedule resources, quotes, Terminology setup Create glossary leveraging existing glossaries, adding additional terminology by using tools such as SDL Trados TermExtract. Preparation of source Material and.. Slide 107 Translation of Software Translation, editing and proof-reading (TEP) of software Translation of documentation Translation, editing and proof-reading (TEP) of documentation Testing the Software Testing of software for functional, linguistic and cosmetic defects Screen Capture Capture screenshots for documentation, help files DTP Prepare the hard copy of the documents Planning Tips Slide 108 Start planning from the end: focus on the release date Make sure that you work within a realistic timeframe allow extra time, in case things go wrong (buffers, slippage, holidays) Check the required time for QA Estimate number of words, make sure what your are paying for (source/target) Rule of thumb: Number of words / 2000 = number of translator days for translation Software = slower Flowing documentation ~ faster Diminishing returns as more translators added Planning Tips Slide 109 Keep in mind that translations can start before all resources are ready You can start translating your material once the GUI is frozen Think about running QA for several languages in parallel Remember that the process might require several iterations Planning Tips Slide 110 Pitfalls Slide 111 We are not doing any localization nor translation. We will give our distributors in each country a discount, and they take care of it Careful consider the following: Who is in the end responsible for quality? Who owns the Intellectual Property? No leveraging of handling the localization for all countries at once. Slide 112 Pitfalls There is no need for a localization process, once we release the product, we will prepare Excel files with the strings to be translated Careful consider the following: Has your software been prepared for localization? Be ready for surprises in the code Consider pseudo localization Translation out of context can result in errors and/or excessive project management time Slide 113 Pitfalls Philippe, from engineering, speaks French fluently, lets ask him to translated the GUI of our product! Careful consider the following: Languages are evolving therefore best translations will be done using in- country translators What about localization? What about using translation tools? Leveraging, Terminology, Glossary? Slide 114 Q/A Ask now Slide 115 Thank you for your attention Slide 116 Backup slides Slide 117 Jargon Slide 118 g11n i18n l10n Sim ship MLV SLV SLA Translation Memory (TM) Segment Matching (100%, ICE, Partial, Fuzzy) Leveraging Alignment Glossary, Glossary building Terminology management Machine Translation Localizing Marketing Translating Guideline NDA Software l10n Resource Resource ID Context Localization Tool QA Linguistic QA Cosmetic QA Functional QA Reviewing Proof Reading Localization Readiness Pseudo Localization Single source Word count CMS Publisher Slide 119 Preparation Localization Kit includes: Product: Text strings Menus Dialogs Shortcut keys Images Functional l10n components (tax rules) Documentation and OLH files Glossaries TMs Localization Guidelines and Expectations Slide 120 Preparation of software User Interface Pseudo-translation to test for localizability Are buttons large enough for text expansion? Is there hard-coded text in the software? Can the characters of the target language be displayed correctly? Hiding or locking of non-translatable text with a software localization tool Re-use of old projects by alignment Setup of a terminology list Slide 121 Preparation of documents Internationalization of documents Spaced layout Simplified English Single Sourcing with conditional text or text layers within one document Content Management System with text modules Text preparation Text extraction or file conversion into a format that translation memory systems can deal with Hiding non-translatable text layers / columns / paragraphs Slide 122 Other preparation steps Terminology Extraction, collection, creation of lists (Excel) or term bases Alignment (re-use of old projects) Setup of process automation (Workflow Management) Slide 123 Testing Slide 124 Software Testing Before translation Internationalization testing Is the software locale independent Will the software be able to accommodate different characters sets, date formats, measurements Localization testing Pseudo translation or simulated translation to find out if the characters of the target language can be displayed correctly Will expanding text of the target language still fit the buttons and text fields During translation Spell check and terminology checks Checks if the translator did not forget any access keys (underlined letters that allow calling a menu or menu point by keyboard) Checks that the same access key has not been used twice in a menu Slide 125 Software Testing After translation Cosmetic checks Check the UI if not broken Layout of dialogs, buttons, menus etc. Chinese words are shorter, but the characters are higher! German words lengths Linguistic checks Does the translation make sense? Functional test Full acceptance test of the product in target language Has the translation in any way broken the functionality Are data input, stored, manipulated, and redisplayed accurately? (often not done because of time and cost constraints) Slide 126 Document Testing Resources in or from the country/market, who know the target market and target language to check if localization makes sense Spell check, formal check (punctuation) and terminology check on translated text Cosmetic checks Pagination, layout should be checked and possibly redone Correct index Cross-references, hyperlinks (online-help) Correct screenshots Linguistic checks Does the translation make sense? Do software and documentation correspond? Functional test Cross-references in online help Hyperlinks on web pages Slide 127 What does it take to be a good L10n Project Manager? Slide 128 Adaptability / versatile thinker think outside the box, come up with non-orthodox solutions Technically inclined know the basics of what an L10n engineers daily work entails Localization industry experience translation background, editing background Attention to detail see defects, potential pitfalls, have a good eye for layout/design Skilled in writing and presentation comfortable writing in native and potentially other languages Slide 129 Interest in and awareness of foreign cultures: read foreign language books, watch foreign language movies, enjoy diversity One or more non-English languages helpful to know basics or the concept of non-European languages (i.e. Chinese, Japanese) Instinct for prioritization know how to get your ducks in a row Pragmatic, realistic approach to problem-solving have processes in place, but dont follow them slavishly if faced with a worse case scenario and What does it take to be a good L10n Project Manager? Slide 130 Localization Quality Assurance: Skill Set Comfortable with diverse language software versions Ability to distinguish between languages, i.e. German from Dutch Versatility of OS, Platform, & Database language versions Generic QA methodology Creation and usage of scripted QA tools

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