Introduction to Localization Localization World Silicon Valley 2009 Angelika Zerfass Daniel Goldschmidt, Richard Sikes.
Slide 1 Slide 2 Introduction to Localization Localization World Silicon Valley 2009 Angelika Zerfass Daniel Goldschmidt, Richard Sikes Slide 3 Agenda The Problem Description Definition Localization Process Overview Beginning Ending Planning Tips Pitfalls Slide 4 Agenda Localization, Internationalization, Globalization, Translation, Regionalization, Marketization too many ation terms During this session we will make sense of them for you Slide 5 Agenda Globalization to understand requirements (for going global) Internationalization to enable products to meet requirements Localization to fulfill requirements Slide 6 The problem (Description) Slide 7 The Problem A known company developed a powerful product for CRM (Customer Relationship Management System) The first and main market was, as usual, the USA The board decided that it is time to penetrate new markets: Europe, Far- East, Middle East The R&D department claimed no problem, we are fully UNICODElets go! Slide 8 The Problem Ouch Slide 9 The Problem #1 String Externalization All the GUI (graphical user interface) had to be translated to the target languages But lots of strings were hard-coded (written directly into the code) Slide 10 The Problem #2 - Sorting After translating the GUI, the first installation took place in Spain Some customers were unhappy: Many indexes and lexical orders were corrupted In Traditional Spanish, the letters CH and LL have their own positions in the sort order A, B, C, CH, DK, L, LL, M, etc. Curioso Chalina Luz Llama Slide 11 The Problem The second installation in Germany had three problems: The search function didnt work The financial and numerical functions were buggy Many strings were cutoff in the GUI Slide 12 The Problem #3 Collation Combining characters: ( Latin Small letter U with diaeresis 0x00DC) U (Latin Small letter U 0x0055, Combining diaeresis 0x0308) (Latin Small letter with Cedilla 0x00E7) c (Latin Small letter C 0x0063, Combining Cedilla 0x0327) =fi Case sensitive/insensitive Accent sensitive/insensitive Upper case (Latin Small letter Sharp S)= SS Slide 13 The Problem #4 Numerical format 4.500 (UK) 4.500 (DE) 4,500 (UK) = 4.500 (DE) 4.500 (UK) = 4,500 (DE) Slide 14 The Problem #5 - Length German strings are usually longer than in most languages English: Redo German: Wiederherstellen English: Skip German: Zeilensprung Slide 15 The Problem #6 Date Format The client from Spain called after 2 months; the license had expired earlier then expected! Does 01/07/2006 mean: July, first 2006 Or January, seven th 2006? Slide 16 The Problem #6 Date Format, Calendars The first day of the week is Monday... or Sunday (weekend) Year length Week numbers (ISO? Other?) Last Monday Slide 17 The Problem #7 - Encoding The installation in Russia was catastrophic: All imported data from the legacy systems was full of question marks. All data inserted by the user couldnt be retrieved from the database This was the first installation using a non Western European encoding! Slide 18 The Problem #8 - Segmentation In Japan the problem even got worse: the parsers stopped working. In Japanese, there are no white spaces in-between words. The tokenizers didnt work properly Tokenization is the process of demarcating and possibly classifying sections of a string of input characters. Slide 19 The Problem #9 Politics The Hebrew website had some minor issues: When localizing a website for Israel, which map shall we use: The one with Judea and Samaria The one with the Palestinian Authority The one without the occupied territories Judea and Samaria vs. occupied territories Slide 20 The Problem #10 Grammar Singular? Plural? Male, female, something else? Slide 21 The Problem #11 Graphics & Symbols The OK gesture: English-speaking: OK France: zero, nothing, worthless Mediterranean: a rude sign Japan: money Brazil & Germany: vulgar, obscene gesture Slide 22 The Problem more issues Color scheme Time zone Paper sizes (A4 vs. Letter) Phone numbers Address format Temperature Measurements Slide 23 Culture is Everywhere If I'm selling to you, I speak your language. If I'm buying, dann mssen Sie Deutsch sprechen (then you must speak German) Willy Brandt Slide 24 The Problem (Definition) Slide 25 Globalization Adaptation of marketing strategies to regional requirements of all kinds. Internationalization Engineering of a product to enable efficient adaptation of that product to local requirements. Localization Localization is the process of adapting a (software) product and accompanying materials to suit a target-market locale. Terms Slide 26 Locale A locale is a geographic region defined by a combination of language and cultural norms. Locale is not to be confused with language.For example fr-FR, fr-CA, fr-CH. Fully supporting locales requires: Globalization to understand requirements Internationalization to enable products to meet requirements Localization to fulfill requirements Slide 27 GLOBALIZATION Expansion of marketing strategies to address regional requirements of all kinds INTERNATIONALIZATION Engineering of a product to enable efficient adaptation to local requirements LOCALIZATION Adapting software and accompanying materials to suit target-market locales GERMAN FRENCH GERMAN FRENCH CHINESE GERMAN FRENCH CHINESE JAPANESE GLOBALIZATION Expansion of marketing strategies to address regional requirements of all kinds INTERNATIONALIZATION Engineering of a product to enable efficient adaptation to local requirements GERMAN FRENCH CHINESE JAPANESE PORTUGUESE Globalization Internationalization Localization Slide 28 Costs that are generated in one place become visible in another. Slide 29 Globalization Expansion of marketing strategies to address regional requirements of all kinds Slide 30 Globalization IMPLICATIONS: International market research Prioritize local markets through business case analysis Development of separate business cases for emerging markets Product planning with serving of diverse markets in mind Tracking of revenues by locale Extensive liaison with foreign sales offices and resources Globalization is a mind set as much as a task set. Slide 31 Internationalization Engineering of a product to enable efficient adaptation to local requirements Slide 32 Internationalization IMPLICATIONS: Removal of cultural assumptions (such as date formats) Implementation of support for global norms (such as language character sets or accounting procedures). Internationalization is an expansion of product capability to be local-generic. Slide 33 Internationalizing the UI Slide 34 Localization The process of adapting software and accompanying materials to suit a target-market locale with the goal of making the product "transparent" to that locale, so that native users would interact with it as if it were developed there and for that locale alone. Slide 35 Localization IMPLICATIONS: Language and character set support Support for various format settings such as decimal delimitation, time/date display, and other such norms. Conformance with locale-specific technical norms. Localization imposes constraints on softwares regional applicability. Slide 36 Localization Success Product appears to be developed in the target market Failure: We can easily notice that the program was adapted (Please read the instructions on the package of hygiene products in the bathroom) Slide 37 Building sentences out of two or more separate parts using replaceable string variables. Changes in situation will cause the calling string to call a different sub-string. This can lead to various types of problems: Linguistic logic hiccoughs The translator cant determine what or where the sub- strings are Programmers LOVE concatenation! Concatenation Definition Slide 38 Concatenation Example The Winfax Installer has found %s. Case Microsoft S=Outlook Netscape S=Netscape Mail Notes S=Notes Email Else that you have no email provider. Slide 39 Concatenation Excel example Slide 40 The Other Side of the Fence What Localization Managers Often Face Internally Lack of Understanding re Localization Issues and Processes Poorly Internationalized Software Underestimation of the Ripple Effect Caused by Changes Inadequate Version Control Core Project Slippage Marketing Managers Who Cant Plan Ahead Changing Priorities Inadequate International Quality Assurance FUD About Localization HOW CAN YOU HELP? Slide 41 The Process Slide 42 Whos involved? Content providers (Editors, technical writers, R&D teams etc.) Localization project managers (on publisher side, on vendor side) Localization engineers (on publisher side or vendor side) Translators (In house, freelance, Single Language Vendor, sub contractors) Reviewers (In house, freelance, Single Language Vendor, sub contractors, regional office employees) Quality Assurance specialists (on publisher side, on vendor side) Finance personnel Program managers Product marketing managers Webmasters Slide 43 The Traditional Process Translating Content Repository Leveraging Effort assessment Reviewing Updating Linguistics assets Linguistics assets: TMs Terms Glossaries Preparing Packaging and delivery Content providers Content providers Slide 44 Preparation Slide 45 Research and collect all relevant components - be sure to have everything you need Create LBOM (localization bill of materials) Prepare the content (text segmentation, resource extraction etc.) using the appropriate tools. Slide 46 Preparation Run a pseudo-localization to test localization readiness Check: Externalization of strings Adaptation of the GUI (length, date, time, currency etc.) Handling of string concatenations Software functionality Data entry, transfer, persistence, and redisplay and Slide 47 Preparation Prepare glossary add new terms/update changed terms If you dont have a glossary prepare one, send it for translation and approve it BEFORE work starts If you as a client own the TM provide vendor with most recent version If your vendor owns the TM be sure the last (clean) version is being used (and also try to change your contract so that you get ownership of the TM) Slide 48 Preparation Prepare a Localization Kit: A Localization Kit contains everything that anyone who touches the project needs to know in order to do their work. Localization Kit includes: Product: Text strings Menus Dialogs Shortcut keys Images Functional l10n components (tax rules) Documentation and OLH files Glossaries TMs Localization Guidelines and Expectations Slide 49 Preparation Leverage the content against your TMs Get comparative quotes and time estimation Obtain information regarding resource arability Slide 50 Preparation: The Vendor The vendor is your best friend! However, this friend sells words (for translation)! Slide 51 Testing / QA Slide 52 5 types of testing: Before localization i18n testing l10n readiness testing (pseudo localization) After localization Cosmetic testing Linguistic testing Functional testing Slide 53 Testing / QA Effort Estimations: i18n QA: the same timeframe as the original acceptance tests Pseudo localization: the same timeframe as the original acceptance tests Cosmetic/ linguistic one pass on all dialogs/ screens/ menus etc. Usually a matter of days. Functional testing - the same timeframe as the original full test cycle of the original product Slide 54 Testing / QA i18n testing: Is the software really locale independent Does your software know how to handle data in different languages (double-byte enabled?) Slide 55 Testing / QA Cosmetic Testing: Check to see if the UI is broken Dialogs, buttons, menus etc. have they been properly localized Chinese words are shorter, but the characters are higher! French words lengths Slide 56 Testing / QA Linguistic testing: Does the translation make sense in the context? Edite vs. Edition Share vs. Shares Slide 57 Testing / QA Functional testing: Full acceptance test of the product in target language Usually not done due to cost and time Slide 58 Testing / QA In country reviewing: Resources in or from the country/market, who know the target market and target language to check if localization makes sense Slide 59 Document Quality Control Document QC is another kind of Quality Control, and is just as important (sometimes). Issues to watch for: Linguistic Technical Layout Pagination Screenshots and surrounding text in sync Cross-references and hyperlinks Conditional text Slide 60 Project Wrap TM update Delivery Invoice Management Post-mortem Slide 61 Planning Tips Slide 62 Kick off meeting Touch on a all aspects of project, size, timeline, number of languages etc. Analysis of source meeting Outline potential L10n/I18n issues with source code Scheduling and budgeting Based on size, timeline, number of languages etc. schedule resources, quotes, Terminology setup Create glossary leveraging existing glossaries, adding additional terminology by using tools such as SDL Trados TermExtract. Preparation of source Material and.. Slide 63 Translation of Software Translation, editing and proof-reading (TEP) of software Translation of documentation Translation, editing and proof-reading (TEP) of documentation Testing the Software Testing of software for functional, linguistic and cosmetic defects Screen Capture Capture screenshots for documentation, help files DTP Prepare the hard copy of the documents Planning Tips Slide 64 Start planning from the end: focus on the release date Make sure that you work within a realistic timeframe allow extra time, in case things go wrong (buffers, slippage, holidays) Check the required time for QA Estimate number of words, make sure what your are paying for (source/target) Rule of thumb: Number of words / 2000 = number of translator days for translation Software = slower Flowing documentation ~ faster Diminishing returns as more translators added Planning Tips Slide 65 Keep in mind that translations can start before all resources are ready You can start translating your material once the GUI is frozen Think about running QA for several languages in parallel Remember that the process might require several iterations Planning Tips Slide 66 Pitfalls Slide 67 We are not doing any localization nor translation. We will give our distributors in each country a discount, and they take care of it Careful consider the following: Who is in the end responsible for quality? Who owns the Intellectual Property? No leveraging of handling the localization for all countries at once. Slide 68 Pitfalls There is no need for a localization process, once we release the product, we will prepare Excel files with the strings to be translated Careful consider the following: Has your software been prepared for localization? Be ready for surprises in the code Consider pseudo localization Translation out of context can result in errors and/or excessive project management time Slide 69 Pitfalls Philippe, from engineering, speaks French fluently, lets ask him to translated the GUI of our product! Careful consider the following: Languages are evolving therefore best translations will be done using in- country translators What about localization? What about using translation tools? Leveraging, Terminology, Glossary? Slide 70 Q/A Ask now Slide 71 Thank you for your attention