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into a broad bowl-shape. Sepals 2, obovate, 18-26mm long, sparsely to densely hispid-pubescent. Petals 4, yellow, broadly obovate, 30-40 mm long, somewhat overlapping, often crimped. Stamens numerous, yellow. Capsule linear, 15-30 cm long, 2-valved, usually curved, glabrous, warty throughout, not constricted between the seeds. DISTRIBUTION. Coasts of south and west Europe north to Oslo, and the Black Sea coast and parts of Asia Minor, more rarely inland; generally at low altitudes. Glaucium flavum Crantz, Stirp. Austr. 2: 133 (1763). Type: Herb. Linn. 66813. Chelidonium glauciurn L., Sp. PI. 506 (1 753). Glaucium luteum Scop., F1. Carniol. (ed. 2) 1: 369 (1772). Chelidonium littorale Salisb., Prodr. 377 (1 796). C. fuluum Poir., Encyc. Suppl. 5: 606 (1817). Glaucium tricolor Godr. in Mtm. Acad. Montp. (sect. Mtdic.) 1: 41 1 (1853). 134. KLEINIA SAGINATA Compositae Pat Halliday The genus Kleinia Miller is not one which commands the undivided attention of growers. Indeed, many people are unaware of the existence of the genus, while those who are familiar with it are uncomfortably conscious of' the confused nomenclature which sur- rounds it and its two close allies, Notonia DC. and Senecio L. Linnaeus originally created Kleinia to comprise four new taxa. He named it in honour of the German zoologist Jacob Theodor Klein (1 685- 175 I ) , a grower of rare plants who lived in Danzig. In 1753 (Species Plantarurn 2: 834) for some unstated reason, Linnaeus trans- ferred these four taxa to the genus Cacalia L., but they were reinstated in the following year by Miller who validated the name Kleinia to include them. In 1833 De Candolle published the name Notonia for three white-flowered Indian taxa which seemed to be related to, bur distinct from, Cacalia and Kleinia and before the end of the century, African red-flowered plants closely resembling the Indian species, were also being classified as Notonia. This brought into question the identity of the red-flowered Arabian stem-succulents which had been described as Cacalia species in the eighteenth century and were so patently akin to the African notonias. Eventually Kleinia became defined as comprising the stem and/or leaf succulent species with 151 discoid capitula hitherto placed in Senecio, but excluding borderline succulents with yellow, radiate capitula. The latter remained in Senecio sensu lato. Notonia, and more recently Notoniopsis B. Nord., were placed in synonymy under Kleinia. In 1986, Charles Jeffrey re-defined the genus Kleinia as having a succulent habit, discoid capitula, uniform pappus-hairs, appendaged style-arms, drusiform crystals in the ovary-walls and elongated, narrow, basally little-dilated anther-collars. He placed Kleinia in the Gynuroid complex of the Senecioneue (subtribe Senecioninae) together with Gynuru Cass. which has a herbaceous habit plus distinctive, subulate style-arms, and Solanecio (Sch. Bip.) Walp. which has trun- cate style-arms with or without an apical tuft of longerkfused papillae. At the present time the genus contains approximately 40 species; the main concentration is in Tropical Africa (30-35 species) with another 10 in Madagascar. India has three or four species, Sri Lanka has one, Arabia five or six and the Canary Islands one. The 15-20 species in South Africa have not yet been researched. Once they have been thoroughly examined they are likely to be reclassified as Senecio. Kleinia saginata was first discovered by Major Andrew Fuller in coastal Dhofar in 1968 and was collected soon afterwards (in 1969) by Captain R.T.W. Fiennes, who found it growing in dry scrub near Ain Surit at an altitude of600-1,300m. It was not until 1970 that it was introduced into cultivation by John Lavranos. He sent it to Lloyd Brinson in California, where it soon became a popular plant with American growers and was distributed under the name Senecio fulleri. Subsequently both Alan Radcliffe-Smith and Tony Miller collected the same taxon along the Salalah-Thumrait road, Radcliffe-Smith in September 1977, Miller in October 1979, and it was the latter collector who supplied the plant from which Plate 134 was prepared. In this area on the edge of the monsoon belt, K. suginuta grows at an altitude of 600 m in crevices in the sandstone, where it receives abundant moisture in the form of drifting mists and residual moisture from the monsoons. The species appears to be confined to chis small area ofsouthern Arabia, where it does not seem to be either common or widespread. Alan Radcliffe-Smith reported that he had seen the plant growing in only two localities in Dhofar, at Aqabat a1 Hatab and several miles further on, both localities being lush pockets in fertile gullies and offering similar cool, misty conditions for growth. 152 The name Senecio fulle~ wzl~ never validly published and in 1983 the taxon was formally described as xleinia suginutu P. Halliday in Kew Bulletin. Its closest relative is the creeping K. pendulu Forssk. from which it differs in its much stouter, conspicuously white-punctate, knobbly stems and the fleshy, channelled, deciduous leaves. Xleiniu pendulu has more slender, terete, arching stems and persistent, tiny, dry, awl-like leaves. Other closely related species occur in tropical Africa. CULTIVATION. Comparatively few people are willing to give these curious rather than beautiful plants a chance in the glasshouse, which is a pity, because some kleinias make attractive glasshouse subjects. Xleiniu suginatu is such a plant - it flowers reasonably readily in cultivation after the leaves have matured, usually in September and October, when the freely-produced scarlet capitula greatly enhance its appearance. Even when the plant is not blooming, the patterned, swollen stems are a colourful addition to a collection. Being slow growing, it does not sprawl over neighbouring pots, and is therefore easily contained. (Any decumbent growth can be made into cuttings and thus increase stock.) In the wild, as has been said, K.suginatu thrives in cool, misty conditions in a lush habitat, but the damp British winter is no substitute as far as this species is concerned. Although it will root readily enough from stem-cuttings or joints, it is not an easy plant to keep going for any length of time. Unless the correct balance between atmospheric moisture and just enough dampness around the roots is maintained, the plant will soon succumb to stem-rot. In short, the drainage must be perfect for the plant to continue to thrive. Plants are easily raised from seed when this is available, but few kleinias set seed in cultivation and it is much simpler to propa- gate them vegetatively from stem-cuttings. Cuttings should always be taken while the plant is in active growth. The stems should be severed at the narrowest point - it is simplest to remove a whole joint, for then the cut surface is minimal; it callouses quickly and there is no stem shrinkage. The cuttings must be left for two or three days to callous if the wound is small; larger cut surfaces will need longer. When the cut surface has healed, the cutting should be laid on the surface of a damp, not wet, compost made up of 50 per cent peat and 50 per cent sand (100 per cent sand can be used, if preferred) to root. Ideally gentle bottom heat should be provided, but is not essential. Some growers prefer to insert the cuttings into the 153 compost, but this is inadvisable with excessively succulent species such as this one, as the buried portion may rot. If a stem is partly rotted it can sometimes be salvaged by cutting away the damaged tissue and leaving the sound piece to callous for a longer period of time, but if the cut surface is extensive, the stem will shrink and be slow to re-root. In such cases, unless the plant has a special value, it is best discarded. Some growers disinfect the cut surfaces of cuttings with flowers of sulphur, but in some instances this can hinder the healing process and conceal the onset of secondary rot. Hormone powder may be used to accelerate rooting, but is a matter of personal preference. Most kleinias root readily enough without such refine- ments. When the cuttings have rooted they should be transferred to pots and grown on in a standard succulent plant soil mix. Plants should be fed regularly throughout the growing season and water Kle- saginata. A, root-tubers, x3; B, nodal PaEerh, x 1; c1 and C2, leava, transverse sections, x 3; D, phyllary, x 3; E, tip of pappus hair, k 56; F, floret, x 4; G, Young floret, opened out, x 4; H, two anthers, x 10; I, sV1e-arms~ X 12; J, style-arm appendage, X 36; K, achene, x 4; L, achene-hair, much enlarged. Drawn Pat Halliday. 154 Plate 134 Kleinia saginata MARY BATES supplied liberally, the amount given being reduced as the plants become dormant. However, if the glasshouse temperature remains above 16C, a little water may be necessary to keep the plants in good condition. Kleinia saginatu should be given a completely dry rest period when no new stem-joints are being produced and the leaves have fallen. I t should be remembered that for many succulents, including Kleinia species, light is more important than heat and K. saginatu will grow well in low temperatures (So-lO0C) provided that adequate light is provided. (Even lower temperatures will be tolerated for short periods, providing the compost is kept completely dry.) On the other hand, intense sunlight should be avoided, as it can cause a uniform, depressing bronze coloration of the stems, and, what is far worse, can blister or even cook the plants in a few hours. DESCRIPTION. Erect to decumbent, glabrous perennial herb 7-1 0(-20) cm in height with tuberous roots. Stems green, conspicuously white-punctate, swollen, fleshy, jointed, the joints at first globose then lengthening to c. 6 cm long, attaining 1-4cm in diameter with prominent mounds bearing con- spicuous leaf-scars and nodal patterns of 5-8 short, radiating, purplish green lines which eventually fade. Leaues deciduous, green with a light bloom, crowded towards the tip of each stem, fleshy, flat (young leaves elliptic in transverse section), elliptic to linear or lanceolate or oblanceolate, rarely ovate, 10-30 mm long, 3-6(-10) mm wide, 2 mm thick, base cuneate, apex acute, midrib (of mature leaves) grooved above, flat or grooved beneath. Infrorescence a solitary, terminal capitulum borne on an erect unbranched, purplish and purple-striated, glaucous, bracteate scape up to 16( -30) cm long, swollen to 5 (-8) mm in diameter directly beneath the capitulum. Bracts 7-10, filiform, up to 7 mm long. Capitula homogamous, cylindrical, 2.6 cm long. Phyllarzes usually 13, linear-lanceolate, c. 2 cm long, green with purple staining at the base, red at the acuminate apex, margins narrow, scarious, red-bordered, pubescent within the apex and margnally for a third of their length; veins 1-3, deep green. Florets red, c. 30 per capitulum, 1.4- 1.75 cm long, sparsely multicellular-hairy externally; lobes c. 3 mm long, patent. Anthers yellow, 3-3.5 mm long (excluding the collar, 1 mm long and the lanceolate apical appendage c. 1 mm long). Style-arm red, 4-5 mm long; stigmatic appendage pink or red, conical, 0.75 mm long, short-papillose. Achenes (abortive) oblong-cylindrical, 3 mm long, with numerous ribs, villous. Pappus-hairs white, 1.6- 1.9 cm long. I~ISTRIBUTION. S. Arabia, apparently confined to a small area of Oman, growing on rocky slopes in dry scrub and sandstone crevices; altitude 600- 1,300 m. Kleinia saginata P. Halliday in Kew Bull. 37: 633 (1983); Kew Bull. 39: 824 ( 1984). Type: Oman, Dhofar Province, A. Radclfe-Smith 5 156 ( h o b type K). 155 BIBLIOGRAPHY De Candolle, A. (1833). In Guillemin, A., Arch. Bot. 2: 518. Halliday, P. (1984). The genus Kleinia (Compositae) in Arabia. Kew Bull. ( 1985). A new species of Kleinia from Arabia. Brit. Cact. Succ. J . 3: (1988). Kleinia saginata in Hookers Icon. PI. 39(4): 52-54, t.3884. Jeffrey, C. (1986). The Senecioneae in East Tropical Africa. Notes of Trager, J.M. (1985). Cacti and succulents for the amateur. Senecio fulleri 39: 81 7-827. 36-37. Compositae: IV. Kew Bull. 41: 873-943. nom. nud. Cact. Succ. 3. (U.S.) 57: 1 13. 135. PHRAGMIPEDIUM BESSEAE Orchidaceae Sarah Robbins In 1981 Dr Calaway Dodson and Janet Kuhn described a new species of Phragmipedium in the American Orchid Society Bulletin. It was surprising that this species had remained undiscovered for so long, despite years of keen exploration by slipper orchid enthusiasts. Even more surprising was that it turned out to be one of the most spectacular members of the genus. The flower is attractively shaped, but it is the colouring that makes P. besseae such an exciting dis- covery. For years orchid growers had longed for a red slipper orchid; P. besseae is a stunning orange-red. This beautiful orchid is named after Mrs Libby Besse who dis- covered it while on an expedition to northern Peru in 1981. Mrs Besse is a member of the board of the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens in Florida, and has contributed substantially to botanical exploration in the neotropics. On her return from Peru she took some live material of P. besseae to Dr Dodson, at that time Director of Selby, who confirmed that it was a new species. Sometime later Selby held its annual orchid auction, and three plants of P. besseae from Mrs Besses original collection were made available. The plants were sold for an incredible US$1,700 each. Unfortunately all three plants subsequently died in cultivation. Mrs Besses collection was not the first time that the species had been gathered from the wild. Werner Hopp had collected a specimen of P. besseae over 60 years earlier, but Rudolf Schlechter had mis- 156