LEA L1 Civilisation GB- Irlande Part six The Irish Republic Slide 2 The Republic of Ireland today Coastline : 1,000 km Capital : Dublin A Republic since 1949 Population 4.5 million (Northern Ireland 1.8 million, entire island 6,2 million) 87% are Catholics Slide 3 Slide 4 Slide 5 Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.1 years (Portugal 78,3; France 81,1; UK 79,4)) male: 77.86 years female: 82.41 years (2010 est.) Total fertility rate: 2.03 children born/woman (2010 est.) Ethnic groups: Irish 87.4%, other white 7.5%, Asian 1.3%, black 1.1%, mixed 1.1%, unspecified 1.6% (2006 census) Slide 6 Urbanisation: Urban population: 61% of total population (2008) (over 80% in England, 77% in France) Rate of urbanization: 2.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.) Slide 7 Main cities Dublin 270 000 inhabitants in the city itself Cork 190 000 Limerick 91 000 Galway 73 000 Lisburn 71 000 Slide 8 Dublin Slide 9 Dublin castle Slide 10 Molly Malone Slide 11 Religions: Roman Catholic 87.4%, Church of Ireland 2.9%, other Christian 1.9%, other 2.1%, unspecified 1.5%, none 4.2% (2006 census) The Church of Ireland (Irish: Eaglais na hireann) is an autonomous section of the Anglican religion, existing everywhere in the island of Ireland. Slide 12 Saint Patricks cathedral Slide 13 St Marys Roman Catholic pro-cathedral in Dublin Slide 14 Dublin mosque Slide 15 Languages: English is the language generally used, Irish (Gaelic or Gaeilge) is also an official language spoken mainly in areas along the western coast Slide 16 Around 70 000 Irlandais (under 2 % of the population ) use Irish on a daily basis, 260 000 have a good knowledge of Irish and 1 600 000 have some knowledge. Irish is studied in all schools in the Republic. Slide 17 Irish political life Slide 18 Ireland is a republic with a parliamentary system of government. The President of Ireland serves as head of state, is elected for a seven-year term and can be re-elected only once. The president is largely a figurehead, but has a constitutional role. From 1990 to 2011 the president was a woman Mary Robinson (1990-97) then Mary McAleese (1997 to 2011). Slide 19 Michael Higgins, president of Ireland since 2011 Slide 20 The president appoints the Taoiseach, which is the equivalent of the prime minister in most countries. They always appoint the leader of the party with the most seats in the parliament, This Irish word is pronounced /ti:x/ Slide 21 The current Taoiseach is Enda Kenny, from the Fine Gael party Most Taoisigh have been the leader of the political party that wins the most seats in the national elections. It has become normal for coalitions to form a government, as there has not been a single-party government since 1989. Slide 22 The current government consists of a coalition of two parties; Fine Gael : Labour. Slide 23 The Dail Slide 24 There exist all-Ireland institutions in Transport Telecommunications Energy Water The North-South Ministerial Council, set up in 1998, formulate all-Ireland policies on questions such as Food safety Tourism Agriculture Slide 25 The end of the Celtic tiger? One of the lowest corporate tax rates in the developed world, coupled with low paid but educated labour force, led to an annual growth rate of 6.5 per cent from 1989 until 2006. Ireland got the nickname of the Celtic tiger Slide 26 For the first time in over a hundred years, perhaps for the first time in its history, Ireland after 1995 was no longer a country people left in order to emigrate, but a country that immigrants were attracted to. In 1987 there were 3.5 million inhabitants in the Irish Republic. By 2005 there were 4.1 million Slide 27 Major investments were made in technical Higher education. More than 300 high technology companies came to operate in Ireland, This sector soon made up 25% of Irish exports, Slide 28 In addition, around a hundred pharmaceutical companies established themselves in Ireland. Slide 29 The companies were attracted by -A well-educated workforce -Low levels of corporation tax -Staff who spoke fluent English, the International language. The republics economy became much less dependent on that of Britain. Slide 30 In 1973 55% of the Republics exports went to Britain, In 2004 only 18% went to Britain 20% went to the United States 44% went to countries in the European Union other than Britain Slide 31 Many people had a better standard of living in this period in Ireland, However, important pockets of poverty remained. And rapidly increasing house prices cause many problems for ordinary irish people. Slide 32 House prices 1996-2007 Slide 33 In 2010 the financial crisis hit Irelands economy very hard. In October 2008 the Irish government bailed out the big Irish banks, going further than most other developed economies by guaranteeing the transactions of the banks. The Fianna-Fail/Greens coalition government predicted that it would spend $US60 billion to bail out the banks in a country with an economy that has an annual GDP of $US228 billion. Slide 34 The result was strict austerity budgets, and some of the biggest protests seen for many years, Between 60 000 and 100 000 people marched in Dublin. Slide 35 Slide 36 The government was extremely unpopular, and was replaced in the 2011 elections by the present coalition. Slide 37 B: A short history of independent Ireland Slide 38 The war of independence The war of independence 1919-1921 led to independence for the Southern part of the island. Slide 39 The partition was supposed to be a temporary measure. It left a big catholic majority in the South, and a protestant majority in the North. Slide 40 The Irish free state The South became the Irish free state -A member of the commonwealth -Still in theory subordinate to the British King -An independent legislature Slide 41 The immediate result was a civil war between those who accepted the partition and the treaty and those who wanted immediate reunification of Ireland and a Republican form of government, Slide 42 Slide 43 Slide 44 Slide 45 1939-45 Ireland remains neutral in the Second world war, despite heavy pressure. Slide 46 Medal from the emergency Slide 47 1949 Ireland leaves the commonwealth and declares itself a republic. 1949 Slide 48 After the war ireland was not allowed to join the United Nations until 1955. 1955 Slide 49 In 1969 British troops were sent into Northern Ireland. They quickly became seen as enemies of Catholics in the North. Even some government ministers in the South were trying to raise money for the armed struggle in the North against Britain. They were removed from the government by the Taoiseach. Slide 50 In 1972 after Bloody Sunday, Britain was hated in the South, The British embassy in Dublin was burned down by a demonstration of 20 000 people, 1972 Slide 51 British embassy in Dublin February 1972 1972 Slide 52 In 1972 a referendum was held on whether or not to join the European Economic Community, ancestor of the European Union Slide 53 211 891 voters said No 1 041 890 voters said Yes Slide 54 In 1973 the Irish republic joined the European Economic Community at the same time as Britain did. This was a period of high unemployment. In 1973 unemployment was officially counted as 7.9%, In 1985 unemployment was at 18.2% Slide 55 Slide 56 Entry in the European Economic Community meant that funds were available -From the common Agricultural Policy, to aid Irelands bigger farmers (44 billion of EU funds went to agriculture over 30 years). -For the renovation and rebuilding of rapidly ageing or non-existant infrastructure Slide 57 Water treatment plants, sewage works, rail lines, and bus services throughout the country have benefited from EU financial support. Slide 58 This aid increased at the end of the 1980s During the period of 1989-1999 Irelands receipts from EU structural funds averaged around 2.6% of Gross National Product (GNP). 1980s Slide 59 After the death of Bobbys Sands and nine others in the 1981 hunger strike, there was a huge wave of anger in the Republic against Britain. Sinn Fein became much stronger in the South of Ireland. It was much easier for the IRA to raise money in the United States. Slide 60 In 1998, a referendum was held in both parts of Ireland to decide whether to implement the Good Friday agreement, which hoped to reduce conflict in Northern ireland, while putting the question of unification off until sometime in the future. Slide 61 Slide 62 Slide 63 1998 In the Republic of Ireland 94.4% of voters said Yes. In Northern Ireland 71.1% said Yes . So the Good Friday institutions were established, though they were suspended four times between 2000 and 2007, such was the tension between nationalists and unionists in the North. Slide 64 In 1999, the Republic joined the Euro 1999 Slide 65 In 2005 an international commission was invited to witness the decommissioning of all IRA weapons. The IRA now believed that a political way forward was possible Small breakaway groups like Real IRA and Continuity IRA continued to believe that continuing the armed struggle for a united Ireland was justified. 2005 Slide 66 A few argued that the armed struggle should continue, like the painters of this mural who remind passers by of the events of 1969 and the burning of dozens of catholic houses by loyalists. Slide 67 In 1998 at Omagh, 28 people were killed by a bomb planted by the small breakaway group real IRA , A warning was given, but was not clear enough to evacuate the right area, Slide 68 In 2005 the Irish language was recognized as a working language by the European Union. Euro MPs and administrators who want to work in Irish may do so. 2005 Slide 69 Slide 70 Slide 71 Ireland has been a country of emigration for a long time. In 1840 the population was more than 8 million In 1851 it was 6.5 million In 1941 it was down to 4.3 million. Today the population of the whole island of Ireland is only 6.2 million Slide 72 Irish emigrants around the world have often kept their identity and some of their culture. Slide 73 Irish traditional dancing has become famous aorund the world Riverdance Slide 74 Over the last forty years, Irish traditional music has become famous all over the world The Chieftains Slide 75 The Dubliners The Pogues Slide 76 Sinead O ConnorThe Cranberries Slide 77 The Oireachtas [raxtas] is a bicameral parliament consisting of the President of Ireland, the upper house Seanad ireann, and the lower house Dil ireann. The Seanad is composed of sixty members, Eleven are nominated by the Taoiseach, Six are elected by two universities 43 are elected by public representatives Slide 78 The Dil has 166 members (Teachta Dla) elected under a system of proportional representation. Parliamentary elections must be held at least every five years. ras an Uachtarin is the official residence of the President of Ireland, while both houses of the Oireachtas meet at Leinster House in Dublin. Slide 79 Growth in the economy since the 1960s has driven much of the change in the education system. Education in Ireland is free at all levels, including college (university), but only for students applying from the EU. There are no tuition fees like there are in England. However, there are Student Services Fees (up to 1,500 in 2009/10) which students are required to pay on registration at university, to cover examinations, insurance and registration costs. Education in the Republic of Ireland Slide 80 English is the primary medium of instruction at all levels, except in Gaelscoileanna: schools in which Irish is the working language. Slide 81 Slide 82 Slide 83 For example, in Dublin there are 31 Irish-medium primary schools and 8 secondary schools, while in Cork there are 22 primary schools and 8 secondary schools. The Gaelscoil initiative has also inspired other similar language immersion projects in Europe such as the Scottish Gaelic and Manx schools. There are currently around 50,000 pupils/students (total both inside and outside the Gaeltacht) attending gaelscoileanna, with 298 gaelscoileanna at primary level and 72 schools at post-primary level (gaelcholist), in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Slide 84 Manx language pre-schools on the Isle of Man Slide 85 In 1973 the requirement to pass the Irish language in order to receive a second-level certificate was dropped although a student attending a school which receives public money must be taught the language. Certain students may get an exemption from learning Irish; these include students who have spent a significant period of time abroad or students with a learning difficulty. Between 700,000-800,000 students are taught Irish on a daily basis within the education system. Slide 86 Around the world, people of Irish origin work at keeping the language alive. This poster is from Vancouver. Slide 87 Type of schoolNumber Roman Catholic2988 Church of Ireland (Anglican)190 Presbyterian18 Methodist1 Jewish1 Muslim1 Multi-denominational10 Primary schools in the Irish Republic Slide 88 Slide 89 The press in the Irish Republic The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859. The Irish Times has full-time correspondents in Washington, Paris, Berlin, Beijing, Brussels and London. It had a daily circulation of 106,926 during the second six months of 2009. Note that it is *not* owned by The Times in London. Slide 90 Slide 91 Slide 92 The Irish Independent was formed in 1905. It is the biggest selling Irish daily newspaper. It was originally a Catholic, nationalist paper. Since November 2009, the Irish Independent has published Foinse, an Irish-language supplement free of charge every Wednesday with a circulation of 195,000 (2012 figures). Slide 93 2011 Slide 94 2012 Slide 95 Slide 96 The Irish Daily Star (formerly known simply as The Star) is a tabloid newspaper published in Ireland. It was first published on 29 February 1988. it is the Irish version of the UK tabloid Daily Star. It does however contain more Irish content than any similar Irish editions of the UK national newspapers. Its slogan is "Better... because we're Irish." Slide 97 Slide 98 Slide 99 Slide 100 An Phoblacht (Irish pronunciation: [n f b l xt ], The Republic) is the official newspaper of Sinn Fin in Ireland. It is published once a week, and according to its website sells an average of up to 15,000 copies every week. Slide 101 Slide 102 Slide 103 Radio and Television in the Irish Republic Slide 104 RT One (Irish: RT a hAon) is the flagship television channel of Rado Teilifs ireann(RT), and it is the most popular and most watched television channel in Ireland. It was launched as Telefs ireann on 31 December 1961, it was renamed RT Television in 1966, and it was renamed as RT ONE upon the launch of RT TWO in 1978. RT is funded partly by the licence fee, the remainder of the funding is provided by commercial advertising, because RT is funded partly by the licence fee it shows considerably less advertisments than most other channels available in Ireland. Slide 105 Rank & ProgrammeAV TVRAV 000'sAV Share 1. Eurovision Song Contest20.93718.952.98% 2. The Late Late Show19.91683.951.95% 3. RT News: Nine O' Clock18.64640.148.16% 4. Prime Time Investigates: Tyres - A Dirty Business 16.63571.142.92% 5. Gerry Ryan Confidential15.94547.541.52% 6. Aftershock: Ghost Land15.85544.540.36% 7. Fair City15.26524.143.55% 8. RT News: Late14.84509.849.92% 9. Room to Improve14.80508.439.34% 10. RT News: Six One14.72505.853.57% 11. Coronation Street (TV3)14.56500.335.94% 12. Eastenders14.41494.944.82% 13. My Showhouse14.06482.936.48% 14. Head Shops13.00446.534.95% 15. Prime Time Investigates: Crimes Against Children 12.74437.830.86% 16. Prime Time12.69435.831.84% 17. Aftershock: Where to Now?12.60432.832.16% 18. Prime Time Investigates: Forgotten Lives12.49429.031.78% 19. Desperate Housewives12.38425.431.62% 20. The Frontline12.32423.140.14% Source: Nielsen Television Audience Measurement Based on ROI Commercial Channels, 1 st -31 st May 2010 Averaging: Any day, Any Time, Best Episode Top 20 Programmes, May 2010, Adults 15+ Slide 106 Fair City is an award-winning Irish television soap opera on RT One. Produced by Radio Telefs ireann, it was first broadcast on Monday, September 18, 1989. Plots centre on the domestic and professional lives of the residents of Carrigstown, a fictional suburb on the north side of Dublin. Originally aired as one half-hour episode per week for a limited run, it is now broadcast year round in four episodes per week. It is the most popular Irish soap opera, and the longest running. The programme has viewing figures of between 500,000 and 600,000 making it the most watched drama in Ireland. Slide 107 The irish congress of trade unions is the central confederation of trade unionists Slide 108 2010 Slide 109 Slide 110 There are currently 55 trade unions with membership of Congress, representing about 600,000 members in the Republic of Ireland. Trade union members represent 35.1% of the Republic's workforce. This is a significant decline since the 55.3% recorded in 1980 and the 38.5% reported in 2003. In the Republic, over 60% of union members are in the public sector. Slide 111 Jack O Connor, president of the ICTU, on a Coca Cola picket line in 2009 Slide 112 The Irish Municipal, Public and Civil Trade Union (IMPACT) is a trade union in the Republic of Ireland. It primarily organises workers in education, health, local government and the civil service. It also has members who work for voluntary and community organisations, telecommunications and aviation. The union was founded in 1991 by the merger of the Local Government and Public Services Union, the Union of Professional and Technical Civil Servants and the Irish Municipal Employees Trade Union. It has 63 000 members, Slide 113 2009 campaign against levy on public service pensions Slide 114 The Irish Bank Officials Association (IBOA) represents staff in the finance sector in the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, and those employed by Irish financial organisations in Great Britain and overseas.