Level 4 IELTS Writing Task 2 Task 2 Cause and Effect Essays ?· IELTS Writing Task 2 Task 2 – Cause…

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  • Level 4

    IELTS Writing Task 2

    Task 2 Cause and Effect Essays Task 2 on the IELTS exam may require you to discuss the causes associated with an essay topic and list some effects. It may additionally ask you to give your opinion about it. You need to produce an essay that has an introduction, at least two body paragraphs, and a conclusion. In this section you will:

    understand the structure of a cause and effect essay

    practice planning and organising your ideas.

    review the meaning and use of some common linkers.

    do writing practice.

    To get a band 5 or 5.5 in IELTS, you need to:-

    answer all parts of the essay question prompt.

    organise your writing into paragraphs including an introduction, body and a conclusion.

    use some good linkers.

    use suitable vocabulary with good range, spelling and correct word forms.

    have some simple sentences, some compound sentences (using linkers words like and

    & but), some complex sentences (e.g. ., who..., that..., which..., if...).

  • 1

    TASK 2: CAUSE AND EFFECT ESSAYS

    Match the causes and effects that go with the essay topics.

    Causes Essay Topic Effects 1) people want jobs

    a) Global warming i) death

    2) need to protect the country

    b) Military service for men

    ii) army is stronger

    3) too many people use their cars

    c) People moving to cities

    iii) rising sea levels

    4) burning fossil fuels d) Childhood obesity iv) women develop the

    country 5) bad driving e) Traffic jams in cities v) air pollution 6) playing computer games instead of sports

    f) High levels of stress vi) overcrowding

    7) too much work to do g) Women studying at

    university vii) rise in diabetes

    8) it is free

    h) Car accidents viii) cannot relax

    TASK 2: CAUSES AND EFFECTS Look at the sentences in the box below. Which ones are causes of stress and which ones are effects of stress? The first one has been done for you as an example.

    1. The main one is that it can affect peoples health. Effect

    2. The most important one is that employers give their workers too much responsibility.

    3. In addition, stress results in some people taking up bad habits, such as smoking or

    drugs, to feel better.

    4. The main one is that people are too busy nowadays.

    5. Another cause of stress is that people have to take care of a family member who is old

    or very sick.

    6. The most important one is that it causes mental problems, such as depression.

    7. The main one is that stressed people often cannot sleep well.

    8. The most important one is that it can lead to family breakups.

  • 2

    Stress is a major problem in many countries around the world. What are some of the causes and

    effects of stress? Look at the essay structure in the box on the right. Order the pieces of each paragraph in the box on the left to match the essay structure. The first one has been done for you as an example.

    A) Stress is common in modern society and it is not good for peoples mental wellbeing. It is an important issue because of its possible impact on individuals, families and societies.

    B) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of stress.

    C) Mental health is as important as physical health.

    Introduction

    1) General Background - C

    2) Essay topic

    3) Thesis

    D) As a result, they cannot relax and they have high stress levels.

    E) Consequently, they become stressed and dissatisfied with life.

    F) Another cause of stress is that people have to take care of a family member who is old or very sick. G) The most important one is that employers give their workers too much responsibility.

    H) To begin with, there are several causes of stress.

    I) This is a problem because when workers cannot finish their work, they feel worried.

    J) For example, if people have to look after an old person all the time, they may feel like they cannot do what they want in their life.

    Body Paragraph 1

    4) Topic Sentence - causes

    5) 1st Cause

    6) Explanation

    7) Result

    8) 2nd Cause

    9) Example + Condition +

    Result

    10) Result

    K) In addition, stress results in some people taking up bad habits, such as smoking or drugs, to feel better.

    L) For example, people who have too much stress can develop high blood pressure and heart problems. M) Stress has some significant effects.

    N) If they develop an addiction, they may focus on it and neglect their families. O) Hence, their family life may suffer.

    P) The main one is that it can affect peoples health.

    Q) Because of this, they may have to stop working, or they may even die.

    Body Paragraph 2

    11) Topic Sentence - effects

    12) 1st Effect

    13) Example

    14) Result

    15) 2nd Effect

    16) Condition + Result

    17) Result

    R) Therefore, I believe that people should find a way to reduce stress by exercising or doing things that they like.

    S) In conclusion, stress has several causes and effects. T) Two of the main causes are overworked employees and looking after elderly or sick people in the family, while the resulting effects are problems which are health-related and developing addictions.

    Conclusion

    18) Thesis again

    19) Summary of causes &

    effects

    20) Opinion/Advice

  • 3

    Stress is a major problem in many countries around the world. What are some of the

    causes and effects of stress?

    Put the linking language from the box into the right place in the essay below:

    has several causes and effects Another cause of is that

    The main one is that In conclusion has some significant effects.

    while the resulting effects are In addition Therefore, I believe that

    To begin with, there are several causes of results in

    Two of the main causes are The most important one is that

    The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of

    Mental health is as important as physical health. Stress is common in modern society and it is not good

    for peoples mental wellbeing. It is an important issue because of its possible impact on individuals, families

    and societies. 1) ___________________________________________________________________________

    ______________________________stress.

    2) ______________________________________________________ stress. 3) __________________

    ________________________________________ employers give their workers too much responsibility. This is

    a problem because when workers cannot finish their work, they feel worried. As a result, they cannot relax

    and they have high stress levels. 4) __________________________ stress 5) ________________________

    people have to take care of a family member who is old or very sick. For example, if people have to look after

    an old person all the time, they may feel like they cannot do what they want in their life. Consequently, they

    become stressed and dissatisfied with life.

    Stress 6) _____________________________________ 7) ___________________________________

    ______________it can affect peoples health. For example, people who have too much stress can develop

    high blood pressure and heart problems. Because of this, they may have to stop working, or they may even

    die. 8) ________________________________, stress 9) ____________________ some people taking up bad

    habits, such as smoking or drugs, to feel better. If they develop an addiction, they may focus on it and neglect

    their families. Hence, their family life may suffer.

    10)______________________________________, stress 11) ________________________________

    _________________. 12) ____________________________________________ overworked employees and

    looking after elderly or sick people in the family, 13) ______________________________________________

    problems which are health-related and developing addictions. 14) ___________________________________

    __________________________ people should find a way to reduce stress by exercising or doing things that

    they like.

  • 4

    Traffic jams are a major problem in many cities around the world. What are some of the causes and effects of traffic jams in cities?

    Causes Essay Topic Effects

    1) Too many people use their cars

    2) Not enough people use public transport

    Traffic jams in

    cities

    1) Air pollution

    2) More accidents

    Use the essay topic, causes, effects and linking language to complete each paragraph.

    The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of

    Nowadays, cities all around the world are growing quickly. Traffic jams are common in big cities and

    this problem is increasing. It is an important issue because of its possible impact on people and the

    environment. 1) ____________________________________________________________________________

    _________________________________________________________________________________________.

    The most important one is that Another cause of traffic jams is that To begin with, there are several causes of

    2) _______________________________________________________________. 3) _______________

    ________________________________________________________________________________________.

    This is a problem because when everyone drives on the roads together, there is not enough space for them

    all. As a result, the streets become blocked with cars. 4) ___________________________________________

    ________________________________________________________________________________________ .

    For example, if people do not use public transport, there may be more people driving their cars on the roads.

    Consequently, there will be more traffic jams.

    In addition have some significant effects. The main one is that result in

    5)________________________________________________. 6) ______________________________

    ______________________________. For example, cities which have a lot of traffic jams usually do not have

    clean air. Because of this, it may affect the health of people who live there. 7) _________________________

    _________________________________________________. If too many cars are on the roads, they may be

    all very close together. Hence, it is easier for them to hit each other and this could be dangerous for drivers.

    while the resulting effects are In conclusion Therefore, I believe that

    Two of the main causes are have several causes and effects.

    8) __________________________________________________. 9) ____________________________

    __________________________________________________________________________, 10) ___________

    _________________________________________________________________________. 11) ____________

    _________________________________________________________________________________________

  • 5

    Global warming is one of the most serious issues that the world is facing today. What are some of the causes and effects of global warming?

    Find a word or words in each paragraph to match the meanings below. Then, decide if they are nouns, verbs or adjectives.

    Today, there are many environmental problems in the world. One of these is global warming, which is the gradual increase in average temperature around the world. It is an important issue because of its possible impact on people. The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of global warming. 1) connected to nature - 5) regular/normal -

    2) connected to the world - 6) serious -

    3) rising temperature - 7) problem/topic -

    4) slow - 8) effect -

    To begin with, there are several causes of global warming. The most important one is that too many

    people burn fossil fuels, such as oil and coal, for energy. This is a problem because burning these fuels produces carbon dioxide. For example, every day billions of people use cars which burn petrol and add more carbon dioxide gas into the air. Because carbon dioxide traps heat, this leads to higher global temperatures. Another cause of global warming is that people are cutting down more and more trees. Trees remove carbon dioxide from the air, so if there are fewer trees, there may be more carbon dioxide in the air. 1) e.g. oil - 4) catches and holds -

    2) power - 5) high temperature -

    3) a gas, CO2 - 6) take away -

    Global warming has some significant effects. The main one is that sea levels are rising. This is because snow and ice in many parts of the world are melting faster and going into the sea. For instance, the ice in the North Pole is now much smaller than it used to be. If sea levels rise too much, some cities and farmland on the coast may go underwater. In addition, global warming results in stronger storms such as hurricanes and cyclones. When the sea is warmer, more water goes up into the clouds and this makes more powerful storms. Consequently, there is more heavy rain and more flooding. 1) very, very important - 5) very, very bad weather -

    2) amount of water in the sea - 6) very, very bad weather -

    3) turning from ice to water - 7) strong -

    4) edge of the land and the sea - 8) too much water on the land -

    In conclusion, global warming has several causes and effects. Two of the main causes are people overusing fossil fuels and cutting down trees, while the resulting effects are sea levels rising and more dangerous storms. Therefore, I believe that people who need energy should use less fossil fuels and more solar power. 1) using something too much - 3) unsafe -

    2) consequent - 4) energy from the sun -

  • 6

    TASK 2: CAUSES AND EFFECTS ESSAY VOCABULARY WORD FORMS Often, you can tell how different parts of speech (e.g. verbs, nouns, adjectives) by how they end. The table below shows some common endings of verbs, adjectives and nouns.

    Verbs Adjectives Nouns

    ~ ise/ize advertise ~ ed excited ~ ance/ence attendance

    ~ ate communicate ~ ing exciting ~ ation/tion education

    ~ ify satisfy ~ al cultural ~ sion occasion

    ~ ial beneficial ~ ure pressure

    ~ ic public ~ ment development

    ~ ous / ious religious ~ age marriage

    ~ y hungry ~ er/ee employer / employee

    ~ able preventable ~ ness kindness

    ~ ful helpful ~ ty sensitivity

    ~ ing smoking

    Write the word form (Noun, Verb or Adjective) under each word and then put the words into the correct sentences below.

    energy energetic energise

    1. _______________________ people are always active.

    2. Teachers sometimes play games because they want to _______________________ their students.

    3. Finding clean, cheap _______________________ is a major goal for many scientists.

    flood flooded flooding

    1. You should never drive your car into a _______________________ wadi.

    2. _______________________ in wadis is a big problem when it rains.

    3. Heavy rains in India _______________________ Bangladesh every year.

  • 7

    trapping traps trapped

    1. Carbon dioxide _______________________ the suns heat in the air.

    2. Carbon dioxide _______________________ the suns heat is the major cause of global warming.

    3. High carbon dioxide levels result in more _______________________ heat in the air.

    overuse overusing

    1. If people _______________________ water now, there might not be enough left for the future.

    2. _______________________ water is a serious problem in many countries.

    environmental environment

    1. Most of the worlds _______________________ problems are caused by people.

    2. Parents want their children to grow up in a safe _______________________.

    powerful power power

    1. Big waves at the beach can be very _______________________.

    2. Cheap _______________________ is something which all people want.

    3. Now, we use a lot of fossil fuels to _______________________ our cars and factories.

    significance significant

    1. Global warming could cause many _______________________ problems for the world.

    2. In the future, we may all see the _______________________ of the way the poles are melting now.

  • 8

    warm warming warms warmth

    1. In fall, the sun feels _______________________.

    2. Global _______________________ will cause major problems for our children and grandchildren.

    3. The suns heat _______________________ the Earth.

    4. In winter, birds like to sit in the _______________________ of the morning sun.

    dangers dangerous

    1. Driving too fast is _______________________.

    2. There are many _______________________ related to speeding.

    importance important

    1. It is _______________________ to drive carefully.

    2. To have a balanced life, we must not forget the _______________________ of a healthy diet and

    exercise.

    result resulting results

    1. Smoking is unhealthy. The _______________________ effects can include lung cancer or heart

    disease.

    2. The _______________________ of global warming could be more cyclones.

    3. More carbon dioxide in the air _______________________ in higher temperatures.

    coast coastal

    1. _______________________ areas could have more problems with flooding if the sea level rises.

    2. People like to live on the _______________________ so they can look at the sea.

  • 9

    TASK 2: CAUSES AND EFFECTS ESSAY GRAMMAR GERUNDS (VERB-ING FORMS AS NOUNS)

    Look at sentences 1 to 6 below and underline the subjects and verbs. The first one has been done for you as an example.

    1. Overusing water is becoming a serious problem in many countries.

    Subject (Gerund) Verb (Present Continuous)

    2. Flooding in wadis is a big problem when it rains.

    3. Trapping heat in the air makes the Earth warmer.

    4. Burning fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide.

    5. Global warming will cause major problems for our children and grandchildren.

    6. Driving too fast is dangerous.

    Grammar: A gerund is a noun. It can be in the subject or object of a sentence. It can be one word or

    in a group of words. To make a gerund, use verb-ing. It may look like a verb, but it is a noun!

    Smoking causes cancer Subject Object

    Doctors dont recommend pregnant women smoking. Subject Object

    Look at the essay question and the essay below. Is the gerund (global warming) in the subject or object?

    Global warming is one of the most serious issues that the world is facing today. What are some of the causes and effects of global warming?

    Today, there are many environmental problems in the world. One of these is global warming, which is the gradual increase in worldwide average temperature. It is an important issue because of its possible impact on people. The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of global warming.

    To begin with, there are several causes of global warming. The most important one is that too many people burn fossil fuels, such as oil and coal, for energy. This is a problem because burning these fuels produces carbon dioxide. For example, every day billions of people use cars which burn petrol and add more carbon dioxide gas into the air. Because carbon dioxide traps heat, this leads to higher global temperatures. Another cause of global warming is that people are cutting down more and more trees. Trees remove carbon dioxide from the air, so if there are fewer trees, there may be more carbon dioxide in the air.

    Global warming has some significant effects. The main one is that sea levels are rising. This is because snow and ice in many parts of the world are melting faster and going into the sea. For instance, the ice in the North Pole is now much smaller than it used to be. If sea levels rise too much, some cities and farmland on the coast may go underwater. In addition, global warming results in stronger storms such as hurricanes and cyclones. When the sea is warmer, more water goes up into the clouds and this makes more powerful storms. Consequently, there is more heavy rain and more flooding.

    In conclusion, global warming has several causes and effects. Two of the main causes are people overusing fossil fuels and cutting down trees, while the resulting effects are sea levels rising and more dangerous storms. Therefore, I believe that people should use less fossil fuels and more solar power.

  • 10

    Gerunds can be useful for writing about the essay topic in your essay, but they are not always necessary. Look

    at the examples below:

    Essay Question: Global warming is one of the most serious issues that the world is facing today.

    What are some of the causes and effects of global warming?

    The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of global warming.

    Essay Question: Childhood obesity is one of the most serious health issues that developed

    countries are facing today. What are some of the causes and effects of childhood obesity?

    The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of childhood obesity.

    Some people get married young. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of people getting married young.

    Some people do not like to use technology. What are some of the causes and effects of this? The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of people not liking to use technology.

    Nowadays, many workers are not local people. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of workers not being local people.

    Topic is already a gerund

    No need to change it

    Topic is already a noun

    No need to change it

    Topic is a clause (Subject + Verb)

    Change the verb to a gerund

    Topic is a negative clause (Subject + Auxiliary Verb + not + Main Verb)

    Cut the auxiliary verb and change the main verb to a gerund

    Topic is a negative clause (Subject + Be Verb + not + Adjective +Noun)

    Change the be verb to a gerund and move it to after not

  • 11

    Practise writing the essay topic with a gerund. Nowadays, many people move to live in big cities. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    1) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of ________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________.

    Nowadays, many people have high levels of stress. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    2) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of ________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________.

    Nowadays, many women study at university. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    3) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of ________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________.

    Nowadays, men have to do military service. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    4) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of ________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________.

    Nowadays, some people do not want women to work. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    5) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of ________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________.

    Nowadays, some employers do not want to hire applicants who do not have work experience. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    6) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of ________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________.

    Nowadays, some children are not healthy. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    7) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of ________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________.

    Nowadays, some people are not careful drivers. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    8) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of ________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________.

  • 12

    Task 2: Cause and Effect Essay Practice Topics

    Below are some IELTS Task 2 questions. Check that you understand the underlined words. Some of these words and topics come out again and again in the IELTS exam. Plan your essays by drawing boxes to show how you would organise each one.

    1. In some countries young people have little leisure time and are under a lot of pressure to work hard in their studies. What do you think are the causes of this? What are some effects?

    2. The percentage of overweight children in western society has increased by almost 20% in the last ten years. Discuss the causes and effects of this disturbing trend.

    3. In many parts of the world today there is a profitable market for products which lighten or whiten peoples skin. Outline the reasons for using such products and discuss what effects they have in terms of health and society.

    4. As countries have developed there has been a trend towards smaller family sizes. Why does this happen? How does this affect society?

    5. Many men and women are making the decision to have children later in life. Why is this trend occurring? What are the impacts of this development on both family and society?

    6. Todays youth are experimenting with both legal and illegal drugs at an early age. Some sociologists claim that parents and other members of society often set a bad example. Discuss the cause and effects of widespread drug abuse by young people.

  • 13

    Stress is a major problem in many countries around the world. What are some of the causes and effects of stress?

    Look at the essay structure in the box on the right. Order the pieces of each paragraph in the box on the left to match the essay structure. The first one has been done for you as an example. ANSWERS

    C) Mental health is as important as physical health. A) Stress is common in

    modern society and it is not good for peoples mental wellbeing. It is an

    important issue because of its possible impact on individuals, families and

    societies. B) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects

    of stress.

    Introduction

    1) General Background - C

    2) Essay topic

    3) Thesis

    H) To begin with, there are several causes of stress. G) The most important

    one is that employers give their workers too much responsibility. I) This is a

    problem because when workers cannot finish their work, they feel worried.

    D) As a result, they cannot relax and they have high stress levels. F) Another

    cause of stress is that people have to take care of a family member who is old

    or very sick. J) For example, if people have to look after an old person all the

    time, they may feel like they cannot do what they want in their life. E)

    Consequently, they become stressed and dissatisfied with life.

    Body Paragraph 1

    4) Topic Sentence - causes

    5) 1st Cause

    6) Explanation

    7) Result

    8) 2nd Cause

    9) Example + Condition +

    Result

    10) Result

    M) Stress has some significant effects. P) The main one is that it can affect

    peoples health. L) For example, people who have too much stress can

    develop high blood pressure and heart problems. Q) Because of this, they

    may have to stop working, or they may even die. K) In addition, stress

    results in some people taking up bad habits, such as smoking or drugs, to feel

    better. N) If they develop an addiction, they may focus on it and neglect their

    families. O) Hence, their family life may suffer.

    Body Paragraph 2

    11) Topic Sentence - effects

    12) 1st Effect

    13) Example

    14) Result

    15) 2nd Effect

    16) Condition + Result

    17) Result

    S) In conclusion, stress has several causes and effects. T) Two of the main

    causes are overworked employees and looking after elderly or sick people in

    the family, while the resulting effects are problems which are health-related

    and developing addictions. R) Therefore, I believe that people should find a

    way to reduce stress by exercising or doing things that they like.

    Conclusion

    18) Thesis again

    19) Summary of causes &

    effects

    20) Opinion/Advice

  • 14

    Stress is a major problem in many countries around the world. What are some of the

    causes and effects of stress? ANSWERS

    Mental health is as important as physical health. Stress is common in modern society and it is not good for peoples mental wellbeing. It is an important issue because of its possible impact on individuals, families and societies. 1)The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of stress.

    2)To begin with, there are several causes of stress. 3)The most important one is that

    employers give their workers too much responsibility. This is a problem because when workers cannot finish their work, they feel worried. As a result, they cannot relax and they have high stress levels. 4)Another cause of stress 5)is that people have to take care of a family member who is old or very sick. For example, if people have to look after an old person all the time, they may feel like they cannot do what they want in their life. Consequently, they become stressed and dissatisfied with life.

    Stress 6)has some significant effects. 7)The main one is that it can affect peoples health. For

    example, people who have too much stress can develop high blood pressure and heart problems. Because of this, they may have to stop working, or they may even die. 8)In addition, stress 9)results in some people taking up bad habits, such as smoking or drugs, to feel better. If they develop an addiction, they may focus on it and neglect their families. Hence, their family life may suffer.

    10)In conclusion, stress 11)has several causes and effects. 12)Two of the main causes are

    overworked employees and looking after elderly or sick people in the family, 13)while the resulting

    effects are problems which are health-related and developing addictions. 14)Therefore, I believe that

    people should find a way to reduce stress by exercising or doing things that they like.

  • 15

    Traffic jams are a major problem in many cities around the world. What are some of the

    causes and effects of traffic jams in cities? ANSWERS

    Nowadays, cities all around the world are growing quickly. Traffic jams are common in big

    cities and this problem is increasing. It is an important issue because of its possible impact on people

    and the environment. 1)The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of traffic

    congestion in cities.

    2)To begin with, there are several causes of traffic jams in cities. 3)The most important one is

    that too many people use their cars at the same time. This is a problem because when everyone

    drives on the roads together, there is not enough space for them all. As a result, the streets become

    blocked with cars. 4)Another cause of traffic jams is that there are not enough people who use public

    transport. For example, if people do not use public transport, there may be more people driving their

    cars on the roads. Consequently, there will be more traffic jams.

    5)Traffic jams have some significant effects. 6)The main one is that they can produce air

    pollution. For example, cities which have a lot of traffic jams usually do not have clean air. Because

    of this, it may affect the health of people who live there. 7)In addition, traffic jams result in more

    accidents. If too many cars are on the roads, they may be all very close together. Hence, it is easier

    for them to hit each other and this could be dangerous for drivers.

    8)In conclusion, traffic jams have several causes and effects. 9)Two of the main causes are

    too many people using cars and not enough people using public transport, 10)while the resulting

    effects are air pollution and an increase in accidents. 11)Therefore, I believe that people should use

    public transport more and drive their own cars less.

  • 16

    Global warming is one of the most serious issues that the world is facing today. What are

    some of the causes and effects of global warming? Answers

    Find a word or words in each paragraph to match the meanings below. Then, decide if they are nouns, verbs or adjectives.

    Today, there are many environmental problems in the world. One of these is global warming, which is the gradual increase in average temperature around the world. It is an important issue because of its possible impact on people. The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of global warming. 1) connected to nature environmental adj 5) regular/normal - average adj

    2) connected to the world global adj 6) serious important adj

    3) rising temperature warming noun 7) problem/topic issue noun

    4) slow gradual adj 8) effect impact noun

    To begin with, there are several causes of global warming. The most important one is that too many

    people burn fossil fuels, such as oil and coal, for energy. This is a problem because burning these fuels produces carbon dioxide. For example, every day billions of people use cars which burn petrol and add more carbon dioxide gas into the air. Because carbon dioxide traps heat, this leads to higher global temperatures. Another cause of global warming is that people are cutting down more and more trees. Trees remove carbon dioxide from the air, so if there are fewer trees, there may be more carbon dioxide in the air. 1) e.g. oil - fossil fuels noun 4) catches and holds traps verb

    2) power energy noun 5) high temperature heat noun

    3) a gas, CO2 - carbon dioxide noun 6) take away remove verb

    Global warming has some significant effects. The main one is that sea levels are rising. This is because snow and ice in many parts of the world are melting faster and going into the sea. For instance, the ice in the North Pole is now much smaller than it used to be. If sea levels rise too much, some cities and farmland on the coast may go underwater. In addition, global warming results in stronger storms such as hurricanes and cyclones. When the sea is warmer, more water goes up into the clouds and this makes more powerful storms. Consequently, there is more heavy rain and more flooding. 1) very, very important significant adj 5) very, very bad weather hurricanes noun

    2) amount of water in the sea - sea levels noun 6) very, very bad weather cyclones noun

    3) are turning from ice to water are melting verb 7) strong powerful adj

    4) edge of the land and the sea coast noun 8) too much water on the land flooding noun

    In conclusion, global warming has several causes and effects. Two of the main causes are people overusing fossil fuels and cutting down trees, while the resulting effects are sea levels rising and more dangerous storms. Therefore, I believe that people who need energy should use less fossil fuels and more solar power. 1) using something too much overusing noun 3) unsafe dangerous adj

    2) consequent resulting adj 4) energy from the sun - solar power noun

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    TASK 2: CAUSES AND EFFECTS ESSAY VOCABULARY WORD FORMS ANSWERS Often, you can tell how different parts of speech (e.g. verbs, nouns, adjectives) by how they end. The table below shows some common endings of verbs, adjectives and nouns.

    Verbs Adjectives Nouns

    ~ ise/ize advertise ~ ed excited ~ ance/ence attendance

    ~ ate communicate ~ ing exciting ~ ation/tion education

    ~ ify ~ al cultural ~ sion occasion

    ~ ial beneficial ~ ure pressure

    ~ ic public ~ ment development

    ~ ous / ious religious ~ age marriage

    ~ y hungry ~ er/ee employer / employee

    ~ able preventable ~ ness kindness

    ~ ful helpful ~ ty sensitivity

    ~ ing smoking

    Write the word form (Noun, Verb or Adjective) under each word and then put the words into the correct sentences below.

    energy energetic energise

    N

    Adj

    V

    1. Energetic people are always active.

    2. Teachers sometimes play games because they want to energise their students.

    3. Finding clean, cheap energy is a major goal for many scientists.

    flood flooded flooding

    V

    Adj

    N

    1. You should never drive your car into a flooded wadi.

    2. Flooding in wadis is a big problem when it rains.

    3. Heavy rains in India flood Bangladesh every year.

  • 18

    trapping traps trapped

    N

    V

    Adj

    1. Carbon dioxide traps the suns heat in the air.

    2. Carbon dioxide trapping the suns heat is the major cause of global warming.

    3. High carbon dioxide levels result in more trapped heat in the air.

    overuse overusing

    V

    N

    1. If people overuse water now, there might not be enough left for the future.

    2. Overusing water is a serious problem in many countries.

    environmental environment

    Adj

    N

    1. Most of the worlds environmental problems are caused by people.

    2. Parents want their children to grow up in a safe environment.

    powerful power power

    Adj

    V

    N

    1. Big waves at the beach can be very powerful.

    2. Cheap power is something which all people want.

    3. Now, we use a lot of fossil fuels to power our cars and factories.

    significance significant

    N

    Adj

    1. Global warming could cause many significant problems for the world.

    2. In the future, we may all see the significance of the way the poles are melting now.

  • 19

    warm warming warms warmth

    Adj

    N

    V

    N

    1. In fall, the sun feels warm.

    2. Global warming will cause major problems for our children and grandchildren.

    3. The suns heat warms the Earth.

    4. In winter, birds like to sit in the warmth of the morning sun.

    dangers dangerous

    N

    Adj

    1. Driving too fast is dangerous.

    2. There are many dangers related to speeding.

    importance important

    N

    Adj

    1. It is important to drive carefully.

    2. To have a balanced life, we must not forget the importance of a healthy diet and exercise.

    result resulting results

    N

    Adj

    V

    1. Smoking is unhealthy. The resulting effects can include lung cancer or heart disease.

    2. The result of global warming could be more cyclones.

    3. More carbon dioxide in the air results in higher temperatures.

    coast coastal

    N

    Adj

    1. Coastal areas could have more problems with flooding if the sea level rises.

    2. People like to live on the coast so they can look at the sea.

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    TASK 2: CAUSES AND EFFECTS ESSAY GRAMMAR GERUNDS (VERB-ING FORMS AS NOUNS) ANSWERS

    Look at sentences 1 to 6 below and underline the subjects and verbs. The first one has been done for you as an example.

    1. Overusing water is becoming a serious problem in many countries.

    Subject (Gerund) Verb (Present Continuous)

    2. Flooding in wadis is a big problem when it rains.

    3. Trapping heat in the air makes the Earth warmer.

    4. Burning fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide.

    5. Global warming will cause major problems for our children and grandchildren.

    6. Driving too fast is dangerous.

    Look at the essay question and the essay below. Is the gerund (global warming) in the subject or object?

    Global warming is one of the most serious issues that the world is facing today. What are some of the

    causes and effects of global warming?

    Today, there are many environmental problems in the world. One of these is global warming, which

    is the gradual increase in worldwide average temperature. It is an important issue because of its possible

    impact on people. The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of global warming.

    To begin with, there are several causes of global warming. The most important one is that too

    many people burn fossil fuels, such as oil and coal, for energy. This is a problem because burning these fuels

    produces carbon dioxide. For example, every day billions of people use cars which burn petrol and add more

    carbon dioxide gas into the air. Because carbon dioxide traps heat, this leads to higher global temperatures.

    Another cause of global warming is that people are cutting down more and more trees. Trees remove

    carbon dioxide from the air, so if there are fewer trees, there may be more carbon dioxide in the air.

    Global warming has some significant effects. The main one is that sea levels are rising. This is

    because snow and ice in many parts of the world are melting faster and going into the sea. For instance, the

    ice in the North Pole is now much smaller than it used to be. If sea levels rise too much, some cities and

    farmland on the coast may go underwater. In addition, global warming results in stronger storms such as

    hurricanes and cyclones. When the sea is warmer, more water goes up into the clouds and this makes more

    powerful storms. Consequently, there is more heavy rain and more flooding.

    In conclusion, global warming has several causes and effects. Two of the main causes are people

    overusing fossil fuels and cutting down trees, while the resulting effects are sea levels rising and more

    dangerous storms. Therefore, I believe that people should use less fossil fuels and more solar power.

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    Practise writing the essay topic with a gerund. Answers Nowadays, many people move to live in big cities. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    9) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of people moving to live in big cities.

    Nowadays, many people have high levels of stress. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    10) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of people having high levels of stress.

    Nowadays, many women study at university. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    11) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of women studying at university.

    Nowadays, men have to do military service. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    12) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of men having to do military service.

    Nowadays, some people do not want women to work. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    13) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of people not wanting women to work.

    Nowadays, some employers do not want to hire applicants who do not have work experience. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    14) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of employers not wanting to hire applicants who do not have work experience.

    Nowadays, some children are not healthy. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    15) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of children not being healthy.

    Nowadays, some people are not careful drivers. What are some of the causes and effects of this?

    16) The following essay will discuss some of the causes and effects of people not being careful drivers.