Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Linux.

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  • Slide 1
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Linux
  • Slide 2
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e2 Operating Systems Computers have two fundamental components: Hardware: Physical components inside a computer Software: Set of instructions or programs that understand how to use the hardware of the computer in a meaningful way
  • Slide 3
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e3 Operating Systems (continued) Hardware components include: Processor (CPU) Physical memory (RAM) Hard disk, floppy disk, and CD-ROM drives Sound and video cards Circuit boards
  • Slide 4
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e4 Operating Systems (continued) Two different types of programs are executed on a computer: Applications Operating system (OS) software Device Driver: Software containing instructions that the OS uses to control and interact with a specific type of computer hardware User Interface: An application program that allows the user to interact with the OS and other application programs
  • Slide 5
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e5 Operating Systems (continued) Figure 1-1: The role of operating system software
  • Slide 6
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e6 Operating Systems (continued) Graphical user interface (GUI): Component of an OS that provides a user-friendly interface System services: Applications that handle system- related tasks Printing Scheduling programs Network access
  • Slide 7
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e7 Operating Systems (continued) Figure 1-2: A Linux graphical user interface
  • Slide 8
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e8 The Linux Operating System OS used to run a variety of applications on a variety of different hardware Has the ability to manage thousands of tasks at the same time Allows multiple users to access the system simultaneously Multiuser and multitasking OS
  • Slide 9
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e9 Versions of the Linux Operating System Core component is called the Linux kernel Written almost entirely in the C programming language Software can be used to modify appearance of Linux, but the kernel is common to all Linux
  • Slide 10
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e10 Identifying Kernel Versions Linux kernel versions are composed of: Major number Minor number If odd, referred to as a developmental kernel If even, referred to as a production kernel Revision number
  • Slide 11
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e11 Identifying Kernel Versions (continued) Table 1-1: Latest revisions of common Linux kernels
  • Slide 12
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e12 Licensing Linux Open Source Software (OSS): Programs distributed and licensed so that the source code is available to anyone who wants to examine, utilize, or improve upon it Format and structure of source code follows rules defined by the programming language in which it was written
  • Slide 13
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e13 Licensing Linux (continued) Implications of OSS: Developed very rapidly through widespread collaboration Bugs (errors) are noted and promptly fixed Features evolve quickly based on users needs Perceived value of the software increases because it is based on usefulness, not on price
  • Slide 14
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e14 Licensing Linux (continued) Table 1-2: Software types
  • Slide 15
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e15 Types of Closed Source Licenses Most closed source software is sold commercially e.g., Microsoft or Electronic Arts software Freeware: Distributed free of charge; source code is not available Shareware: Initially free, but requires payment after a period of time or usage
  • Slide 16
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e16 Linux Advantages: Meeting Business Needs Common software available for Linux includes: Scientific and engineering software Software emulators Web servers, Web browsers, and e-commerce suites Desktop productivity software Graphics manipulation software Database software Security software
  • Slide 17
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e17 Linux Advantages: Ease of Customization Ability to control the inner workings of an OS To use Linux as an Internet Web server, compile the kernel to include only the support needed to be an Internet Web server Results in a much smaller and faster kernel
  • Slide 18
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e18 Linux Advantages: Ease of Obtaining Support Linux documentation can be found on the Internet Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) HOWTO documents Linux Newsgroups Linux User Group (LUG): Open forum of Linux users who discuss and assist each other in using and modifying the Linux OS
  • Slide 19
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e19 Linux Advantages: Cost Reduction Table 1-3: Calculating the total cost of ownership
  • Slide 20
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e20 The History of Linux Figure 1-4: Timeline of UNIX and Linux development
  • Slide 21
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e21 UNIX Evolved from Multiplexed Information and Computing Service (MULTICS) The first true multitasking, multiuser OS Written in the C programming language Portable OS OS from which Linux originated
  • Slide 22
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e22 UNIX (continued) Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) Version of the original UNIX source code Common flavors of UNIX today include: Sun Microsystemss Solaris Hewlett-Packards HP-UX IBMs AIX UNIX
  • Slide 23
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e23 Linux First developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991 Published under the GNU license Linux kernel developed collaboratively and centrally managed Linux is simply a by-product of OSS development
  • Slide 24
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e24 Linux Distributions Red Hat and SuSE Distributions may appear different on the surface, but run the same kernel Most distributions ship with a GUI that can be further customized to suit needs of the user Core component of this GUI is X Windows
  • Slide 25
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e25 Linux Distributions (continued) GUI environment: X Windows in combination with a window manager and desktop environment Two competing GUI environments in Linux: GNU Object Model Environment (GNOME) Kommon Desktop Environment (KDE)
  • Slide 26
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e26 Linux Distributions (continued) Figure 1-5: The GNOME Desktop
  • Slide 27
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e27 Common Uses of Linux May be customized to provide services for a variety of companies in a variety of situations Workstation services: Services used on a local computer Server services: Services made available for other computers across a network
  • Slide 28
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e28 Internet Servers: Mail Services Mail transfer agent (MTA): An e-mail server Mail delivery agent (MDA): Service that downloads e-mail from an MTA Mail user agent (MUA): Program that allows e-mail to be read by a user
  • Slide 29
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e29 Internet Servers: Routing and FTP Services Routing: Provides interconnection between separate networks Core service necessary for Internet to function Linux provides support for routing and is easily customizable File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Services: Most common and efficient method for transferring files over the Internet
  • Slide 30
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e30 Internet Servers: Firewalls and Proxy Services Firewall: Protects companies from outside intruders on the Internet Linux has firewall support built into the kernel Proxy server: requests Internet resources such as Web sites and FTP sites on behalf of the computer inside the company
  • Slide 31
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e31 Internet Servers: Web Services and News Services Web services: Web servers host information (text, pictures, music, binary data, and video) Can also process programs known as Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts and provide secure connections News services: News servers allow users to post messages in forums called newsgroups Most Web servers do not provide means for users to communicate
  • Slide 32
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e32 Internet Servers: DNS Services Computers communicating on a network need to be uniquely identified Each computer is assigned an Internet Protocol (IP) address Long string of numbers Allows computers to identify and reference each other Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN): Masks IP addresses with user-friendly names
  • Slide 33
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e33 File and Print Servers Linux is well-suited for centrally sharing resources More economical to share files and printers over a network Inherently fast and light A distribution specific to a certain task can be installed on the central server
  • Slide 34
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e34 Application Servers Application server: Intermediary between a client computer and a database Database: Organized collection of data that is arranged into tables of related information Database Management Systems (DBMS): Set of programs designed for creation, modification, manipulation, maintenance, and access of information from databases
  • Slide 35
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition Chapter 2 Preparing for Linux Installation
  • Slide 36
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e36 Objectives Describe common types of hardware and their features Obtain the hardware and software information necessary to install Linux
  • Slide 37
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e37 Understanding Hardware: Central Processing Units (CPUs) Core component of any computer Also known as microprocessor or processor Two main components: Arithmetic logic unit (ALU): Mathematical calculations and logic-based operations executed here Control unit (CU): Instruction code or commands loaded and carried out here
  • Slide 38
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e38 Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued) Processor architecture: Arrangement of a processors integral electronics Two main processor architectures: Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC)
  • Slide 39
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e39 Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued) Clock speed: Internal time cycle of a processor Determines speed that processor executes commands Measured in Megahertz (MHz) A processor may require one cycle to complete a command or may be superscalar Amount of information a processor can process at one time is a major factor in clock speed Measured in binary digits (bits) The more information that can be worked on at once, the faster data can be manipulated
  • Slide 40
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e40 Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued) Cache: Temporary store of information Cache size and location affect a processors ability to calculate larger volumes of data Level 1 (L1) cache: Cache stored in the processor itself Level 2 (L2) cache: Cache stored in a separate computer chip Connected to processor via high speed link Level 3 (L3) cache: Cache stored on a separate computer chip Connected directly to processor
  • Slide 41
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e41 Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued) Multiple processors can work together Perform the same tasks faster Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP): Allows OS and memory to use both processors simultaneously for any task ASymmetric Multi-Processing (ASMP): Each processor given a set of tasks to complete independently
  • Slide 42
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e42 Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory Storage area for information that is directly wired through circuit boards to the processor Two main categories: Random Access Memory (RAM) Volatile memory Read Only Memory (ROM)
  • Slide 43
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e43 Understanding Hardware: Physical MemoryRAM Requires constant supply of electricity to maintain stored information Directly related to computer performance Two major categories: Dynamic RAM (DRAM) Static RAM (SRAM)
  • Slide 44
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e44 Understanding Hardware: Physical MemoryRAM (continued) Three main types of DRAM sticks: Single In-line Memory Modules (SIMM) No longer produced Dual In-line Memory Modules (DIMM) Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Modules (SODIMM) Used in portable notebook computers and Macintosh systems
  • Slide 45
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e45 Understanding Hardware: Physical MemoryRAM (continued) Three recent DIMM technologies: Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (DDR SDRAM) Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory (RDRAM)
  • Slide 46
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e46 Understanding Hardware: Physical MemoryROM Read-only Memory: Physical memory that can be read but not written to Nonvolatile Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) ROM: Stores programs used to initialize hardware components when starting computer
  • Slide 47
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e47 Understanding Hardware: Physical MemoryROM Variants Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM): Can only be written to once Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM): Contents can be repeatedly erased and rewritten as a whole Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM): Whole or partial contents can be repeatedly erased/rewritten
  • Slide 48
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e48 Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives Most information in a computer maintained using nonvolatile media, not consisting of integrated circuits Hard disk Floppy disk CD-ROM, DVD CD-RW, DVD-RW disk Zip disk Flash Memory
  • Slide 49
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e49 Understanding Hardware: Disk DrivesHard Disk Drives Not directly wired to the processor Pass through a hard disk controller card Controls flow of information to and from the hard disk drive (HDD) Two types of controller cards: Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) Also known as Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) controllers Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
  • Slide 50
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e50 Understanding Hardware: Disk DrivesHDDs (continued) Table 2-1: IDE HDD configurations
  • Slide 51
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e51 Understanding Hardware: Disk DrivesHDDs (continued) Partitions: Small, manageable sections of a hard drive Filesystems: Specify how data should reside on the hard disk itself A partition must be formatted with a filesystem
  • Slide 52
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e52 Understanding Hardware: Disk DrivesHDDs (continued) Primary partitions: Major unique and separate HDD divisions Extended partitions: Partitions that can be further subdivided into logical drives Master Boot Record (MBR): Table of all partition information for a hard disk Stored outside of all partitions
  • Slide 53
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e53 Understanding Hardware: Disk DrivesHDDs (continued) Table 2-2: Example partitioning scheme for a primary master IDE HDD
  • Slide 54
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e54 Understanding Hardware: Disk DrivesOther Information Storage Devices Removable media: Information storage media that can be removed from the computer Transferable between computers Floppy disks: Store information electro- magnetically Used in floppy disk drives Zip disks: Similar to floppy disks Can store much more information Used in zip drives
  • Slide 55
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e55 Understanding Hardware: Disk DrivesOther Information Storage Devices (continued) DVDs and CD-ROMs: Use lasers to read reflected light pulses Greater data transfer speed Larger storage capacity More resistance to data loss than floppy disks or ZIP disks Flash memory drives: Use EEPROM chips to store information
  • Slide 56
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e56 Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components Bus: Pathway information takes from one hardware device to another via a mainboard Mainboard (also called a motherboard): Circuit board that connects all other hardware components together via slots or ports on the circuit board Peripheral components: Attach to the mainboard of a computer e.g., video cards, sound cards, and network interface cards (NICs) Connected via an Input/Output bus represented by different slots or ports on the mainboard
  • Slide 57
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e57 Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued) Three common slots for peripheral devices: Industry Standard Architecture (ISA): Information transfer at 8 MHz Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI): Information transfer at 33 MHz Can use Direct Memory Access (DMA) Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP): Information transfer over 66 MHz Designed for video card peripherals
  • Slide 58
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e58 Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued) Figure 2-1: Mainboard components
  • Slide 59
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e59 Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued) Other peripherals may have external connections to mainboard PS/2 COM (Serial) LPT USB IEEE1394 (Firewire) PCMCIA
  • Slide 60
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e60 Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued) Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) ports: Allow a small card to be inserted into the computer with electronics necessary to provide certain functionality Advanced Power Management (APM): BIOS feature that shuts off power to unused peripheral devices
  • Slide 61
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e61 Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued) Interrupt Request Line (IRQ): Specifies a unique channel from a device to the CPU Input/Output (IO) address: Small working area of RAM where CPU can pass information to and receive information from a device Plug-and-Play (PnP): OS and peripheral devices that automatically assign the correct IRQ, I/O address, and DMA settings
  • Slide 62
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e62 Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors Video adapter cards: Provide graphical display when connected to a monitor Commonly referred to as video cards Resolution: Total number of pixels that can be displayed on a computer video screen Color depth: Total set of colors that can be displayed on a computer video screen
  • Slide 63
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e63 Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors (continued) Table 2-3: Memory requirements for screen resolution and color depths
  • Slide 64
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e64 Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors (continued) Refresh rate: Rate at which information displayed on a video screen is refreshed Measured in Hertz (Hz) Two types of refresh rates: HSync (horizontal refresh) VSync (vertical refresh)
  • Slide 65
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e65 Understanding Hardware: Keyboards and Mice Facilitates user input and direction Variety of ways to connect to motherboard Serial port Large circular AT 5-pin connector Small circular PS/2 6-pin connector USB connection Wireless or radio connection Check hardware components against a Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)
  • Slide 66
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e66 Gathering Preinstallation Information Table 2-4: Red Hat 7.2 hardware requirements
  • Slide 67
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e67 Gathering Preinstallation Information (continued) Table 2-5: Sample pre-installation checklist
  • Slide 68
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e68 Gathering Preinstallation Information (continued) Table 2-5 (continued): Sample pre-installation checklist
  • Slide 69
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e69 Gathering Hardware Information Tools and resources to check hardware against a preinstallation checklist: Computer manuals Windows System Information tool (if Windows already installed) Windows Device Manager (if Windows already installed)
  • Slide 70
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e70 Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-2: The Windows System Information tool
  • Slide 71
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e71 Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-3: The Windows Device Manager
  • Slide 72
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e72 Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-4: The Windows Display applet
  • Slide 73
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e73 Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-5: System Power-On Self Test (POST)
  • Slide 74
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e74 Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-6: BIOS Setup Utility
  • Slide 75
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e75 Gathering Software Information Identifying system network configuration: Hostname IP address Netmask Gateway DNS servers Resolve FQDNs
  • Slide 76
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e76 Gathering Software Information (continued) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server: Server on network providing IP configuration to requesting computers If selected during installation, Linux will attempt to get IP settings from a DHCP server on the network
  • Slide 77
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e77 Gathering Software Information (continued) Table 2-6: Common Linux packages
  • Slide 78
  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e78 Gathering Software Information (continued) Table 2-6 (continued): Common Linux packages

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