Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition Chapter 2 Preparing for Linux Installation.

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  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second EditionChapter 2Preparing for Linux Installation

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • ObjectivesDescribe common types of hardware and their featuresObtain the hardware and software information necessary to install Linux

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware:Central Processing Units (CPUs)Core component of any computerAlso known as microprocessor or processorTwo main components:Arithmetic logic unit (ALU): Mathematical calculations and logic-based operations executed hereControl unit (CU): Instruction code or commands loaded and carried out here

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)Processor architecture: Arrangement of a processors integral electronicsTwo main processor architectures:Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC)Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC)

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)Clock speed: Internal time cycle of a processor Determines speed that processor executes commandsMeasured in Megahertz (MHz)A processor may require one cycle to complete a command or may be superscalarAmount of information a processor can process at one time is a major factor in clock speedMeasured in binary digits (bits)The more information that can be worked on at once, the faster data can be manipulated

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)Cache: Temporary store of information Cache size and location affect a processors ability to calculate larger volumes of dataLevel 1 (L1) cache: Cache stored in the processor itselfLevel 2 (L2) cache: Cache stored in a separate computer chip Connected to processor via high speed linkLevel 3 (L3) cache: Cache stored on a separate computer chip Connected directly to processor

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)Multiple processors can work together Perform the same tasks fasterSymmetric Multi-Processing (SMP): Allows OS and memory to use both processors simultaneously for any taskASymmetric Multi-Processing (ASMP): Each processor given a set of tasks to complete independently

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware:Physical MemoryStorage area for information that is directly wired through circuit boards to the processorTwo main categories:Random Access Memory (RAM)Volatile memoryRead Only Memory (ROM)

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware:Physical MemoryRAMRequires constant supply of electricity to maintain stored informationDirectly related to computer performanceTwo major categories:Dynamic RAM (DRAM)Static RAM (SRAM)

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware:Physical MemoryRAM (continued)Three main types of DRAM sticks:Single In-line Memory Modules (SIMM)No longer producedDual In-line Memory Modules (DIMM)Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Modules (SODIMM)Used in portable notebook computers and Macintosh systems

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware:Physical MemoryRAM (continued)Three recent DIMM technologies:Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM)Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (DDR SDRAM)Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory (RDRAM)

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware:Physical MemoryROMRead-only Memory: Physical memory that can be read but not written toNonvolatileBasic Input/Output System (BIOS) ROM: Stores programs used to initialize hardware components when starting computer

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware:Physical MemoryROM VariantsProgrammable Read Only Memory (PROM): Can only be written to onceErasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM): Contents can be repeatedly erased and rewritten as a wholeElectronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM): Whole or partial contents can be repeatedly erased/rewritten

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware:Disk DrivesMost information in a computer maintained using nonvolatile media, not consisting of integrated circuitsHard diskFloppy diskCD-ROM, DVDCD-RW, DVD-RW diskZip diskFlash Memory

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware:Disk DrivesHard Disk DrivesNot directly wired to the processorPass through a hard disk controller card Controls flow of information to and from the hard disk drive (HDD)Two types of controller cards:Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE)Also known as Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) controllersSmall Computer System Interface (SCSI)

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware:Disk DrivesHDDs (continued)Table 2-1: IDE HDD configurations

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware:Disk DrivesHDDs (continued)Partitions: Small, manageable sections of a hard driveFilesystems: Specify how data should reside on the hard disk itselfA partition must be formatted with a filesystem

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware:Disk DrivesHDDs (continued)Primary partitions: Major unique and separate HDD divisionsExtended partitions: Partitions that can be further subdivided into logical drivesMaster Boot Record (MBR): Table of all partition information for a hard diskStored outside of all partitions

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware:Disk DrivesHDDs (continued)Table 2-2: Example partitioning scheme for a primary master IDE HDD

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: Disk DrivesOther Information Storage DevicesRemovable media: Information storage media that can be removed from the computer Transferable between computersFloppy disks: Store information electro-magnetically Used in floppy disk drivesZip disks: Similar to floppy disksCan store much more information Used in zip drives

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: Disk DrivesOther Information Storage Devices (continued)DVDs and CD-ROMs: Use lasers to read reflected light pulsesGreater data transfer speedLarger storage capacityMore resistance to data loss than floppy disks or ZIP disksFlash memory drives: Use EEPROM chips to store information

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral ComponentsBus: Pathway information takes from one hardware device to another via a mainboardMainboard (also called a motherboard): Circuit board that connects all other hardware components together via slots or ports on the circuit boardPeripheral components: Attach to the mainboard of a computere.g., video cards, sound cards, and network interface cards (NICs)Connected via an Input/Output bus represented by different slots or ports on the mainboard

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)Three common slots for peripheral devices:Industry Standard Architecture (ISA): Information transfer at 8 MHzPeripheral Component Interconnect (PCI): Information transfer at 33 MHzCan use Direct Memory Access (DMA)Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP): Information transfer over 66 MHzDesigned for video card peripherals

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)Figure 2-1: Mainboard components

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)Other peripherals may have external connections to mainboardPS/2COM (Serial)LPTUSBIEEE1394 (Firewire)PCMCIA

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)PS/2 ports: Connect keyboards and mice to computersCOM ports: Connect a variety of peripherals to the mainboardSerial portLPT ports: Most commonly connect printers to the mainboardParallel ports

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)Universal Serial Bus (USB) port: Connects peripheral components such as mice, printers, and scannersHot-swappable: Can be attached to the computer while it is runningFireWire (IEEE1394): Hot-swappable variant of USB commonly used to connect SCSI hard disks, scanners, digital cameras, and CD-RW drives

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) ports: Allow a small card to be inserted into the computer with electronics necessary to provide certain functionalityAdvanced Power Management (APM): BIOS feature that shuts off power to unused peripheral devices

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)Interrupt Request Line (IRQ): Specifies a unique channel from a device to the CPUInput/Output (IO) address: Small working area of RAM where CPU can pass information to and receive information from a devicePlug-and-Play (PnP): OS and peripheral devices that automatically assign the correct IRQ, I/O address, and DMA settings

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and MonitorsVideo adapter cards: Provide graphical display when connected to a monitorCommonly referred to as video cardsResolution: Total number of pixels that can be displayed on a computer video screenColor depth: Total set of colors that can be displayed on a computer video screen

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors (continued)Table 2-3: Memory requirements for screen resolution and color depths

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors (continued)Refresh rate: Rate at which information displayed on a video screen is refreshedMeasured in Hertz (Hz)Two types of refresh rates:HSync (horizontal refresh)VSync (vertical refresh)

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Understanding Hardware:Keyboards and MiceFacilitates user input and directionVariety of ways to connect to motherboardSerial portLarge circular AT 5-pin connectorSmall circular PS/2 6-pin connectorUSB connectionWireless or radio connectionCheck hardware components against a Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Gathering Preinstallation InformationTable 2-4: Red Hat 7.2 hardware requirements

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Gathering Preinstallation Information (continued)Table 2-5: Sample pre-installation checklist

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Gathering Preinstallation Information (continued)Table 2-5 (continued): Sample pre-installation checklist

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Gathering Hardware InformationTools and resources to check hardware against a preinstallation checklist:Computer manualsWindows System Information tool (if Windows already installed)Windows Device Manager (if Windows already installed)

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Gathering Hardware Information (continued)Figure 2-2: The Windows System Information tool

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Gathering Hardware Information (continued)Figure 2-3: The Windows Device Manager

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Gathering Hardware Information (continued)Figure 2-4: The Windows Display applet

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Gathering Hardware Information (continued)Figure 2-5: System Power-On Self Test (POST)

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Gathering Hardware Information (continued)Figure 2-6: BIOS Setup Utility

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Gathering Software InformationIdentifying system network configuration:HostnameIP addressNetmaskGatewayDNS serversResolve FQDNs

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Gathering Software Information (continued)Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server: Server on network providing IP configuration to requesting computersIf selected during installation, Linux will attempt to get IP settings from a DHCP server on the network

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Gathering Software Information (continued)Table 2-6: Common Linux packages

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Gathering Software Information (continued)Table 2-6 (continued): Common Linux packages

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • SummaryUnderstand the hardware before an installationAllows you to make appropriate choicesVerify that the installation was successfulCPUs process most instructions in a computerTwo CPU architectures: RISC and CISCComputer memory can be volatile (RAM) or nonvolatile (ROM)

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Summary (continued)Most information is stored on hard disks, floppy disks, and CD-ROMs in a nonvolatile mannerTwo main types of hard disks: SCSI and IDEPeripheral components (video adapter cards, sound cards, mice, keyboards, NICs) attach to mainboard via an expansion slot or portCommon expansion slots: ISA, PCI, and AGPCommon ports: PS/2, serial, parallel, USB, FireWire, and PCMCIA

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

  • Summary (continued)All peripherals must have a unique IRQ and I/O address to communicate with the processorCan use DMA to bypass some processor operationsHardware information can be gathered from computer manuals, BIOS, or other OSsCan set software information at installation

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

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