Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition Chapter 3 Linux Installation and Usage.

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Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition Chapter 3 Linux Installation and Usage Slide 2 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e2 Objectives Install Red Hat Fedora Linux using good practices Outline the structure of the Linux interface Enter basic shell commands and find command documentation Properly shut down the Linux operating system Slide 3 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e3 Installing Linux: Installation Methods FTP server HTTP Web server NFS server SMB server Virtual Network Computing (VNC) server Packages on hard disk Slide 4 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e4 Performing the Installation: Starting the Installation Boot from first Red Hat Fedora Linux CD-ROM Largest problem is initiating a graphical installation Disable framebuffer Framebuffer: Abstract representation of video adapter card hardware Instead of direct communication with video adapter Slide 5 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e5 Performing the Installation: Starting the Installation (continued) Figure 3-1: Beginning a Red Hat installation Slide 6 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e6 Performing the Installation: Starting the Installation (continued) Press F2 at Welcome screen to get installation options Check media for errors prior to installation Optional, but recommended Slide 7 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e7 Performing the Installation: Starting the Installation (continued) Figure 3-2: Viewing installation options Slide 8 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e8 Choosing the Language, Keyboard, Mouse, and Monitor Keyboard model and layout automatically detected Check Emulate 3 Button if mouse does not have third button Most monitors automatically detected If not, try to locate on list of monitor models or use generic model with correct horizontal and vertical sync Incorrect monitor settings can damage monitor Slide 9 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e9 Choosing the Language, Keyboard, Mouse, and Monitor (continued) Figure 3-4: Selecting an installation language Slide 10 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e10 Choosing the Language, Keyboard, Mouse, and Monitor (continued) Figure 3-5: Verifying keyboard configuration Slide 11 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e11 Choosing the Language, Keyboard, Mouse, and Monitor (continued) Figure 3-6: Selecting a mouse type Slide 12 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e12 Choosing the Language, Keyboard, Mouse, and Monitor (continued) Figure 3-7: Verifying monitor configuration Slide 13 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e13 Specifying the Installation Type Personal Desktop GUI environment and common applications Workstation Same as Personal Desktop plus administrative and network tools Server Several server services Custom Slide 14 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e14 Specifying the Installation Type (continued) Figure 3-8: Choosing an installation type Slide 15 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e15 Hard Disk Partitioning Filesystems can be accessed if attached (mounted) to a directory Minimum of two partitions Partition for root directory Partition for virtual memory (swap memory) Area on hard disk used to store information normally residing in physical memory (RAM) Automatic or manual partitioning Slide 16 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e16 Hard Disk Partitioning (continued) Table 3-1: Common Linux filesystems and sizes Slide 17 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e17 Hard Disk Partitioning (continued) Figure 3-9: Choosing a disk partitioning method Slide 18 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e18 Hard Disk Partitioning (continued) Different types of filesystems Ext2: Used on most Linux computers Ext3: Performs journaling Vfat: Compatible with Windows FAT filesystem REISER: Performs journaling Journaling: Keeps track of the information written to the hard drive Disk Druid: Graphical partitioning program Slide 19 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e19 Hard Disk Partitioning (continued) Figure 3-10: The Disk Druid partitioning utility Slide 20 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e20 Hard Disk Partitioning (continued) Figure 3-11: Creating a new partition Slide 21 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e21 Configuring the Boot Loader Boot loader: Program started by BIOS ROM Loads kernel into memory Can also boot other existing OSs GRand Unified Bootloader (GRUB): Boot loader configured during Fedora Linux installation Dual booting: Choose OS to boot at startup Slide 22 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e22 Configuring the Boot Loader (continued) Figure 3-12: Configuring a boot loader Slide 23 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e23 Configuring the Boot Loader (continued) Boot loader usually resides on the MBR or on first sector of / or /boot partition Kernel parameters: Information passed to Linux kernel via the boot loader Large Block Addressing 32-bit (LBA32): Enables Large Block Addressing in boot loader For large hard disks not fully supported by the BIOS Slide 24 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e24 Configuring the Boot Loader (continued) Figure 3-13: Configuring advanced boot loader options Slide 25 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e25 Configuring the Network and Firewall Figure 3-14: Specifying a network configuration Slide 26 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e26 Configuring the Network and Firewall (continued) Will NIC be activated at boot time? Manual IP configuration Set IP address, Netmask, host name, gateway, primary domain name space (DNS) Automatic IP configuration via DHCP Firewall prevents traffic from entering computer Customize which traffic is allowed through Slide 27 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e27 Configuring the Network and Firewall (continued) Figure 3-15: Configuring a firewall Slide 28 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e28 Choosing a System Language and Time Zone Figure 3-16: Selecting additional language support Slide 29 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e29 Choosing a System Language and Time Zone (continued) Figure 3-17: Choosing a time zone Slide 30 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e30 Creating the Root User Authentication: Users log in via valid user name and password Configure two user accounts Administrator account (root) Full rights to system Regular user account Slide 31 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e31 Creating the Root User (continued) Figure 3-18: Setting a root password Slide 32 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e32 Selecting Packages Figure 3-19: Selecting packages Slide 33 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e33 Installing Packages Figure 3-19: Package Installation Slide 34 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e34 Completing the Firstboot Wizard Complete the installation License agreement Graphics settings User accounts and authentication Install additional software Log in with user account for daily tasks Shadow password: stored in separate DB from user accounts MD5: password encryption method Slide 35 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e35 Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued) Figure 3-22: Setting the date and time Slide 36 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e36 Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued) Figure 3-23: Configuring screen resolution and color depth Slide 37 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e37 Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued) Figure 3-24: Creating a regular user account Slide 38 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e38 Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued) Figure 3-25: Configuring user information Slide 39 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e39 Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued) Figure 3-26: Configuring authentication Slide 40 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e40 Basic Linux Language: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel Terminal: Channel allowing users to log on to the kernel locally or across a network Shell: Transfers user input to kernel BASH Shell (Bourne Again Shell): Default Linux shell Command line shell Linux allows multiple terminals, each with its own shell Slide 41 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e41 Basic Linux Language: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel (continued) Figure 3-27: Shells, terminals, and the kernel Slide 42 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e42 Basic Linux Language: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel (continued) Graphical Interface Start GUI environment on top of BASH shell o Or, switch to a graphical terminal e.g., GNOME Display Manager (gdm) From the local server, use key combinations to change to separate terminal Command-line terminal may be accessed from GUI environment Command prompt: Root user: # Regular user: $ Slide 43 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e43 Basic Linux Language: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel (continued) Table 3-2: Common Linux terminals Slide 44 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e44 Basic Linux Language: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel (continued) Figure 3-29: Accessing a command-line terminal in a GUI environment Slide 45 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e45 Basic Shell Commands Commands: Indicate name of program to execute Case sensitive Options: Specific letters starting with - appearing after command name Alter way command works Arguments: Specify a commands working parameters Slide 46 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e46 Basic Shell Commands (continued) Table 3-3: Some Common Linux commands Slide 47 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e47 Shell Metacharacters Metacharacters: Characters with a special meaning e.g., $ Refers to a variable Slide 48 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e48 Shell Metacharacters (continued) Table 3-4: Common BASH Shell metacharacters Slide 49 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e49 Getting Command Help Linux distributions contain many commands Manual pages: Most common form of documentation for Linux commands man pages At command prompt, type man followed by a command name Contain different sections Info pages: Set of local, easy-to-read command syntax documentation At command prompt, type info followed by a command name Slide 50 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e50 Getting Command Help (continued) Table 3-5: Manual page section numbers Slide 51 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e51 Shutting Down the Linux System Table 3-6: Commands to halt and reboot the Linux operating system Slide 52 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e52 Summary Most software information can be specified at installation Network configuration and package selection should be carefully planned before installation CD-ROMbased installation Easiest Most common Rarely requires installation boot disk Slide 53 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e53 Summary (continued) Installation prompts for language, boot loader, hard disk partitions, network configuration, firewall configuration, time zone, user accounts, authentication, and package selection Users must log in to a terminal and receive a shell before they are able to interact with the Linux system and kernel Slide 54 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e54 Summary (continued) From any type of terminal you can enter commands, options, and arguments at a shell prompt to perform system tasks, obtain command help, or shut down the Linux system The shell is case sensitive and understands a variety of special characters called shell metacharacters, which should be protected if their special meaning is not required

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